YOMA 60 - Dedicated in honor of the first Yahrzeit of Mrs. Lily (Leah bas Pinchas) Kornfeld, a holocaust survivor who met all of life's challenges with courage and fortitude, by her daughter Shifra and family.

[60a - 35 lines; 60b - 27 lines]


(a)Every Kohen wears four white linen garments while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are:

1.the Kutones (long shirt),

2.Michnasayim (breeches),

3.Avnet (belt),

4.Migba'as (hat).

(b)The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. These are:

1.the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Shem" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead),

2.Ephod (apron),

3.Choshen (breastplate),

4.Me'il (robe).

(c)The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS 25a DH Notel).

(d)If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a Pasuk (Shemos 29:9) that they are considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.

(e)On Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan when performing the special Yom Kipur service (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are identical to the four white linen garments worn by a Kohen Hedyot. The Kohen Gadol wears the Bigdei Lavan while performing the Avodas Penim (the parts of the service which include entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). He changed his garments from Bigdei Zahav (his regular eight vestments) to Bigdei Lavan and vice versa five times over the course of the day.

(f)The Kohen Gadol does not use these garments again. There is a dispute among the Tana'im as to what must be done with these Bigdei Lavan after Yom ha'Kipurim. According to the Rabanan, they are placed aside, never to be used again. Rebbi Dosa maintains that they are fit for use by a Kohen Hedyot during the rest of the year. (See Insights to Kerisus 6:1)


(a)In a Beraisa found in the introduction to the Sifra (the Halachic Midrash on Vayikra), Rebbi Yishmael lists the thirteen methodologies employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah. One of them is called Binyan Av. A Binyan Av - literally "building through a father" - refers to establishing a certain law in one area of the Torah, and then applying it to other comparable circumstances.

(b)If the Torah goes out of its way to establish the identical law regarding two different area of Halachah, however, then we may not then apply this law to other areas. If we were meant to do so, then the Torah would have established the law once, and it would then apply everywhere due to a Binyan Av. That which the Torah specified the law twice implies that it is meant to apply only in the instances where the Torah specifies it.

(c)Some Tana'im maintain that the same Halachah expressed twice does not imply that we should not learn from them that it should not apply elsewhere. Such reasoning is appropriate to the same Halachah stated in a minimum of three places (Sheloshah Kesuvin ha'Ba'in k'Echad Ein Melamdin).

3)[line 4]"[ , ;] ""... V'HINICHAM SHAM"- "[Aharon shall come to the Ohel Mo'ed, and remove the linen garments which he had worn when he entered the Kodesh ha'Kodashim,] and he shall leave them there" (Vayikra 16:23).

4)[line 4]GENIZAH- to be hidden away; i.e., it is forbidden to derive any benefit from them

5)[line 7] EGLAH ARUFAH

(a)If a Jew is found murdered in a field in Eretz Yisrael and it is not known who killed him, the Torah requires an Eglah Arufah to atone for his death (Devarim 21:1).

(b)First, five elders from the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the supreme court which sat in the Beis ha'Mikdash) measure the distances between the body and the cities nearest to it in order to determine which of them is the closest to it.

(c)The elders of that city then bring a female calf which has never been performed any work to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with infertile soil - RASHI). They strike a blow on the back of its neck with a cleaver (Arifah), sundering its spinal column, gullet, and windpipe. Afterward, one may not derive any benefit from the dead calf.

(d)The elders then wash their hands and state, "Our hands did not spill this blood, nor did our eyes see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This proclamation carries with it the assertion that the dead man had not been sent from their city without provisions for his journey or proper accompaniment. The Kohanim present then beseech, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). Following the procedure of the Eglah Arufah, HaSh-m forgives his nation for the innocent blood that had been spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).

6a)[line 11]"... [ ]""...V'SAMO [ETZEL HA'MIZBE'ACH]"- "... and he should place it [next to the Mizbe'ach]" (Vayikra 6:3). This verse, written regarding the Terumas ha'Deshen, implies that it - and only it - is Asur b'Hana'ah following the performance of the Mitzvah involving it.

b)[line 11]"[... ] []""[HA'EGLAH] HA'ARUFAH [VA'NACHAL]"- "[... the calf] that was beheaded [in the valley]" (Devarim 21:6). The extra "Heh" in the word implies a Mi'ut.

7)[line 11] HANI TELASI KRA'I B'DAM- those three [derivations from the] verse referring to [the atonement provided by] blood (Vayikra 17:11; see 59b)

8)[line 12]NOSAR

(a)Any meat of a Korban which remains after the time within which it may be eaten must be burned, as the Torah states (Vayikra 19:6) "b'Yom Zivchachem Ye'achel umi'Macharas, veha'Nosar Ad Yom ha'Shelishi ba'Esh Yisaref" - "It shall be eaten on the day that you slaughter it and on the next, and that which remains until the third day shall be burned in fire."

(b)Regarding the Korban Pesach, the Torah writes, "v'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker..." - "And do not leave over anything from it until the morning; anything left over from it until the morning must be burned in fire" (Shemos 12:10). If someone transgresses this prohibition, he also transgresses the Lav of "Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker" (Vayikra 22:30), which refers to all Korbanos (Pesulei ha'Mukdashin 18:9; Sefer ha'Chinuch #142 and Minchas Chinuch).

