[76a - 46 lines; 76b - 45 lines]
1)[line 1]אמריתו מילי מוליתאAMRISU MILEI MULYASA- (a) you say severed words (that have no foundation) (RASHI to Eruvin 25b); (b) you say blemished words (RASHI to Bava Metzia 109a); (c) you say great (impossible) words (ARUCH)
2)[line 1]במקומה מבשלהBI'MEKOMAH MEVASHLAH- [only] in its place (the spermatic duct) is it potent
3)[line 3]ניקב ונסתםNIKEV V'NISTAM- if [one's male organ] was pierced and then [the hole] closed
4)[line 4]נקריNIKRI- ejaculation occurs
5)[line 4]ונקרעV'NIKRA- and [the hole] would re-open
6)[line 4]הוי בהHAVI BAH- delved into it
7)[line 5]היכאHEICHA?- where [is this hole located]?
8)[line 5]אפי' נכרת נמיAFILU NICHRAS NAMI!- even if it was cut off completely [it would not invalidate him]!
9)[line 6]בעטרה עצמהB'ATARAH ATZMAH- at the juncture of the organ and the crown. Our Gemara can not have been discussing a hole in the organ itself, since the force of ejaculation is not enough to force open a closed hole in any place other than one near to where it exits.
10)[line 10]היכי עבדינןHEICHI AVDINAN?- how can we [cause ejaculation in order to determine whether or not the hole re-opens]?
11)[line 11]מייתינן נהמא חמימא דשעריMAYSINAN NAHAMA CHAMIMA D'SA'AREI- we bring warm barley bread
12)[line 12]"[ראובן בכרי אתה] כחי וראשית אוני...""[REUVEN, BECHORI ATAH --] KOCHI V'REISHIS ONI..."- "[Reuven, you are my firstborn --] my strength and the first of my vigor...." (Bereishis 49:3)
13)[line 15]בגדי צבעוניןBIGDEI TZIV'ONIM- colored [women's] clothing
14)[line 16]ברזילי הגלעדיBARZILAI HA'GIL'ADI- a follower of David ha'Melech who helped him flee Yerushalayim during the revolt of his son Avshalom (Shmuel II 17:27, 19:32-40). He grew old prematurely due to his lascivious tendencies (Shabbos 152a).
15)[line 17]מחוורתא כדשנין מעיקראMECHAVARTA KED'SHANINAN ME'IKARA- it is clear [that the correct answer is] as we answered originally
16)[line 18]שותתSHOSES- flows [through the hole]
17)[line 20]קרוםKRUM- a scab
18)[line 20]בריאהB'REI'AH- with the lung [of an animal]
19)[line 21]דאינו קרוםD'EINO KRUM- that is not Halachically considered a scab; i.e. it has not healed and the animal is therefore a Tereifah (an animal with a malady that will cause it to die within the year), rendering it non-kosher
20)[line 22]היכיHEICHI AVDINAN?- how can we [cause such a hole to heal]?
21)[line 22]שערתאSE'ARTA- a barley kernel
22)[line 22]ומסרטינן ליהV'MESARTINAN LEI- and we scratch [the area surrounding the hole]
23)[line 23]תרבאT ARBA- fat
24)[line 23]ושייפינןV'SHAYFINAN- and we rub it in
25)[line 24]שומשנא גמלאSHUMSHENA GAMLA- a large ant
26)[line 24]ומנכתינן ליהMENACHTINAN LEI- (a) we wedge the head of the ant into the hole (RASHI, as explained by the MAHARSHAL); (b) we cause the ant to bite the [edges of the] hole [stapling it together] (SHE'ILTOS)
27)[line 24]ופסקינן ליה לרישיהPASKINAN LEI L'REISHEI- we sever its head [so that the hole remains closed until the flesh heals]
28a)[line 25]פרזלאPARZELA- iron
b)[line 25]מזרף זריףMIZRAF ZARIF- (a) (O.F. esgrati(g)nier - scratches) lacerates [the flesh]; (b) (O.F. enfle - swollen) causes swelling
29)[line 26]קטןKATAN- a small [hole]
30)[line 26]מיקפולי מיקפלMIKPULEI MIKPAL- [the scab] peels off
31)[line 27]המטיל מיםHA'MATIL MAYIM- one who urinates
32)[line 29]כבראK'BRA- the Halachah is like the son [of Rav Huna]
33)[line 30]המסוללותHA'MESOLELOS- who rub [in the manner of a couple engaged in marital relations]
34)[line 31]פנויPANUY- a man who is unmarried
(a)A Kohen may not a marry a Zonah (Vayikra 21:7, 14). A Zonah is a woman who engaged in marital relations that were prohibited. Not all prohibited relations, however, render a woman a Zonah. A Nidah, for instance, does not become a Zonah, nor does a woman who had relations with an animal. Exactly what category of forbidden relations renders a woman a Zonah is the subject of a Tana'ic dispute:
1.Rebbi Yehudah rules that a Zonah is a woman who cannot bear children.
