YEVAMOS 80 (7 Av) - Dedicated in memory of Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens, N.Y., by his wife and daughters on his tenth Yahrzeit. G-d-fearing and knowledgeable, Simcha was well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah. He will long be remembered.

[80a - 40 lines; 80b - 37 lines]

1)[line 1]מנא ידעינן?MENA YAD'INAN?- how can we tell [that he is a Seris as soon as he is born]?

2)[line 2]מטיל מיםMATIL MAYIM- urinate

3)[line 2]כיפהKIPAH- an arch (O.F. arvolud - archway) (but rather the urine dribbles out)

4)[line 3]ממאי הואי?MI'MAI HAVAI?- what caused [him to be born sterile]?

5a)[line 3]אפיה אימיה בטיהראAFYAH IMEI B'TIHARA- his mother baked [while expecting him] at noontime [which exposed her to both the heat of the (outdoor) oven and that of the sun]

b)[line 3]ושתיא שיכרא מרקאV'SHASYA SHICHRA MARKA- and she drank (a) diluted beer; (b) potent beer

6)[line 4]אמיAMI- [Rebbi] Ami

7)[line 5]כל שממעי אמו לקויKOL SHEMI'MA'EI IMO LAKUY- a case involving one who was afflicted from his mother's womb

8)[line 5]לא ידענא מאי ניהוLO YADANA MAI NIHU- I didn't know (a) how one is able to tell; (b) to what case he was referring

9)[line 6]הבריאHIVRI- he was healed

10)[line 8]בודקין אותוBODKIN OSO- we check [various blemishes in the eye of a Bechor (see Background to Chagigah 7:32) in order to determine whether or not it is permanent (Mishnah, Bechoros 38b)

11)[line 10]לכוליה גופאL'CHULEI GUFA- for an ailment that affects the entire body. The Gemara on 80b explains that one born as a Seris exhibits signs of his condition that affect various parts of his body.

12)[line 12]לא הביא שתי שערותLO HEVI SHTEI SE'AROS- he has not yet grown two pubic hairs

13)[line 13]והוא הסריסV'HU HA'SERIS- and he [exhibits other symptoms of] a Seris

14)[line 17]רבי אליעזר אומר הזכר כדברי ב"הREBBI ELIEZER OMER HA'ZACHAR K'DIVREI BEIS HILLEL- Rebbi Eliezer appears to rule that one born as a Seris is not included in the Parshah of Yibum upon the confirmation of his condition. This contradicts his ruling in our Mishnah.

15)[line 19]ממהרת לבאMEMAHERES LA'VO- matures earlier

16)[line 21]מהי הדר ביה?ME'HAI HADAR BEI?- which [opinion] did he retract [-- that expressed in the Mishnah, or that expressed in the Beraisa]?

17)[line 23]במינןB'MINAN- some with his condition

18)[line 25]וכי תנן ההיא לעונשיןKI TENAN HA'HI L'ONSHIN- that Beraisa [in which Rebbi Eliezer rules that one born as a Seris does not reach the age of majority until he is twenty] refers to [the age at which he is liable for] punishment [for his sins]\

19)[line 26]חלבCHELEV - Forbidden Fats

(a)Chelev refers to those fats of a Korban that are offered upon the Mizbe'ach. This includes the layer of fat covering the stomachs of the animal, all other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat lining the kidneys along its flanks (Vayikra 3:4).

(b)One may not consume the Chelev of a kosher Behemah (domesticated animal), although one may derive any other benefit from it. "Shuman" is the term for all other fats of a Behemah that are permitted for consumption. Both Chelev and Shuman of a Chayah (non-domesticated animal) may be eaten.

(c)If one consumes Chelev intentionally, he is liable to receive Kares (see Background to Sukah 25:25); if he did so unintentionally, then he must offer a Korban Chatas (see Background to Yoma 61:35). If one is in doubt as to whether the fat that he ate was Chelev or Shuman, then he must offer a Korban Asham Taluy (see Background ibid.).

20)[line 26]מבן שתים עשרה [ויום אחד]MI'BEN SHTEIM ESREJ V'YOM ECHAD- from the age of twelve and a day. Although our Gemara appears to discuss a male Seris, it actually is discussing a female Ailonis, who would normally reach the age of majority at twelve.

