YOMA 30 (5 Teves) - Today's study material has been dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends.

The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[30a - 35 lines; 30b - 37 lines]

1)[line 1]לשפשףL'SHAFSHEF- to wipe away [drops of urine that have fallen on one's feet]

2)[line 3]כרות שפכהKRUS SHAFCHAH- one who has a mutilated male organ [such that his urine and semen do not shoot out forcefully; he is therefore unable to father children]

3)[line 4]לעזLA'AZ- slander

4)[line 5]צואה במקומהTZO'AH BI'MEKOMAH- [if] excrement [is currently] at the place where it exits the body

5)[line 10]שהיו ידיו בבית הכסאSHE'HAYU YADAV B'VEIS HA'KISEI- that his hands were [placed through a hole in the wall such that they are] within [the airspace of] a bathroom

6)[line 11]רב חסדא אמר אסור לקרות ק"שRAV CHISDA AMAR ASUR LI'KROS KRI'AS SHEMA- Rav Chisda does not allow one to recite Shema in such a situation because of the verse which states, "All of my limbs shall say, 'Hashem - who is comparable to you?'" (Tehilim 35:10). Since it is not the smell of the excrement that causes the prohibition, even the opinion of Rav Chisda is contradictory to that of Rav Papa.

7)[line 12]נפיש זוהמאNAFISH ZUHAMA- the smell is stronger

8)[line 13]הלכה בסעודהHALACHAH B'SE'UDAH- [The following] Halachah [applies to one] in the middle of a meal

9)[line 14]נוטל ידו אחתNOTEL YADO ACHAS- he need only wash one hand [that he used to wipe his feet from splashes of urine]

10)[line 15]הפליגHIFLIG- delayed

11)[line 15]נוטל שתי ידיוNOTEL SHTEI YADAV- he must wash both hands [since in the interim he was not careful to keep them clean, and he must assume that he absentmindedly touched a part of his body normally kept covered]

12)[line 17]חשדCHESHAD- suspicion [that he did not wash his hands]

13)[line 18]מחזיר הטפיח על האורחיןMACHAZIR HA'TAFI'ACH AL HA'ORCHIN- offer the jug [containing water with which one washes his hands] to the guests [in order to demonstrate that he had, indeed, done so himself]

14)[line 20]דאנינא דעתיהD'ANINA DA'ATEI- that he is [too] fastidious [to eat without washing his hands]

15)[line 23]לעבודהL'AVODAH- This does not mean that one who entered the Azarah for a purpose other than to perform the Avodah did not need to immerse in a Mikvah; the Mishnah is simply citing the most common reason for entering the Azarah (RASHI).

16)[line 24]קדושיןKIDUSHIN- see Background to 27:18

17)[line 25]בו ביוםBO BA'YOM- that day [of Yom ha'Kipurim]

18)[line 25]וכולןV'CHULAN- and all of the [immersions]

19)[line 25]בקדשBA'KODESH- in the Azarah

20)[line 26]בית הפרוהBEIS HA'PARVAH

(a)The Kohanim receive the hides of Korbenos Olah. They are allowed to use salt belonging to Hekdesh in order to preserve these hides. The room in the Azarah in which the tanning was accomplished is named the Lishkas ha'Parvah (TY #31).

(b)On the roof of this Lishkah was a Mikvah. This Mikvah was in the Azarah itself, and therefore had the status of Kodesh. This was the Mikvah used by the Kohen Gadol on Yom ha'Kipurim, since he was required to immerse in the Azarah (Vayikra 16:24, Mishnah Yoma 34b).

(c)The Rishonim suggest various reasons for how this room received its name:

1.According to the RASH (Midos 5:3), the word "Parvah" is related to "Parim" (cows), the hides of which were tanned there.

2.Alternatively, this name references that which the Kohen Gadol uses the Mikvah located on the roof on Yom ha'Kipurim; Parvah is related to the word "Kipur" (RASH ibid.).

3.The Gemara (Yoma 35a) says that Parvah was the name of a sorcerer. Some explain this to mean that a Jewish sorcerer named Parvah built the room (ROSH Midos 5:3 based on Rashi in Yoma), or that a non-Jew by that name designed the ingenious system that was used to bring water to its roof, as if through sorcery (ibid., as explained by TIFERES YISRAEL based on the RASH ibid.).