2.Rebbi Eliezer rules that a Zonah is a woman who engages in marital relations with one to whom she is forbidden, even including an unmarried woman who engages in relations with an unmarried man one time.
3.Rebbi Akiva rules that a Zonah is a woman who engages in marital relations with one to whom she is forbidden, even including an unmarried woman who engages in relations indiscriminately.
4.Rebbi Masya ben Charash rules that a Zonah is a woman who engages in marital relations with one to whom she is forbidden - even if they are allowed to marry each other. This includes relations between a husband and his wife who is a suspected adulteress (a Sotah) who has not yet drunk from Mei Sotah.
5.The Chachamim rule that a Zonah is a woman who engages in marital relations with one to whom she is forbidden to marry, including a Nochris or maidservant (even after they convert or are freed).
6.Rebbi Elazar rules that a Zonah is a married woman who commits adultery. (Beraisa, Yevamos 61b)
(b)The Halachah follows the opinion of the Chachamim. See Background to 56:5 for more details on the specific definition of a Zonah.
36)[line 32]פריצותא בעלמאPERITZUSA B'ALMA- mere immorality (as opposed to that which renders her a Zonah)
37)[line 32]פצוע דכאPETZU'A DAKA / KRUS SHAFCHAH
The Torah does not allow certain sterile men to marry a Jewess of unsullied lineage (Devarim 23:2). One of these men is a Petzu'a Daka - one whose testicles are crushed. The other is a Krus Shafchah - one whose male organ has been at least partially severed. Either of these individuals may, however, marry a convert or a freed slave (Yevamos 76a).
38)[line 33]ומשוחררתU'MESHUCHRERES- and a freed [Nochris] maidservant [who thereby becomes a full-fledged convert]
39)[line 33]מלבא בקהלMILA'VO B'KAHAL- from marrying into the Jewish people
40)[line 36]תניתוהTENISUHA- we learned [the answer to your query] in a Beraisa
41)[line 37]בנתינהB'NESINAH (NESINIM)
(a)In the times of Yehoshua, the Giv'onim (members of the Chivi nation, one of the seven nations whom the Jewish people were commanded to destroy upon entering Eretz Yisrael) came and presented themselves before Yehoshua as if they came from a far-off land. Since they claimed not to be residents of Eretz Yisrael, they requested to be converted and to make peace with the Jewish people. After Yehoshua agreed to accept them, it was discovered that they were one of the seven prohibited nations. Having already accepted them, Yehoshua did not want to break his oath and covenant with them (even though they tricked him and the oath was uttered in error) so as not to cause a Chilul HaSh-m. Yehoshua accepted them and appointed them to be woodchoppers and water drawers to supply the needs for the sacrificial service on the Mizbe'ach (Yehoshua 9:3-27). In the times of Moshe Rabeinu, Giv'onim also came to be converted as they did in the times of Yehoshua, and Moshe also made them woodchoppers and water drawers (Yevamos 79a, based on Devarim 29:10). These people became known as "Nesinim," (from the root "Nasan," to give) since they were "given over" by Moshe and Yehoshua ("va'Yitenem..." - "And he appointed them...," Yehoshua 9:27) to perform the tasks of chopping wood and drawing water.