21)[line 28]ולאחר מכאןUL'ACHAR MI'KAN- [even if] afterward

22)[line 29]למפרעL'MAFRE'A- retroactively

23)[line 31]אילונית לרבי מאיר יהא לה קנסAILONIS L'REBBI MEIR YEHEI LAH KENAS (ONES - One who Rapes a Young Girl)

(a)One who rapes a young girl must pay a fine (Kenas) of fifty Shekalim to her father (Devarim 22:28). This is equivalent to the Kesuvah (dowry) of an untouched woman. If she wishes to be his wife, then he must marry her. He may not divorce her.

(b)Three stages exist in the development of a woman. Until the age of twelve, she is a Ketanah (minor). Between the ages of twelve and twelve-and-a-half - assuming that she has reached physical maturity - a girl is a Na'arah (maiden). After the age of twelve-and-a-half, she is a Bogeres, or Gedolah (fully-grown woman). The Chachamim rule that the Halachah of Kenas applies to both a Ketanah and a Na'arah. Rebbi Meir maintains that one is liable to pay a Kenas only if he rapes a Na'arah. (Kesuvos 29a).

(c)Because Rebbi Meir rules that the Halachah of Kenas is limited to a Na'arah, he clearly states that one who rapes an Ailonis is exempt from Kenas. Rav Yosef asks that according to the opinion of Rav, even Rebbi Meir should require one who raped an Ailonis to pay a Kenas retroactively.

24)[line 32]מקטנותה יצתה לבגרMI'KATNUSAH YATZESAH L'VAGAR- she went directly from the stage of "Ketanah" to that of "Bogeres" (see previous entry, (b)).

25)[line 33]כל כי הני מילי מעלייתא יתאמרו משמאי!KOL KI HANI MILI MA'ALYASA YIS'AMRU MI'SHEMAI!- were it that all such excellent words were said in my name!

26)[line 34]בן סורר ומורהBEN SORER U'MOREH - A Stubborn and Rebellious Son

(a)A Ben Sorer u'Moreh is a boy who has become "stubborn and rebellious" (Devarim 21:18-21). The period of time during which he can acquire this Halachic status begins with physical maturity - Halachically defined as the point at which he has grown two pubic hairs - until his pubic hair grows in fully (approximately three months later). During this time, he must steal money from his father, use it to purchase fifty Dinars worth of meat, and consume it rare. This must take place outside of his father's property, and in bad company. He must also drink one half-Log (5 oz.) of wine with his meal.

(b)One who has met the necessary conditions of a Ben Sorer u'Moreh is punished with Sekilah (stoning; see Background to 2:15). Rebbi Yosi ha'Glili explains why this punishment is just, even though it is seemingly so out of proportion to the crime. HaSh-m has determined that since he is consumed with experiencing worldly pleasures to the exclusion of all else, he will eventually deplete all of his father's possessions in this pursuit. Left with no means of continuing his chosen path in life, he will stand at a crossroads and steal from people. Better that he die young with relatively few sins than live a long and wicked life (Mishnah, Sanhedrin 72a).

(c)The Gemara (Sanhedrin 68b-72a) derives many additional details necessary for a young man to be considered a Ben Sorer u'Moreh. These are so numerous and unlikely that the Gemara concludes that the case of a Ben Sorer u'Moreh never occurred, nor will it ever (Sanhedrin 71a).

27)[line 35]חתימת זקן התחתוןCHASIMAS ZAKAN HA'TACHTON- lit. the sealing of the lower beard; his pubic hair grows in fully

28)[line 36]נערה המאורסהNA'ARAH HA'ME'ORASAH - A Betrothed Maiden

(a)If a man and a married woman have relations following a warning delivered by two witnesses, they receive the punishment of Chenek (choking; see Background to 2:15) (Devarim 22:22). If she was coerced, then just the rapist receives Chenek.

(b)An exception to this rule exists. If the woman was a Na'arah Besulah Me'orasah - a virgin between the ages of twelve and twelve-and-a-half (assuming that she has reached physical maturity) who has been betrothed (Eirusin) - then the punishment for her relations with another is Sekilah (stoning; see ibid.) (Devarim 22:23-24).

29)[line 38]בן שמנהBEN SHEMONAH - An Child Born Following an Eight-Month Pregnancy

(a)From the time that the Torah was written through the time of the Gemara, a child was able to survive only if he was born following either a nine-month or seven-month pregnancy. A child born after an eight-month term was not viable. Even if such a child appeared healthy upon birth, he would have died soon after.

