[39a - 42 lines; 39b - 51 lines]
1)[line 1]למדודLI'MDOD- to measure
2)[line 4]מטמטמת לבו של אדםMETAMTEMES LIBO SHEL ADAM- blocks one's heart [from the ability to understand Torah]
3)[line 8]מטמאין אותוMETAM'IN OSO- a) they (from Shamayim) allow him to perform Aveiros (RASHI); b) they (Mal'achim) actively attempt to entice him to perform Aveiros (RITVA)
4)[line 9]מלמטהMIL'MATAH- [if one commits Aveiros] from below
5)[line 11]מקדשין אותוMEKADSHIN OSO- a) they (from Shamayim) assist him in the performance of Mitzvos; b) they (Mal'achim) sanctify him (RITVA)
PEREK #4 TARAF BA'KALPI
6)[line 14]טרףTARAF- [the Kohen Gadol] a) quickly snatched [the lots] (RASHI); b) mixed [the lots] (RABEINU CHANANEL)
7)[line 17]נתנןNASNAN- he placed the [lots on their respective goats (Vayikra 16:8)]
8)[line 20]ניכוין ולישקולNICHAVEIN V'LISHKOL- intentionally take [the lot upon which La'Shem is written in his right hand, since this is a sign that HaSh-m is pleased with Klal Yisrael]
9)[line 23]כלי שרתKLI SHARES- a sanctified vessel used in the service performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash
10)[line 24]התורה חסה על ממונן של ישראלHA'TORAH CHASAH AL MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL- the Torah cares for the money of Yisrael [and therefore discourages spending money unnecessarily] (see Insights)
11)[line 27]דבר מילךDABER MILACH- lit. say your words; proclaim, "La'Shem Chatas!"
12a)[line 28]כיון דלא סליק בידיהKEIVAN D'LO SALIK B'YADEI- since [the Kohen Gadol] was not the one who picked [the lot upon which la'Shem is written]
b)[line 28]חלשא דעתיהCHALSHAH DA'ATEI- he would feel badly [if the Segan, who did choose the preferred lot, was the one who prompted him]
13)[line 30]דתניאD'TANYA...- From that which Rebbi Chanina Segan ha'Kohanim does not mention that drawing one of the lots was part of the function of the Segan, our Gemara proves that his opinion is that the Segan did not do so.
14)[line 31](מימינו) [מימין](MI'YEMINO) [MI'YEMIN)- a) [always standing] to the right of the Kohen Gadol [during the Yom Kipur service]; b) appointed (RASHI)
15)[line 31]אירעIRA- occurred
16)[line 33]לשון של זהורית מלביןLASHON SHEL ZEHORIS MALBIN- the strip of crimson wool [tied to the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach (see Background to 36:24)] turned white
17)[line 34]נר מערבי דולקNER MA'ARAVI DOLEK - the western lamp (of the Menorah) remained lit (NER MA'ARAVI)
(a)In the Parshah in which Bnei Yisrael are commanded to light the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash daily, the Torah describes the Paroches (curtain hanging in front of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim) as "the curtain of testimony" (Vayikra 24:3). The Gemara (Shabbos 22b) explains that the Menorah bore witness to the presence of HaSh-m in the Beis ha'Mikdash through the Ner Ma'aravi, the western lamp. This lamp miraculously remained lit beyond when the rest of the lamps has already gone out, although it received an equal amount of oil.
(b)Which Ner is identified as the "Ner Ma'aravi" is dependent upon a disagreement between Tana'im quoted in Menachos (98b). Rebbi maintains that the Menorah is placed along an east-west axis. According to this view, the Ner Ma'aravi is the second lamp from the east, which is west of the easternmost lamp. Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon is of the opinion that the Menorah is placed along a north-south axis. He therefore understands that the Ner Ma'aravi refers to the middle lamp. The wick of this lamp is placed in such a way that it leans toward the west (the direction of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim), whereas the rest of the wicks angled toward the middle lamp.
