YEVAMOS 103 (30 Av) - Today's study material has been dedicated by Al and Sophie Ziegler of Har Nof, Yerushalayim, in honor of the Yahrzeit of Al's father, Bernard B. Ziegler - Binyamin Baruch ben Avraham (and Miryam), which occurs on 30 Menachem Av.

[103a - 46 lines; 103b - 52 lines]

1)[line 1]מוטהMUTEH- leaning

2)[line 4]ובסמיכת הידיםUV'SEMICHAS HA'YADAYIM- and with one of the pads made of thick hide that the amputee uses to cover his arms and protect them from rocks and mud, since he propels himself forward with his arms

3)[line 15]מגיןMEGIN- protects [the foot]

4)[line 16]למדחסיה לכרעיהL'MIDCHESEI L'CHAR'EI- to press down his foot

5)[line 20]דמסגי על ליחתא דכרעיהD'MASGEI AL LEICHASA D'CHAR'EI- who walks on the top of his feet, i.e. the soles of his feet became upturned (so that he could not walk on them)

6)[line 24]לאו בר אובא חליץ ולאו בר קיפוף חליץLAV BAR UBA CHALITZ V'LAV BAR KIPOF CHALITZ- bar Uba and bar Kipof (the Girsa in Moed Katan 25b is bar Avin and bar Kipok) were eulogizers who caused Rav Ashi to become distraught when he asked them to tell him the eulogy that they would use upon his death. As a result, the soles of their feet became upturned (ibid.).

7)[line 29]איסתויראISTEVIRA- (O.F. chevile) ankle

8)[line 30]מיפסק פסיקMIFSAK PASIK- it stops [before the ground and there is another bone in between]

9)[line 33]כרעאKAR'A- the foot

10)[line 34]"ובשליתה היוצאת מבין רגליה""UV'SHILYASAH HA'YOTZES MI'BEIN RAGLEHA"- "And towards her afterbirth that comes out from between her feet, [and towards her children whom she shall bear; for she shall eat them secretly, for want of all things, in the siege and distress, with which your enemy shall distress you in your gates]" (Devarim 28:57) - RASHI states that the afterbirth refers to her very young children (ibid.).

11)[line 36]בשעה שכורעת לילדSHE'KORA'AS LEILED- when she squats down to give birth

12)[line 37]"[ומפבשת בן שאול ירד לקראת המלך] לא עשה רגליו ולא עשה שפמו...""[U'MEFIVOSHES BEN SHAUL YARAD LI'KERAS HA'MELECH,] V'LO ASAH RAGLO V'LO ASAH SEFAMO..." - "[And Mefivoshes, son of Shaul, went down to greet the king.] He had not shaved the hair of his legs or his moustache, [nor had he washed his clothes, from the day that the king left (Yerushalayim) until the day that he returned in peace]" (Shmuel II 19:25) (MEFIBOSHES)

See Background to Yevamos 48:4.

13)[line 38]לישנא מעליאLISHNA MA'ALYA- "clean" language

14)[line 38]"[ויבא אל גדרות הצאן על הדרך ושם מערה] ויבא שאול להסך את רגליו [ודוד ואנשיו בירכתי המערה ישבים]""VA'YAVO SHAUL LEHASECH ES RAGLAV" - "[And he came to the flocks of sheep by the wayside, and there was a cave there.] And Shaul entered it to relieve himself. [And David and his men were sitting deep inside the cave]" (Shmuel I 24:3) (DAVID AND SHAUL IN THE CAVE)

(a)Following David's miraculous escape from Shaul (who was chasing him relentlessly) as described in the previous chapter, David moved from the valley of Zif to the fortresses of Ein Gedi. Shaul followed him there with 3000 men, and that is when the current incident took place.

(b)Shaul ha'Melech entered a cave to relieve himself, and, without his guards with him, he was left entirely vulnerable. David's men tried to convince him that HaSh-m was delivering Shaul into his hands, and they wanted to kill him to protect the life of David. David instead quietly cut a corner of Shaul's garment (to later produce as proof that he had had the opportunity to kill him but had refrained from doing so). David immediately felt remorse for doing so, and indeed, many years later, in his old age, his clothing could no longer keep him warm (as punishment for his act of wanton destruction of Shaul's clothing), and he had to resort to artificial methods of keeping warm.