(b)The Nesinim are not permitted to marry someone who was born Jewish, just like Mamzerim. RASHI and TOSFOS (Kesuvos 29a and elsewhere) argue as to whether they are prohibited mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan. The Gemara (Yevamos 79a) states that Moshe Rabeinu "decreed" regarding the Nesinim of his generation, and Yehoshua extended the "decree" to last as long as the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash would stand. David ha'Melech later extended the "decree" to include all time, even if the Beis ha'Mikdash would be destroyed (because of the trait of cruelty that the Nesinim exhibited, which showed that they were not worthy of uniting with the descendants of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Yakov). According to Rashi, these decrees were prohibitions against marriage, and as such the prohibition against marrying Nesinim is an Isur mid'Rabanan. According to Tosfos, these decrees were appointments of servitude. The prohibition against marrying them, though, is mid'Oraisa, since the Torah commands against marrying the seven prohibited nations even if they convert to Judaism (Yevamos 76a).
42)[line 37]"[ו]לא תתחתן בם""[V']LO SISCHATEN BAM"- "[And] do not intermarry with them...." (Devarim 7:3) - This verse refers to the seven nations indigenous to Eretz Yisrael, who must be wiped out. Since a Petzu'a Daka is allowed to marry a Nesinah even though she should be included in the prohibition of this verse, he clearly does not have the status of "Yisrael." So, too, it is reasonable that a Kohen who is a Petzu'a Daka has lost his status of "Kohen."
43)[line 38]דלמא מוליד בןDILMA MOLID BEN- [the reason why the Torah forbids marrying a woman from these nations is that] perhaps he will father a son [through her]
44)[line 38]פלחPLACH- pray
45)[line 40]בהנך דבני אולודיB'HANACH D'VNEI OLUDEI- with those who are capable of fathering children [similar to the concern of the Torah prohibition]
46)[line 41]ממזרMAMZER- the illegitimate child of a forbidden union [who may not marry a Jewish woman of unsullied lineage]
47)[line 43]בפסולים לא גזורB'PESULIM LO GAZUR- they did not enact this decree for those who may not marry into the Jewish people [since (a) it is an uncommon occurrence (RASHI, first explanation); (b) the reason for the decree is that the Nesinim displayed undesirable character traits, and these will not affect Klal Yisrael if they are only allowed to marry Pesulim (RASHI, second explanation)]
48)[line 43]לאו מילתא היאLAV MILSA HI [D'AMRI]- that [which I said] (namely, that the verse of "Lo Sischaten Bam" does applies to the seven nations of Eretz Yisrael only when they did not convert) is incorrect
49)[last line]מידי הוא טעמא אלא לשולחן מלכיםMIDI HAVAH TA'AMA ELA L'SHULCHAN MELACHIM?- is the reason [why converts were not accepted then] not since [they were suspected of converting only so as to gain a portion of] kingly wealth?
50)[line 1]מצרית ראשונהMITZRIS RISHONAH (MITZRI V'EDOMI)
It is forbidden to marry a first- or second-generation Egyptian or Edomite convert. This is derived from that which the verse stated that only a third-generation convert from these nations may marry a Jewess (Devarim 23:8-9). Because the Torah does not state this prohibition negatively, it has the status of a Lav ha'Ba mi'Chlal Aseh (see Background to 68:20). This prohibition applies equally to both male and female converts.
51)[line 2]הנך אזלי לעלמאHANACH AZLEI L'ALMA- those [Egyptians referred to in the verse] died [in the Yam Suf] (and the prohibition applied to the Erev Rav, those Egyptians who followed Klal Yisrael into the desert)
52)[line 8]אנן משלמה ליקו ונתיבANAN MI'SHLOMO LEIKU V'NASIV?- can we raise an objection from [the actions of] Shlomo ha'Melech?