4.Others explain the Gemara in Yoma to mean that a non-Jewish sorcerer named Parvah built a tunnel from Yerushalayim which emerged within the walls of this Lishkah, for the purpose of observing the Kohen Gadol while he performed the Avodah on Yom Kipur. He was caught and put to death on the spot, and the event was memorialized through the name of the Lishkah. (RAMBAM in Peirush ha'Mishnayos and ROSH, Midos 5:3; TOSFOS DH Parvah and RABEINU CHANANEL Yoma 35a based on ARUCH)

21)[line 26]מזוMI'ZU- the first immersion on Yom ha'Kipurim

22)[line 27]פרסו סדין של בוץPIRSU SADIN SHEL BUTZ- they spread a linen sheet [when the Kohen Gadol was disrobing and clothing himself before and after using the Mikvah on the roof of the Beis ha'Parvah]

23)[line 28]טבילה זוTEVILAH ZU- this Tevilah [required by one who wishes to enter the Azarah]

24)[line 29]המשנה מקודש לקודשHA'MESHANEH MI'KODESH L'KODESH- the Kohan Gadol on Yom Kipur, when he switches from a) performing Avodah in the Heichal to performing Avodah in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (or vice versa), which are both Kodesh (RASHI); b) performing the everyday Avodah such as the Korban Tamid to performing the special Yom Kipur Avodah (or vice versa), which are both Kodesh (RABEINU CHANANEL); c) his everyday eight golden vestments to the special four Bigdei Lavan of Yom Kipur (or vice versa), which are both Kodesh (TOSFOS YESHANIM)

25)[line 30]ממקום שענוש כרת למקום שענוש כרתMI'MAKOM SHE'ANUSH KARES L'MAKOM SHE'ANUSH KARES- from the Heichal, which one may not enter while in a state of Tum'ah on pain of Kares, to the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, which has the same status (or vice versa)

26)[line 34]סרך טבילה היאSERACH TEVILAH HI ZU- lit. a Tevilah which is a strap; a Tevilah which pulls another along with it

27)[last line]במאי קמיפלגיB'MAI KA MI'PALGI- (in this context,) what is the practical difference between these two opinions?


28)[line 1]באחולי עבודהB'ACHULEI AVODAH- whether or not Avodah [performed without a prior Tevilah] is invalid

29)[line 7]למיקם בעשהL'MEIKAM B'ASEI- whether or not a Kohen who performs Avodah without a prior Tevilah transgresses a positive commandment [since the Kohen Gadol has a positive commandment to immerse himself in a Mikvah before performing the Avodah of Yom ha'Kipurim (Vayikra 16:4)]

30)[line 10]האי סבראHAI SEVARA- that reasoning [that one must immerse in a Mikvah before entering the Azarah so that he will remember that he is Tamei]?

31)[line 10]מצורעMETZORA

(a)If one develops a white patch on his skin the size of a Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) which appears to be Tzara'as, he must go to a Kohen, as the status of Tzara'as can only be determined by the pronouncement of a Kohen. If the Kohen ascertains that the whiteness of the patch is indeed the hue of a Nega Tzara'as, then the status of the individual depends on its appearance. If there are Simanei Tum'ah, which include the spreading of the patch, unaffected skin in the middle of the patch, or two white hairs growing in the patch, then the Kohen immediately declares him to be a Metzora. Such an individual is known as a Metzora Muchlat. If the Kohen does not find any Simanei Tum'ah, then he pronounces him Tamei for one week. At this point the person in question is known as a Metzora Musgar. After the week passes, the Kohen returns to see if the appearance of the patch has developed Simanei Tum'ah. If it has, the Kohen pronounces him a Metzora Muchlat. If it has not, the individual is once again a Metzora Musgar for the duration of a week. At the end of this second week, if no Simanei Tum'ah appear, the Metzora becomes Tahor. A Metzora Muchlat remains Tamei until his Simanei Tum'ah disappear. At that point - after a Kohen determines that the Tzara'as has indeed departed - he is Tahor once pronounced so by the Kohen.

(b)The four shades of white considered Tzara'as are:

1.Baheres, which is the color of snow;

2.Se'es, which is the color of clean, white newborn lamb's wool;

3.Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash;

4.Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an egg.

(c)No Metzora is allowed into "Machaneh Yisrael," i.e. any walled city in Eretz Yisrael.

(d)On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields.

(e)The Metzora next shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 59:5).

(f)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring three Korbanos to complete his Taharah. These Korbanos consist of two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, and the other is offered as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he cannot afford these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two turtledoves or two common doves as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still necessary for his Asham.

(g)The Metzora also brings a Log of olive oil to the Beis ha'Mikdash as part of his purification process. A Kohen lifts up and waves (Tenufah) the live Korban Asham while the Log of oil rests upon it. After the Asham is slaughtered, some of its blood is placed upon the middle section of cartilage of the Metzora's right ear, some on his right thumb, and some on his right big toe. These parts of his body must be in the Azarah at the time that the Kohen applies the blood. For this purpose he stands in the gate of Nikanor (the eastern gate of the Azarah, named for he who donated the brass doors of the gate; see Yoma 38). Although all of the other gates of the Azarah have the status of the Azarah, Sha'ar Nikanor is only as Kadosh as Har ha'Bayis. The Chachamim arranged this so that a Metzora can put his head, right hand and right foot into the Azarah while standing under the awning of the gate.