18)[line 35]כבהKAVAH- go out [before the other lamps]
19)[line 35]מערכהMA'ARACHAH- the arrangement of wood atop the Mizbe'ach
20)[line 36]שני גזירי עציםSHNEI GEZIREI ETZIM- two square Amah blocks of wood [each as thick as the block used to level a heaping Se'ah, which must be placed on top of the Ma'arachah twice a day in order to increase the flames (Vayikra 1:7, 6:5; see also Zevachim 62b and RAMBAM Temidin u'Musafin 6:1)]
21)[line 39]עומרOMER (KORBAN HA'OMER)
(a)It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then kneaded with oil and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim — Vayikra 2:14-16). A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).
(b)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered, as the Torah states in Vayikra 23:14. When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Omer would have been offered.
22)[line 39]שתי הלחםSHTEI HA'LECHEM
(a)On Shavu'os, a communal Korban known as the Shtei ha'Lechem is offered. It consists of two loaves of Chametz bread baked from Chadash (grain that began to take root after the Korban ha'Omer was offered on the second day of Pesach of the previous year; Vayikra 23:17). One loaf is given to the Kohen Gadol, and the other is divided among the rest of the Kohanim who are in the Mikdash at that time. They may be eaten on the day of Shavu'os as well as until midnight of the following night (RAMBAM Hilchos Temidin u'Musafin 8:11).
(b)Along with the Shtei ha'Lechem, seven sheep, one bull, and two rams are offered as Olos, and an additional goat is offered as a Chatas, and two sheep are offered as Korbenos Shelamim (these last two are known as Zivchei Shalmei Tzibur; Vayikra 23:18-19).
(c)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. Following the offering of the Shtei ha'Lechem, Chadash may be used in Menachos (see Background to Menachos 2:1).
23)[line 40]מותירMOSIR- leave over [since they were already satiated]
24)[line 40]מאירהME'EIRAH- a curse
25)[line 41]כפול (מצרי)K'FOL (MITZRI)- the equivalent of a(n Egyptian) bean
26a)[line 41]הצנועיןHA'TZENU'IN- those who act modestly
b)[line 41]הגרגרניןHA'GARGERANIN- gluttons
27)[line 1]חמצןCHAMTZAN- a thief (see Insights)
28)[line 2]"אֱ-לֹהַי: פַּלְּטֵנִי מִיַּד רָשָׁע, מִכַּף מְעַוֵּל וְחוֹמֵץ""E-LOKAI: PALTENI MI'YAD RASHA, MI'KAF ME'AVEL V'CHOMETZ"- "My G-d: release me from the hand of a wicked one, from the grip of a corrupter and a thief" (Tehilim 71:4).
29)[line 3]"לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב, דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט, אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ...""LIMDU HEITEV, DIRSHU MISHPAT, ASHERU CHAMOTZ..."- "Learn goodness, seek justice, vindicate the oppressed..." (Yeshayah 1:17).
30)[line 4](ואל תאשרו חומץ)(V'AL TE'ASHRU CHOMETZ)- and do not justify the oppressor
31)[line 9]לבניםLEVANIM- white clothing
32)[line 9]עטוףATUF- wrapped
33)[line 9]נכנס עמיNICHNAS IMI- entered with me [into the Kodesh ha'Kodashim]
34)[line 13]לברך בשםL'VARECH BA'SHEM (BIRKAS KOHANIM)
(a)Kohanim have a Mitzvah to bless the rest of Klal Yisrael with the three-fold blessing recorded in the Torah (Bamidbar 6:22-27). In the Beis ha'Mikdash, the Kohanim pronounce the name of HaSh-m in the blessings with the Shem ha'Meforash (as it is written) (Sotah 38a; see Insights to 37:1).
(b)Tosfos (Sotah 38a, DH Harei Hu Omer) maintains that this is only true when there is Giluy Shechinah (the presence of HaSh-m rests upon the Beis ha'Mikdash). Since there was no Giluy Shechinah following the passing of Shimon ha'Tzadik, the Kohanim refrained from pronouncing the Shem ha'Meforash during Birkas Kohanim.