(c)David refused to accede to his men's request, refusing to lay a hand on the anointed one of HaSh-m, a gesture that many others, including David's own son, later would not share.

(d)David waited until Shaul left the cave and there was a safe distance between them before he emerged from the cave and called out to him. The moment Shaul turned around, David prostrated himself on the ground in deference to the king. He held up the cut corner of his garment, to demonstrate how he had had the opportunity to kill him but had declined to do so, intimating the respect that he had for his father-in-law, the king, and that the king had no reason to pursue him ceaselessly. David asked Shaul why he constantly repaid him bad for good, and he called on HaSh-m to judge between them.

(e)Shaul's initial response was to concede that David was right in every point that he raised, and he even went so far as to ask HaSh-m to reward David for what he had just done. Finally, he acknowledged that David would rule after him, and he asked David to swear that he would not wipe out his descendants once that happened, a request that David fulfilled. Shaul returned to his home, and David and his men returned to the fortress of Ein Gedi. This was the last time David and Shaul met.

15)[line 40]"[והוא יצא ועבדיו באו, ויראו והנה דלתות העליה נְעֻלוֹת; ויאמרו] אך מסיך הוא את רגליו בחדר הַמְּקֵרָה""ACH MEISICH HU ES RAGLAV B'CHADAR HA'MEKEIRAH" - "[And he (Ehud) exited, and his servants (the servants of Eglon, King of Moav) came and saw that the doors of the attic were locked, and they said,] 'He must be relieving himself in the cooling-room'" (Shoftim 3:24) (EHUD BEN GEIRA AND EGLON, KING OF MOAV)

(a)Ehud ben Geira was one of the early Shoftim. He judged Yisrael in the time of Eglon, King of Moav, who subjugated Yisrael with a heavy hand for eighteen years. It was while presenting the king with a gift which the people sent him that he devised the following plan. A left-handed man, Ehud made for himself a short, double-bladed sword, which he girded on his right thigh (while most men wore their swords on the left). He presented Eglon with the gift, and then, after accompanying the other members of the delegation part of the way back to Eretz Yisrael, he returned to Eglon alone and asked to see him privately. The king, who was sitting on his throne in the cooling-room, gave a signal and everybody left. Ehud entered, and informed Eglon that he had a message from HaSh-m. Upon hearing the Name of HaSh-m, Eglon, an exceptionally obese man, rose in respect (an act for which he was granted the merit of being the grandfather of Ruth).

(b)At that point, it took Ehud little effort to draw his sword with his left hand and stab the unsuspecting Eglon deep into his stomach before leaving the room, locking it behind him and making his escape, and leaving the king's men to believe that their master was busy relieving himself. He made his way to Se'irah before returning to Eretz Yisrael.

(c)He subsequently gathered an army which fought and defeated Moav.

16)[line 42]אותו רשעOSO RASHA- Sisra, general of Yavin, king of Chatzor in Eretz Kena'an (Shoftim 4-5)

17a)[line 43]באותו היוםB'OSO HA'YOM- on the day that he was killed by Yael, the wife of Chever ha'Keini


(a)After the death of the Shofet Ehud ben Geira, Bnei Yisrael became lax in their observance of Torah and Mitzvos. In order to prompt them to do Teshuvah, HaSh-m caused King Yavin of Chatzor to attack and subjugate them. After twenty years of subjugation under the cruel general Sisra, Bnei Yisrael finally repented and cried out to HaSh-m to save them.