53)[line 8]לא נסיב מידיLO NASIV MIDI- did not marry her at all
54)[line 9]"מן הגוים אשר אמר ה'...""MIN HA'GO'YIM ASHER AMAR HASH-M..."- "Of the nations about which HaSh-m said to Bnei Yisrael: 'You shall not come among them and they shall not come among you, for they will turn your heart after their gods.' To them did Shlomo cleave to love." (Melachim I 11:2)
55)[line 20]עמוני ומואביAMONI U'MO'AVI- Amonim and Mo'avim are forever forbidden to become part of the Jewish people
56a)[line 27]הלכהHALACHA- (a) if it is a Halachah l'Moshe mi'Sinai that you learned from you teachers, we will accept it; (b) if it is a Halachah that you learned from your teachers, we will accept it
b)[line 27]לדיןL'DIN- if you are learning it from a Kal va'Chomer
57)[line 27]תשובהTESHUVAH- a response (refutation)
58a)[line 28]לא כיLO KI- it is not so [that you are able to contest my Kal va'Chomer]
b)[line 28]הלכה אני אומרHALACHAH ANI OMER- it is a Halachah that I am saying (and not something learned from an inference)
59)[line 28]מנא ה''מMINA HANEI MILI?- what is the source for these matters (that females of Amon and Moav are permitted)?
60)[line 29]"וכראות שאול את דוד יצא לקראת הפלשתי אמר אל אבנר שר הצבא בן מי זה הנער אבנר ויאמר אבנר חי נפשך המלך אם ידעתי""V'CHIR'OS SHAUL ES DAVID YOTZEI LIKRAS HA'PELISHTI... " - "And when Shaul saw David going out to confront the Pelishti, he said to Avner, the commander-in-chief of the army, 'Whose son is this youth, Avner?' And Avner said, 'By your life, your majesty, I do not know.'" (Shmuel I 17:55) (AVNER'S ATTEMPT TO DISQUALIFY DAVID FROM THE THRONE)
(a)When David left the camp to confront Golyas (see below, entry #69), Shaul sensed the threat that David posed to his throne, and he asked Avner (the head of the Beis Din) from which branch of Yehudah's sons Yishai, David's father, descended. If Yishai descended from Zerach, then Shaul would have nothing to worry about, but if Yishai descended from Peretz, from whom the kings of Yehudah were destined to ascend, then this meant that David was eligible to sit on the throne, and Shaul had good reason to feel that his sovereignty was in danger.
(b)Avner suggested that instead of asking whether David was eligible to become king, Shaul would do better to ask whether David was eligible even to marry an ordinary Jewess, considering that he was descended from Ruth who, as a Moabite convert, was disqualified, together with all of her descendants, from marrying into Klal Yisrael. This question recurred again later in the time of Boaz. On both occasions, the final ruling was stated in the name of Shmuel, who emphatically taught, "'Amoni' v'Lo Amonis, 'Mo'avi' v'Lo Mo'avis," disqualifying the men of Amon and Moav, but not the women.
61)[line 30]ולא ידע ליהV'LO YADA LEI?- and did he (Avner) really not know him (David)?
62)[line 31]"[ויבא דוד אל שאול ויעמד לפניו] ויאהבהו מאד ויהי לא נשא כלים""VA'YE'EHAVEHU ME'OD, VA'YEHI LO NOSEI CHELIM" - "[And David came to Shaul, and he stood before him,] and he (Shaul) loved him deeply, and he (David) became his armor-bearer." (Shmuel I 16:21) (SHAUL AND DAVID)
After Shmuel quietly crowned David, the spirit of HaSh-m left Shaul and he became possessed with "an evil spirit from HaSh-m." He accepted the advice of his servants to find a minstrel who would play music before him whenever the evil spirit caused him to feel dejected. One of the servants suggested a son of the great Yishai, who played music beautifully, and who was successful in many facets of life, and who was beloved to HaSh-m. Shaul immediately sent messengers to Yishai, who sent David to Shaul with a gift of a donkey laden with bread, a flask of wine, and a kid-goat.