35)[line 16]היכלHEICHAL- (TY #67) the Sanctuary
36)[line 17]גערGA'AR- rebuked sternly
37)[line 18]מפני מה אתה מבעית עצמךMIPNEI MAH ATAH MAV'IS ATZMECHA?- why do you frighten yourself? The MAHARSHA quotes the Yerushalmi, which has the Girsa of LAMAH ATAH MAVHILEINU? - why do you frighten us? This indicates that even according to the version quoted in our Gemara, Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai meant to ask this question. He may have spoken as if to the Heichal in order to be "Toleh Kilelaso b'Acher" — attribute a curse referring to himself to a third party.
38)[line 21]"פְּתַח לְבָנוֹן דְּלָתֶיךָ, וְתֹאכַל אֵשׁ, בַּאֲרָזֶיךָ""PSACH LEVANON DELASECHA, V'SOCHAL ESH BA'ARAZECHA"- "Open, Levanon, your doors, and a fire shall consume your cedars" (Zecharyah 11:1).
39)[line 25]מלבלבMELAVLEV- sprouts
40)[line 28]מגדיםMEGADIM- [trees bearing] delicacies
41)[line 29]מנשבתMENASHEVES- blow
42)[line 29]נושריןNOSHRIM- let fall
43)[line 29]"יִרְעַשׁ כַּלְּבָנוֹן פִּרְיו...""YIR'ASH KA'LEVANON PIRYO..."- "... may its produce rustle as [cedars in] Levanon..." (Tehilim 72:16).
44)[line 31]"... וּפֶרַח לְבָנוֹן אֻמְלָל""... U'FERACH LEVANON UMLAL"- "... and withers the flower of Levanon" (Nachum 1:4).
45)[line 32]"פָּרֹחַ תִּפְרַח וְתָגֵל — אַף גִּילַת וְרַנֵּן! כְּבוֹד הַלְּבָנוֹן נִתַּן לָהּ...""PARO'ACH TIFRACH V'SAGEL, AF GILAS V'RANEN, KEVOD HA'LEVANON NITAN LAH..."- "It shall flower and rejoice — even rejoice and sing!; the glory of Levanon will be given to her..." (Yeshayah 35:2).
46)[line 33]השםHA'SHEM- the Shem ha'Meforash (the name of HaSh-m pronounced as it is written; see Insights to 37:1)
47)[line 34]וידוי ראשון... וידוי שניVIDUY RISHON ... VIDUY SHENI (PAR SHEL YOM HA'KIPURIM)
(a)Among the Korbanos offered by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim is a bull purchased with his personal funds (Vayikra 16:3-6). The Kohen Gadol performs Semichah (the placement of both hands upon the head of the animal and leaning on it with all of one's might) on his bull while reciting Viduy (the confession of sins) on behalf of himself and his immediate household (Vayikra 1:4). After drawing the lots for the two identical goats, offering one as a Chatas, and sending the other to Azazel, he again recites Viduy on the bull — this time on behalf of all Kohanim. He then slaughters it, collects its blood, and sprinkles the blood in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Vayikra 16:14), and then again in the Heichal toward the Paroches (the curtain separating the Heichal from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; ibid. 16:16). He then applies it to the Mizbach ha'Ketores in the Heichal (ibid. 16:18). The carcass of the bull is then burned in its entirety outside of Yerushalayim in the same place that the ashes removed from the Mizbe'ach are deposited. The remainder of its blood is then poured on the western Yesod (base) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(c)The Mishnah (Shevu'os 2a) states that the service of this Par atones for sins of the Kohanim. The Tana'im disagree as to what sins are atoned for:
1.Rebbi Yehudah is of the opinion that the Par of the Kohen Gadol atones for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to 18:19).
2.Rebbi Shimon maintains that atonement for Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav is provided by the sprinkling of the bull's blood. The Viduy of the Kohen Gadol atones for all other sins of the Kohanim.