(b)As they were now worthy of redemption, HaSh-m informed Devorah the prophetess that if Bnei Yisrael would wage war against Sisra, they would be successful. She called upon Barak ben Avino'am from Kedesh Naftali (her husband) and instructed him to gather an army to fight Sisra. He was to gather ten thousand men from Naftali and Zevulun to Har Tavor, while she would draw Sisra to Nachal Kishon, with his entire army, chariots and all. In her capacity as a prophetess, she assured Barak that she would deliver Sisra into his hands. She and Barak ben Avino'am led Bnei Yisrael to victory, with the help of HaSh-m, who caused a flash flood in Nachal Kishon that wiped out much of Sisra's army and all of his 900 iron chariots. Sisra escaped the battlefield, only to be killed by Yael, the wife of Chever ha'Keini. The account of this battle and the glorious Song of Devorah that it inspired are recorded in Shoftim 4-5. (See Background to Pesachim 118:44:b.)

18)[line 43]"בין רגליה כרע נפל שכב; בין רגליה כרע נפל, באשר כרע שם נפל שדוד""BEIN RAGLEHAH KARA NAFAL SHACHAV; BEIN RAGLEHAH KARA NAFAL; BA'ASHER KARA SHAM NAFAL SHADUD" - "Between her legs he knelt, he fell, he lay; between her legs he bent, he fell, there where he knelt, there he fell, vanquished" (Shoftim 5:27) (THE VICTORY OVER SISRA)

(a)Devorah, the prophetess, and her husband, Barak ben Avino'am, acting as general, led Bnei Yisrael to victory over Sisra, following a flash flood which HaSh-m first brought to Nachal Kishon (the wadi of Kishon, through which a river flowed) to wipe out much of Sisra's army along with all 900 of his iron chariots. Sisra escaped the battlefield, only to meet his end at the hand of Yael, wife of Chever ha'Keini. The account of this battle and the glorious Song of Devorah that it inspired are recorded in Shoftim 4-5.

(b)Sisra's army fell miraculously, as if the angels were fighting on behalf of Yisrael. The Chachamim explain that HaSh-m caused the stars to heat up their suits of armor so that they would enter the wadi of Kishon to cool down. A miracle occurred and the water of the river swept them away and they drowned. Simultaneously, HaSh-m kept His word to the fish of the Yam Suf: When He ordered the sea to cast the corpses of the Egyptians onto dry land, the fish were deprived of their fodder, and He promised that a time would come when He would repay them. The fish now received their long-awaited meal.

(c)Sisra fled on foot and arrived at the tent of Chever ha'Keini (a descendent of Yisro), who was neutral, where he was greeted by his righteous wife, Yael, who invited him into the tent. To drain his strength completely, she allowed him to be intimate with her seven times, as the Gemara explains. Following that, she gave him milk, which made him drowsy. When he fell asleep, she took one of the tent-pegs and hammered it into his skull, killing him instantly. The commentaries explain that she used a tent-peg, rather than Sisra's sword, because a woman is forbidden to wield weapons (since they are considered the apparel of men). When, a short while later, Barak came looking for Sisra, Yael was able to show him the corpse of the enemy general.

(d)Sisra's mother, meanwhile, was peering anxiously out of her window, wondering why her warrior son was so long in returning from the battlefield. The wives of the generals reassured her that the delay was due to the division of the vast amount of spoil that they surely captured from the defeated Jewish army, and due to his choosing from the beautiful Jewish maidens, as the verse relates. The real reason for her son's failure to arrive was Yael's act on behalf of the Jewish people.

19)[line 45]שדודSHADUD- shattered

20)[line 45]והא קא מתהניא מעבירהV'HA KA MIS'HANYA ME'AVEIRAH?- [Why does the verse (Shoftim 5:24) praise her so much?] Did she not derive pleasure from the sin? (TOSFOS DH v'Ha)


21)[line 3]לחייLECHAYEI- it is good, understandable

22)[line 7]דקא שדי בה זוהמאD'KA SHADI BAH ZUHAMA- he injected filth into her

23)[line 28]סנדל המוסגרSANDAL HA'MUSGAR (TZARA'AS HA'BEGED)

(a)The marks of Tzara'as for clothes consist of intense green or intense red marks that are at least the size of one Gris (a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 11:4).

(b)If Tzara'as is found on a garment, it is put into Hesger (quarantine) by a Kohen for a week. If the spots remained the same size, the garment is washed and put into quarantine for yet another week (ibid. 11:5).