(b)If a baby born after eight months does survive, Rebbi Avahu teaches that he is not presumed to be viable until he reaches his twentieth birthday. Therefore, he is not liable for punishment for his sins until that point.

30)[line 38]אין עושין בהן מעשהEIN OSIN BA'HEM MA'ASEH- we do not punish them [for their sins]

31)[last line]אסור לטלטלוASUR L'TALTELO (MUKTZAH - That which is Not Useful on Shabbos)

(a)Muktzah literally means "set aside" or "designated". With regard to Shabbos, this term is used to describe items which one has no intention of using on Shabbos, such as wood stacked in a barn. Anything that a person had no intention to use during Bein ha'Shemashos (twilight) at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov) - for any reason - is included in the category of Muktzah and may not be moved (Tiltul) on Shabbos. That which is not Muktzah is termed "Muchan" (prepared) for use on Shabbos or Yom Tov.

32)[last line]שוחה עליו ומניקתוSHOCHAH ALAV U'MENIKASO- leans over him to nurse him


33)[line 1]הסכנהHA'SAKANAH- the danger [of a) the new mother developing a breast infection; b) the child starving]

34)[line 1][לא] גמרו סימניו[LO] GAMRU SIMANAV- the signs [attesting to] his [full development] are incomplete

35)[line 2]כלוKALU- finish

36)[line 4]צפרניוTZIPARNAV- his nails

37)[line 5]אישתהויי הוא דאישתהיISHTAHUYEI HU D'ISHTAHI- he waited [in the womb]

38)[line 6]עבד... עובדאAVAD... UVDA- he ruled on a case [regarding a child who was born]

39)[line 6]רבא תוספאהRAVA TOSFA'AH- (a) Rava who relates Tosefta'os (see RASHI to Avodah Zarah 9a DH Tana Tosfa'ah in the middle of the Amud); (b) Rava who reads verses as if there were no missing letters (see Rashi to Avodah Zarah 9a DH Tana Tosfa'ah at the end of the Amud); (c) Rava who writes words without any missing letters (see Aruch Erech Sefer #2)

40)[line 7]מדינת היםMEDINAS HA'YAM- abroad

41)[line 8]תריסר ירחי שתאTEREISAR YARCHEI SHASA- a twelve-month year

42)[line 8]אכשריהACHSHEREI- he validated [the child as legitimate, ruling that he was three months overdue]

43)[line 9]כרבי דאמר משתהא?K'REBBI D'AMAR MISHTAHEI?- according to [the individual opinion of] Rebbi who rules that a woman can be overdue [and not the majority opinion, which the Halachah presumable follows]?

44)[line 11]כל ששהה ל' יום באדם אינו נפלKOL SHE'SHAHA B'ADAM SHELOSHIM YOM EINO NEFEL- any human child who lives for thirty days may be assumed viable [even if he was born after an eight-month pregnancy]

45)[line 16]לקויLAKUY- lit. afflicted; soft

46)[line 16]מחליקMACHLIK- smooth [and hairless, like the skin of a woman]

47)[line 17]שאין מימיו מעלין רתיחותEIN MEIMAV MA'ALIN RESICHOS- his urine does not froth (O.F. escume) [since it is not projected with enough force]

48)[line 19]שכבת זרעו דוחהSHICHVAS ZAR'O DUCHAH- his semen is watery [and not ropey]

49)[line 21]מחמיציןMACHMITZIN- turn fetid [when stored in a container]

50)[line 21]רוחץROCHETZ- washes

51)[line 22]מעלה הבלMA'ALEH HEVEL- produces vapor

52)[line 27]דדיםDADIM- breasts

53)[line 27]מתקשה בשעת תשמישMISKASHEH B'SHE'AS TASHMISH- she finds marital relations painful

54)[line 28]שיפולי מעיםSHIPULEI ME'AYIM- the curvature of (a) [her] stomach (RASHI); (b) [her] womb (YA'AVETZ)

55)[line 29]עבהAVAH- lit. thick; deep

56)[line 32]עיינו ביהAYNU BEI- examine him

57)[line 33]איתיב ליה ברתEISIV LEI BRAS- I will give my daughter to him [as a wife]

58)[line 34]סיכי דיקנאSIKEI DIKNA- lit. the pins of a beard; scattered beard hairs