(h)After all of the Korbanos of the Metzora are offered, a Kohen then pours some of the Log of oil into his left hand and sprinkles it with his right finger seven times towards the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, dipping his finger into the oil each time. Some oil is placed on the Metzora, in the same places where the blood of the Asham was placed. The remainder of the oil in the Kohen's hand is placed upon the head of the Metzora. The remainder of the Log is given to the Kohanim; it has the status of Kodshei Kodashim, and therefore must be consumed by male Kohanim in the Azarah (RAMBAM Hilchos Mechusarei Kaparah 4:2-3).

32)[line 13]ודקארי לה מאי קארי להUD'KA'ARI LAH, MAI KA'ARI LAH- [as this answer is quite apparent,] what was the thinking of he who asked it?

33)[line 14]למרמא אחריתי עליהL'MIRMA ACHARITI ALEHA- to challenge it with a different Beraisa that is seemingly contradictory

34)[line 15]לשכת המצורעיןLISHKAS HA'METZORA'IN- (TY #13) the chamber located in the northeastern corner of the Ezras Nashim that contained a Mikvah

35)[line 16]טובליןTOVLIN- immerse in a Mikvah [on the eighth day of their purification process before they stood in the Gate of Nikanor in order to receive the blood of the Asham and the oil from the Log]

36)[line 17]הא דטבילHA D'TAVIL- when [the Metzora] went to the Mikvah [on the seventh day of his Taharah process, Rebbi Yehudah does not require him to immerse again on the eighth day]

37)[line 18]הערב שמשHE'EREV SHEMESH

(a)A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that were Tamei and then immersed in a Mikvah. This is the first stage in the process of purification from any Tum'ah. The second stage requires waiting for the following night to fall, at which point the person or utensil will become completely Tahor. The Tum'ah level of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is only considered a Sheni l'Tum'ah. This means that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh become Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches does not become Tamei whatsoever.

38)[line 19]דאסח דעתיהD'ASACH DA'TEI- that he removed did not pay attention [to whether he came into contact with Tum'ah or not]

39)[line 21]הזאת שלישי ושביעיHAZA'AS SHELISHI U'SHEVI'I (MEI CHATAS)

(a)If a person or utensil becomes Tamei by touching a Mes or being in the same room as a Mes (or a part of a Mes which is Metamei b'Ohel), he/it must wait seven days before he/it is able to go to the Mikvah in order to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days, Mei Chatas is sprinkled on the person or utensil. Mei Chatas is a mixture of ashes of a Parah Adumah (see Background to 2:6) and spring water. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov (hyssop) branches which have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person or utensil which is Tamei. After this process is complete, the person or utensil is immersed in a Mikvah. Once night falls, the purification process is complete (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

(b)No work, such as using the water as a counterweight, may be performed with Mei Chatas. The Rabanan derive from the verse (Bamidbar 19:19) that if Mei Chatas is sprinkled upon any object that cannot receive Tum'ah, then work is considered to have been done with it and those drops remaining on the Ezov branches are invalidated.

(c)Mei Chatas have the status of an Av ha'Tum'ah (Kelim 1:1). Therefore, one who touches Mei Chatas becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah.

(d)If one moves enough Mei Chatas to dip an Ezov bundle into and sprinkle it upon a person, then even he moves does not come into direct contact with the water he is Tamei. This is known as Tum'as Masa - the Tum'ah caused by carrying. Any garment or vessel in contact with he who moves the Mei Chatas becomes Tamei as well.

(e)Both one who comes into contact with Mei Chatas and one who moves it (along with his clothing) must immerse themselves in a Mikvah. They then have the status of a Tevul Yom (see below, entry #25) until the evening, when they become fully Tahor.

40)[line 29]אודו לי איזי מיהתODU LI EIZI MIHAS- at the very least admit to me

41)[line 31]דייש בטומאהDAYISH B'TUM'AH- is accustomed to impurity [since such was his status while he was a Metzora, and he is therefore more likely to have become Tamei than the average person]

42)[line 31]כל אדם לא דיישי בטומאהKOL ADAM LO DAISHI B'TUM'AH- This opinion disagrees with both Ben Zoma and Rebbi Yehudah, and maintains that one who was not a Metzora need not immerse himself in a Mikvah whatsoever before entering the Azarah (see Chart #7, footnote #3).

43)[line 32]רבנן דפליגי עליה דר"יRABANAN D'PELIGI ALEI D'REBBI YEHUDAH- the Rabanan who disagree with Rebbi Yehudah [in the first Beraisa quoted above, when they state that a Metzora must immerse in a Mikvah on the eighth day of his Taharah before he stands in the Gate of Nikanor]

44)[last line](לר"י דאמר סרך) טבילה (היא) זו(L'REBBI YEHUDAH D'AMAR SRACH) TEVILAH (HI) ZU- [according to Rebbi Yehudah who maintains that] this Tevilah [is only mid'Rabanan]