(c)If, either when the Kohen first sees them or at the end of one week, the spots are seen to have increased in size, the garment is termed "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned.

(d)If after the second week the Tzara'as has either remained the same or spread, the garment becomes "Muchlat" and the entire garment is burned. If the marks of Tzara'as remain but have faded somewhat, then only the part of the garment that bears the marks of Tzara'as is cut out from the garment and burned and the rest of the garment is Tahor. A patch is sewn in place of the parts that were removed. If Tzara'as returns to either the garment or the patch after the original Tzara'as has been removed, the entire garment is burned.

(e)Garments that are Muchlat (i.e. that contain Tzara'as that must be burned) are Asur b'Hana'ah.

24)[line 33]בית המוסגרBAYIS HA'MUSGAR (TZARA'AS BATIM)

(a)The marks of Tzara'as for houses consist of intense green or intense red streaks or spots that are at least the size of two Gerisin (a Gris is a Cilician bean, approximately the size of a dime) (Nega'im 12:3). If Tzara'as is found on the walls of a house, it is put into quarantine by a Kohen for a week. Before the Kohen puts the house into quarantine, he commands that the house be emptied of its contents to prevent its utensils from becoming Tamei.

(b)The Torah states (Vayikra 14:39) "v'Shav ha'Kohen," to prescribe that the Kohen return six days later to check the house. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week. If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.

(c)On the other hand, if the Tzara'as did not change after the first week, the Kohen leaves it as is and returns again six days later. The verse states (Vayikra 14:44), "u'Va Ha'kohen," which means "if, when the Kohen comes back to the house to inspect it a second time, he finds that the spot of Tzara'as has spread, the house is Tamei." Chazal teach that this verse is referring to a spot of Tzara'as that does not spread during its first week. The Kohen "comes back to the house" after a second week to see whether the spot has spread, remains, or has disappeared. If the Tzara'as has either spread or remained, one must remove (Choletz) the stones with Tzara'as from the house, scrape off the surrounding plaster, insert new stones and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then put into quarantine for another week (Vayikra 14:40). If the Tzara'as returns to the house during the following week, the owner must dismantle (Notetz) the entire house (Vayikra 14:45). The stones from the house must be taken out of the city, and they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever.

(d)Even though the words "v'Shav" and "u'Va" are not identical, they are referring to the same action; namely, the Kohen entering the house to inspect it. This relates the two verses to each other with a Gezerah Shavah. Just as the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spreads during the first week - unless the stones are scraped and the Tzara'as returned to the house after a week of quarantine - so, too, the house is not dismantled if the Tzara'as spread during the second week unless it returns to the house after the quarantine period that follows the scraping.

(e)If during one of the inspections at the end of the first or second week the Kohen finds that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it can no longer be classified as a Nega, the location of the spot alone is scraped and the house is declared Tahor after the owner follows the procedure for being Metaher houses (see Background to Sukah 13:11:4). (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2)

25)[line 34]מטמא מתוכוMETAMEI MI'TOCHO- (a) if a person touches the inside wall of the house, even if he is standing outside of the house (RASHI); (b) the person enters the house entirely (TOSFOS DH Metamei)

26)[line 35]מטמאין בביאהMETAM'IN B'VI'AH

(a)When a person is a Metzora, he is Metamei the objects in the house that he is in. Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei all the objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house.

(b)Regarding a person who enters a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora in it, there are two Pesukim:

1."veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev" (Vayikra 14:46)

2."veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav" (ibid. 14:47)

(c)From the first verse we learn that any person (or thing) that comes into the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat bread) dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is wearing become Tamei.

(d)The RASH (Kelim 1:4) lists four differences between the Tum'ah of the Ohel of a Mes and the Tum'ah of a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora (or an article of clothing or a stone from a house that has Tzara'as) inside of it:

1.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a person becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters. In a house that has Tzara'as or has a Metzora inside it, a person becomes Tamei only when most of his body enters the house.

2.In an Ohel ha'Mes, even when entering backwards, a person becomes Tamei when only a bit of his body enters the house. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it a person becomes Tamei when entering backwards only when his entire body enters.