63)[line 33]באוכלוסאB'UCHLUSA- who would come in at the head of an army (of 600,000) and go out with an army
64)[line 34]מפרץ…מזרחPERETZ... ZERACH- Shaul asked David if he comes from Peretz or Zerach
65)[line 34]מלכא הויMALKA HAVI- if he is descended from Peretz, he will become king
66)[line 34]פורץ לעשות דרךPORETZ LA'ASOS DERECH- a king breaks for himself a way or path
67)[line 35]ממחיןMEMACHIN- no one can stop him
68)[line 35]מ''ט אמר ליה שאל עליהMAI TA'AMA AMAR LEI SHE'AL ALEI?- for what reason did he give instructions of inquiry concerning him?
69)[line 36]"וילבש שאול את דוד מדיו""VA'YALBESH SHAUL ES DAVID MADAV" - "And Shaul dressed David in his clothes, [and he placed a copper helmet on his head, and he dressed him in a suit of armor.]" (Shmuel I 17:28) (PREPARING TO FIGHT GOLYAS)
(a)The army of Shaul ha'Melech was engaged in battle with the Pelishtim. The Pelishti champion, Golyas (Goliath), a giant of a man, challenged any individual from the Jewish camp to single combat. The loser of the duel would forfeit the war.
(b)David had been sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Shaul's army. He arrived just in time to hear the challenge of Golyas. Perturbed at the insults hurled by Golyas toward HaSh-m, he volunteered for the challenge. Although victory was physically unlikely, David merited Heavenly assistance and killed Golyas with a stone from his slingshot.
(c)Shaul ha'Melech provided David with his own armor. David, however, discarded the armor, preferring to attack the giant wearing his regular clothes and armed with no more than a sling and a few pebbles. He discarded the armor, he explained to Shaul, because he was simply not used to it and found it too cumbersome. The real reason may have been because of the Ayin ha'Ra that Shaul gave him. Rashi explains that even though Shaul was a head and shoulders taller than any other man in the country, his clothes fit David since he had been anointed king. When Shaul realized that, he gave David an Ayin ha'Ra, which David noticed. Perhaps this is why he felt safer not wearing Shaul's clothes and armor.
70)[line 36]כמדתוK'MIDASO- like his size. When Shaul ha'Melech dressed David with his garments (Shmuel I 17:38), they fit David perfectly even though Shaul was a head taller than David.
71)[line 37]"משכמו ומעלה גבוה מכל העם""MI'SHICHMO VA'MA'ALAH GAVOHA MI'KOL HA'AM"- "[And he had a son whose name was Shaul, young and handsome, and no man in Bnei Yisrael was more handsome than he;] from his shoulders and upwards he was taller than any of the people." (Shmuel I 9:2)
72)[line 37]דואג האדומיDO'EG HA'ADOMI- minister to Shaul ha'Melech who personally killed the Kohanim of the city of Nov (Shmuel I 21:8 - 22:18)
73)[line 38]הגוןHAGUN- if he is fitting for the kingship
74)[line 40]מום זרMUM ZAR- [anyone with] a blemish of alienation
75)[line 41]"על דבר אשר לא קדמו אתכם בלחם ובמים""AL DEVAR ASHER LO KIDMU ESCHEM BA'LECHEM UVA'MAYIM"- "Because they did not meet you with bread and with water on the way, when you came out of Egypt; and because they hired against you Bil'am the son of Be'or of Pesor Aram, to curse you." (Devarim 23:5)
76)[line 41]היה להם לקדםHAYAH LAHEM L'KADEM- they should have gone out to greet [the men to the men, and the women to the women]
77)[line 42]"ויאמר המלך שאל אתה בן מי זה העלם""VA'YOMER HA'MELECH SHE'AL ATAH BEN MI ZEH HA'ALEM"- "The king said, 'You ask whose son is this youth.'" (Shmuel I 17:56)
78)[line 44]נתעלמהNI'SALMAH- [the Halachah] was concealed (forgotten) from you