48)[line 35]בגורלותB'GORALOS- when [designating the goat selected through] the lots [as a Chatas with the words "la'Hashem Chatas"]
49)[line 35]וכברU'CHVAR- and it had happened
50)[line 36]צירTZIR- the hinges
51)[line 36]שמונה תחומי שבתSHEMONEH TECHUMEI SHABBOS (TECHUM SHABBOS)
(a)One may walk for a distance of up to two thousand Amos (approximately 960 meters [3147 feet] or 1,152 meters [3774 feet], depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the outskirts of his city or dwelling place on Shabbos or Yom Tov. If he wishes to walk an additional two thousand Amos in that direction, he must make an Eruv Techumin (see Background to 26:16).
(b)Our Gemara refers to a distance eight times that of Techum Shabbos. This is two thousand Amos, which is equivalent to one Mil. Since four Mil equal one Parsah, the distance under discussion is equal to two Parsa'os.
52)[line 37]מתעטשותMIS'ATSHOS- sneeze
53)[line 38]להתקשטL'HISKASHET- to adorn herself [with perfume]
54)[line 39]הרי (מכמר) [מכוור]HAREI (MICHMAR) [MICHVAR]- the mountains (alt. cities) of Michvar. Michvar is a mountainous area rising to a height of 700 meters above sea level, located to the east of the Dead Sea. From the heights of Michvar one can see both Yerushalayim and Chevron. Both the Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel and the Targum Yerushalmi equate Michvar with Yazer, a city described in the Torah (Bamidbar 21:32, 32:1) as in the portion of Gad. During the time period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, Michvar served an important strategic function. It was used as a position from which to defend the land of Judea, of which it was a part, from both the Nabateans to the south and invaders from the east. Alexander Yanai built a fortress there that was later fortified by Herod. Those defending Yerushalayim fled to this fortress following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, where they were cornered by the Romans and massacred.
55)[line 41]שילהSHILOH- the city in the portion of Efrayim where the Mishkan was built after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael; it stood for 369 years (Seder Olam Rabah 11)
56)[line 42]הנחהHANACHAH- the placement [of the lots on their respective goats]
57)[line 44]בגדי לבןBIGDEI LAVAN (BIGDEI KEHUNAH)
(a)Every Kohen wears four white linen garments while performing the Avodah. The Bigdei Kehunah are the Kutones (long shirt), Michnasayim (breeches), Avnet (belt), and Migba'as (hat).
(b)The Kohen Gadol wears an additional four garments whenever he performs the Avodah. These are the Tzitz (a thin gold band upon which the words "Kodesh la'Shem" are inscribed, worn upon the forehead), Ephod (apron), Choshen (breastplate), and Me'il (robe).
(c)The head-covering of the Kohen Gadol is referred to as a "Mitznefes" by the Torah; some Rishonim understand that the head-coverings of the Kohen Gadol and Kohen Hedyot differed in appearance (see TOSFOS 25a DH Notel).
(d)If a Kohen performs the Divine Service while not wearing the Bigdei Kehunah, he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. The Gemara (Sanhedrin 83b) derives from a Pasuk (Shemos 29:9) that they are considered Zarim (non-Kohanim; see Background to Sanhedrin 83:1) while in this state.
(e)On Yom ha'Kipurim, the Kohen Gadol wears Bigdei Lavan when performing the special Yom Kipur service (Vayikra 16:4). The Bigdei Lavan of the Kohen Gadol are identical to the four white linen garments worn by a Kohen Hedyot. The Kohen Gadol wears the Bigdei Lavan while performing the Avodas Penim (the parts of the service which include entering the Heichal and the Kodesh ha'Kodashim). He changed his garments from Bigdei Zahav (his regular eight vestments) to Bigdei Lavan and vice versa five times over the course of the day.
58)[line 44]מבחוץMIBA'CHUTZ- outside of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim
59a)[line 49]דתנא ביה קראD'TANA BEI KERA- that the verse repeats
b)[line 49]"[... הַשָּׂעִיר,] אֲשֶׁר עָלָה [עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל...]""[HA'SA'IR] ASHER ALAH [ALAV HA'GORAL...]"- "[... the goat] upon which [the lot] fell..." (Vayikra 16:9-10).