3.In an Ohel ha'Mes, a Mechitzah (partition) only prevents the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. In a house that has Tzara'as or that has a Metzora inside it, a Mechitzah of ten Tefachim in height (or even a ditch of ten Tefachim in depth) is enough to prevent the spread of Tum'ah.

4.In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is passing through it and does not stop moving. In a house that has a Metzora (or an article that has Tzara'as, as mentioned above) inside it, the people in the house become Tamei only if the Metzora stops passing through and is stationary. (TOSFOS here, DH Kivan, maintains that the people in the house do become Tamei even if the Metzora is just passing through it. However, if a Metzora or an article with Tzara'as passes under an unenclosed tree or canopy, the people under the tree or canopy do not become Tamei unless the Metzora or article with Tzara'as stops and is stationary.)

27)[line 36]כדמכתת דמיKED'MICHTAS DAMI - The obligation to destroy it gives it a status of already having being destroyed. Consequently, it does not have the proper size, because it is considered as crushed to powder.

(a)Many Mitzvos of the Torah require a specified amount of a certain item, such as a k'Zayis for the Mitzvah of eating Matzah, four Tefachim for the Mitzvah of Lulav, etc.

(b)When there is a Mitzvah to burn a certain object, that object is considered already burned and reduced to ashes. We look upon it as separate particles of ash that happen to be stuck together. As such, we do not use it for any Mitzvah that has a size requirement, since it is considered as having infinitesimally small particles.

(c)The Rishonim argue as to how broadly this rule is applied:

1.Some contend that it applies to all Isurei Hana'ah (objects from which it is forbidden to derive benefit).

2.Others maintain that it only applies to those items that are burned (i.e. those items that may not be simply buried or otherwise obliterated).

3.Another opinion is that it applies only to items that there is a positive Mitzvah to burn.

4.Yet others imply that it applies only to items that the Torah (as opposed to the Rabanan) gives us a positive Mitzvah to burn. (See TOSFOS Yevamos 104a, at the top, TOSFOS Sukah 35a DH Lefi, and Rishonim there).

5.Another point in question is whether the Halachah of Kesusei Michtas Shi'urei is linked to the opinion of Rebbi Shimon (who rules that "all that is meant to be burned is considered as already burned" - Menachos 102b). According to the Rishonim that link the two laws, the Rabanan who argue with Rebbi Shimon do not hold of the rule that Kesusei Michtas Shi'urei (RITVA Sukah 31b, see also RASHI Chulin 89b DH Shi'ura and elsewhere regarding Kesusei Michtas Shi'urei).

28)[line 39]מטליתMATLIS- a cloth

29)[line 51]עבודת כוכביםAVODAS KOCHAVIM

(a)It is prohibited to derive any benefit from objects used in the service of Avodah Zarah, as is learned from the verse in Devarim (7:26). Anyone who benefits from them receives Malkos two times: once for the prohibition from the above verse and once for the prohibition from the verse in Devarim (13:18).

(b)Objects of Avodah Zarah themselves and the utensils that are used in their service must be destroyed, as it states in Devarim (12:2, 7:5).

(c)The utensils that are used in the service of Avodah Zarah have a lesser degree of Tum'ah (mid'Rabanan) than an Avodah Zarah itself. They can make a person Tamei through touching (Maga), but they do not transfer Tum'ah through Masa (carrying) or Even Mesama (see Background to Shabbos 82:34).

(d)An animal before which a person bows down, worshipping it as an Avodah Zarah, is unfit to be brought as a Korban. It is not prohibited for personal use since live animals do not become prohibited when worshiped.

30)[line 51]לא תחלוץLO SACHALOTZ- (A Sandal Muchlat may be used for Chalitzah, b'Di'eved, since the Torah calls it "Beged" even after it must be burned. Nevertheless, it may not be used l'Chatchilah since one might mistakenly infer that it is permissible to use other sandals which must be burned, such as Tikroves Avodas Koachavim. -RASHBA)

31)[last line]תקרובת עבודת כוכביםTIKROVES AVODAS KOCHAVIM- a sacrificial offering to Avodah Zarah