(c)If someone eats at a k'Zayis of Nosar intentionally he is Chayav Kares, as the Torah states (ibid. 19:8) "... v'Ochlav Avono Yisa... v'Nichresah ha'Nefesh ha'Hi me'Ameha" - "... and one who eats it shall bear his sin... and that soul will be cut off from its nation." If he eats it unintentionally, he must bring a Korban Chatas (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 215).

(d)One of the three derivations teaches us that one who consumes blood of a Korban that is Nosar has not transgressed this prohibition, although he will be punished for the consumption of blood.

9)[line 13]TUM'AH (TUM'AS HA'GUF)

(a)Regarding a woman who is Tamei following childbirth the Torah states, "... b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga..." - "... she should not come into contact with any Korban ..." (Vayikra 12:4). It is derived from this verse that one who is Tamei may not eat Kodshim.

(b)One who intentionally transgresses this Lav receives Kares. If he did so unintentionally then he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167; see Background to 55:17:f:3).

(c)One of the three derivations teaches us that one who consumes blood of a Korban that is Tamei has not transgressed this prohibition, although he will be punished for the consumption of blood.

10)[line 13]PIGUL

(a)If one slaughters a sacrifice with the intention to offer or eat it after the time within which it must be offered or eaten, it is disqualified. Such a Korban may not be eaten, as the Torah states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the Korban plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid; rejected), and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

(b)If a person intentionally consumes at least a k'Zayis of Pigul he is Chayav Kares; if he eats it unintentionally he must bring a Korban Chatas (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah 144).

11)[line 14] KOL SHE'YESH LO MATIRIN- any [part of a Korban] which is permitted through [the offering of a different part] (such as the blood of an animal Korban or the Kometz of a Minchah)

12a)[line 15] BEIN L'ADAM- whether to [be eaten by] a person (such as the meat of a Korban Shelamim)

b)[line 15] BEIN L'MIZBE'ACH- or to [be burned atop] the Mizbe'ach (such as certain organs and fats of a Korban Shelamim)

13)[line 21]HA'MATANOS- the sprinkling or application of the blood

14a)[line 21]SHE'BIFNIM- that are done in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

b)[line 29]MI'BACHUTZ - outside of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim

[in the Heichal and Azarah]

15)[line 34]" [ ] ...""V'HAYESAH ZOS LA'CHEM L'CHUKAS OLAM... ACHAS BA'SHANAH..."- "And this shall be an eternal statute for you, [to atone for Bnei Yisrael from all of their sins] once a year..." (Vayikra 16:34). From the use of the word "Chukas," it is clear that all Avodah referred to in this verse must be performed exactly as described. The words "Zos" and "Achas" imply that certain specific services are being referred to.


16)[line 7] L'MI'UTEI SHIRAYIM D'LO ME'AKVEI- to exclude the pouring of the remainder of the blood [that had been sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and the Heichal onto the western Yesod of the outer Mizbe'ach] from preventing [the atonement if it is performed out of order]

17)[line 8] IY ME'AKVEI ME'AKVEI- if [those Avodos performed outside of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim] must be performed in the proper order, then all of them must (and there is no reason to single out the Sheyarei ha'Dam)

18)[line 9]" , [ ...]""V'CHILAH MI'KAPER ES HA'KODESH..."- "And [when] he is finished atoning for the Kodesh..." (Vayikra 16:20). This verse refers to the sprinkling of the blood of the bull and goat in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and Heichal, and their application to the Mizbach ha'Ketores.

19)[line 11] MIPNEI MAH LO NOMAR ...- why not say [just the opposite] ...

20a)[line 15] MASHMA'US DORSHIN IKA BEINAIHU- they [do not] disagree [in what the Halachah is, but only] in how to derive it from the verse

b)[line 16] SHIRAYIM ME'AKVEI IKA BEINAIHU- Rebbi Akiva understands from this verse that only the main part of the atonement - the sprinkling or application of the blood - must be performed in order in order for it to be valid. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that even the pouring of the remainder must be done in order.

21)[line 17] ' U'MI AMAR REBBI YOCHANAN HACHI?- did Rebbi Yochanan indeed say such a thing (namely, that Rebbi Nechemyah explains the verse such that the pouring of the remainder of the blood need not be done in order)?

22)[line 18] ' TANA REBBI NECHEMYAH K'DIVREI HA'OMER SHIRAYIM ME'AKVEI- In Maseches Zevachim (111a), Rebbi Nechemyah is quoted in a Beraisa stating that the remainder of the blood of a Korban after it has been properly applied may not leave the Beis ha'Mikdash. If one removes it, he is punished with Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. From this, Rebbi Yochanan opines there, it is apparent that the opinion of Rebbi Nechemyah is that the remainder of such blood still has the status of a Korban. Given this, the order in which they are poured upon the Yesod should matter as much as any other Avodah.

23)[line 20]SHE'CHAFNAH- a double handful of which was cupped [by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim]

24)[line 24] TZORECH PNIM K'PNIM DAMI- [any Avodah] necessary for [the Avodah performed in] the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (such as cupping the Ketores in order to burn it, or slaughtering the bull or goat in order to sprinkle their blood) has the status of [Avodah performed] inside of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim