[7a - 49 lines; 7b - 39 lines]
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as the verse states, "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam" - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos, and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10)
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim involves bringing those fruits which were the first to emerge in one's field at the beginning of the season to the Beis ha'Mikdash. After arriving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, while the basket is still on his shoulder, the owner of the fruit recites certain verses (Devarim 26:3,5-10), thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and granting us the land of Eretz Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (Bikurim 2:3, RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12), and bows down before HaSh-m. The Bikurim are afterward given to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land; heard from a leading botanist. -M. KORNFELD)
(c)In certain instances, one does not recite the verses when bringing Bikurim (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if one brings Bikurim between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Sukah 36b and Rashi there).
(d)The Bikurim must be eaten by Kohanim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If one eats Bikurim outside of Yerushalayim once they have entered Yerushalayim (according to the RAMBAM) or once they have entered the Azarah (according to RASHI in Makos), then he receives Malkus (lashes). In such an instance, the Bikurim must be returned to Yerushalayim and eaten there.
3)[line 1]והראיוןRE'AYON (RE'IYAH)
Every Jewish male is required to appear before HaSh-m in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash and to bring a Korban Re'iyah on the three festivals (Devarim 16:16). The Korban Re'iyah is a Korban Olah. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days, and on Shavuos it may be brought on Shavuos or on the six days following the festival.
4)[line 7]מאי הראיוןMAI HA'RE'AYON- The Beraisa says that the Mitzvah of "Re'ayon" has no limit, instead of simply referring to the Mitzvah of "Re'iyah." From this we may infer that when the Beraisa says that there is no limit to "Re'ayon," it is not only telling us that one may buy as expensive a Korban Re'iyah as one wants. It is telling us in addition that there is no limit to the amount of times one may fulfill the Mitzvah of "Re'iyas Panim" during a Regel. One may observe the Mitzvah just once, or one may enter the Azarah many times during the Regel and fulfill the Mitzvah many times. Rebbi Yochanan and Reish Lakish argue over how the Mitzvah of Re'iyah is fulfilled, if it is performed more than once during a Regel. (RASHI, as explained by the MAHARSHA)
5)[line 26]מה חגיגה האמורה להדיוט בראוי לוMAH CHAGIGAH HA'AMURAH L'HEDYOT BA'RA'UY LO- [we compare them as follows: since] the Korban Chagigah that is stated [as a requirement] for people is brought from something that is fitting for people [to eat]
6)[line 32]ואין נראין חצאיןV'EIN NIR'IN CHATZA'IN- the Gemara (7b) concludes that this refers to the exemption of copper miners, tanners, etc. from the Mitzvah of Re'iyah, since their offensive smells make them unable to travel with others to the Beis ha'Mikdash
7)[line 40]"הוקר רגלך...""HOKAR RAGLECHA..."- "Let your foot be scarce in your neighbor's house; lest he become weary of you, and hate you." (Mishlei 25:17) - The Gemara interprets the "neighbor" in this verse as referring to HaSh-m, advising Bnei Yisrael not to appear too often in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
8)[line 4]המקמץHA'MEKAMETZ- (a) (lit. one who scrapes together, collects) one who collects the excrement of dogs in order to process hides (O.F. cordovan - a soft fine-grained leather [originally] made in Cordova, Spain) (RASHI to Chagigah 4a); (b) one who collects the excrement of dogs in order to wash clothes (RASHI to Kesuvos 77a and to Bava Basra 17a, 19a); (c) a small-scale tanner (Gemara Kesuvos 77a)
9)[line 4]והמצרף נחשתHA'METZAREF NECHOSHES- (a) one who smelts copper at the copper mine (RASHI to Chagigah 4a); (b) copper kettle smiths; (c) a copper miner (The last two opinions are quoted in the Gemara Kesuvos 77a)
10)[line 4]והבורסיHA'BURSI- a tanner, who uses animal excrement to tan hides
11)[line 8]המעשרMA'ASER (MA'ASER SHENI)
(a)After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b)After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given to a Levi.
(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.
12)[line 12]ובמעשר בהמהMA'ASER BEHEMAH
(a)Every year, a person must collect all of the kosher animals that were born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one as Ma'aser Behemah. The Mitzvah of Ma'aser Behemah is stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shevet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m" - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m."
(b)Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (blemish or defect), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.
(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every firstborn male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Pesachim 43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c)If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner.
(d)Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).
14)[line 13]ובחזה ושוקCHAZEH V'SHOK
The chest and the hind leg of the Shelamim (peace offering) were waved in a prescribed manner and were then given as a gift to the Kohanim, as described in Vayikra (7:28-36) .
15)[line 16]וכל דבר שבחובה אינו בא אלא מן החוליןKOL DAVAR SHEB'CHOVAH EINO BA ELA MIN HA'CHULIN
(a)Every Korban that a person is required to bring must be set aside from animals that are Chulin (non-consecrated). This applies whether the obligation to bring the Korban stems from the Torah, such as Pesach, Chatas, Asham, etc., or whether it stems from the person himself, such as if he vowed to bring a Korban Olah, Shelamim or Todah. He does not fulfill his obligation unless he sets aside and offers as the Korban an animal that is Chulin. Therefore, if the person owns an animal that he already set aside as a Korban by declaring it a Nedavah (e.g. by saying, "This animal shall be a Shelamim"), or if he owns money that was used for the redemption of Ma'aser Sheni (which retains the Kedushah of Ma'aser Sheni), he cannot fulfill his obligation by bringing the animal that was declared a Nedavah, or by purchasing an animal for his Korban with the money that was used to redeem Ma'aser Sheni (Menachos 82a).
(b)If a person vows to bring a Korban and specifies at the time of his vow that he may bring an animal that is already Kadosh, or that he may purchase an animal with money that was used to redeem Ma'aser Sheni, then he does fulfill his vow with the animal that was Kadosh as a Nedavah or with the money that was used to redeem Ma'aser Sheni (ibid.).
16)[line 20]שלמיםSHELAMIM (SHALMEI YACHID)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(c)The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten for two days and the intervening night.
(d)Although the Korban Shelamim that is offered by an individual is generally a voluntary sacrifice (Shalmei Nedavah), some Korbenos Shelamim are obligatory (Shalmei Chovah). Two types of Korbenos Shelamim that are obligatory are the Shalmei Chagigah (see Background to Beitzah 19:9) and the Shalmei Simchah (see Background to Beitzah 19:13). At the time of the Milu'im (when the Mishkan was inaugurated), Shalmei Chovah were offered as well.
17)[line 21]סומכיןSOMCHIN (SEMICHAH)
Semichah refers to the Mitzvah for a person to press his hands with all his might on the head of his animal sacrifice before it is slaughtered, as described in Vayikra (1:4).
18)[line 21]עולותOLOS (OLAS YACHID)
(a)A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary sacrifice (Olas Nedavah), as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos (which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6), Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b)Korbenos Olah are Kodshei Kodashim and therefore they may only be slaughtered in the northern part of the Azarah. Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Olah is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(c)The skin of the Olah is given to the Kohanim and the rest of the animal is dismembered and entirely burned on the Mizbe'ach.
(d)A Korban Olah offered by an individual that is obligatory (Olas Chovah) is the Olas Re'iyah. Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban Olas Re'iyah on the three festivals (Devarim 16:16). If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other days of the festival (i.e. the next six days of Pesach, or the next seven days of Sukos). On Shavuos, if it was not brought on Yom Tov, it may be brought on the six days following the festival (Chagigah 17a).
19)[line 38]חגיגת חמשה עשר/חגיגת ארבעה עשרCHAGIGAS CHAMISHAH ASAR/CHAGIGAS ARBA'AH ASAR
(a)Chagigas Chamishah Asar refers to the Korban Chagigah that is brought on the first day of Pesach that is the obligatory Korban Chagigah that a person must bring during all festivals. Every Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos, and bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14).
(b)Chagigas Arba'ah Asar refers to a special Korban Chagigah that is brought on Erev Pesach. The Torah requires that each Korban Pesach be eaten by a designated group of people. When many people share a Korban Pesach such that there is not enough meat to provide a full meal for each of them, a Korban Chagigah is brought along with it. The members of the group eat the Korban Chagigah before the Korban Pesach to ensure that they eat the Korban Pesach Al ha'Sova (when they are satiated) (see Insights to Pesachim 70:1).