[64a - 40 lines; 64b - 50 lines]
1)[line 1]שורהSHOREH- dwell
2)[line 2]רבבותREVAVOS- myriads (tens of thousands)
3)[line 5]תסתלקTISTALEK- it will be removed
4)[line 6]"[וַיָּמָת נָדָב וַאֲבִיהוּא לִפְנֵי ה' בְּהַקְרִבָם אֵשׁ זָרָה לִפְנֵי ה' בְּמִדְבַּר סִינַי,] וּבָנִים לֹא הָיוּ לָהֶם...""... U'VANIM LO HAYU LA'HEM..." - "[And Nadav and Avihu died before HaSh-m, when they offered foreign fire before HaSh-m in the Sinai desert,] and they did not have any children..." (Bamidbar 3:4) (THE DEATH OF NADAV AND AVIHU, SONS OF AHARON HA'KOHEN)
(a)The Mishkan in the desert was dedicated on Rosh Chodesh Nisan of the second year following the Exodus from Egypt. On that day, Aharon and his sons were initiated as Kohanim (servants) of HaSh-m. They offered special sacrifices for the consecration (Korbenos ha'Milu'im), along with the Korbanos that were to be offered every day. The latter group included the daily Tamid sacrifice, and, since it was the first of the month, the additional sacrifices (Korbenos Musaf) of Rosh Chodesh.
(b)As a display of their unbounded love for HaSh-m, Nadav and Avihu - righteous sons of Aharon - decided to offer Ketores (incense) in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. A fire descended from the sky and entered their nostrils, consuming their souls but leaving their bodies intact (Vayikra 10:1-5).
(c)In our Gemara, Aba Chanan quotes Rebbi Eliezer, who deduces from the above verse that Nadav and Avihu would have remained alive had they fathered children.
5)[line 12]שההSHAHAH- remained
6)[line 13]אינו רשאי לבטלEINO RASHAI L'VATEL- he does not have permission to [continue in his situation and] nullify [the commandment to have children; rather, he must marry another wife]
7)[line 15]הפילהHIPILAH- if she miscarried
8)[line 15]מונהMONEH- he counts [the ten years]
9a)[line 17]יוציאYOTZI- he must divorce her
b)[line 17]ויתן כתובהV'YITEN KESUVAH- but he must give her Kesuvah to her (see Background to 63:66) [since it is not clear that she is barren]
10)[line 17]להבנות ממנהL'HIBANOS MI'MENAH- to be built (i.e., have children) from her
11)[line 19]"[וַתִּקַּח שָׂרַי, אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם, אֶת הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית שִׁפְחָתָהּ] מִקֵּץ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים לְשֶׁבֶת אַבְרָם בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן; [וַתִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ לְאַבְרָם אִישָׁהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה]""... MI'KETZ ESER SHANIM L'SHEVES AVRAM B'ERETZ KENA'AN..."- "[And Sarai, wife of Avram, took her maidservant Hagar] after Avram had lived in the land of Kena'an for ten years; [and gave her to her husband Avram as a wife]" (Bereishis 16:3).
12)[line 22]חבושים בבית האסוריםCHAVUSHIM B'VEIS HA'ASURIM- incarcerated in jail
13)[line 23]ולילף מיצחק!V'LEILIF MI'YITZCHAK!- let us derive [that one may wait for twenty childless years] from Yitzchak!
14)[line 26]עקור היהAKUR HAYAH- was sterile [and is therefore not a good example]
15)[line 27]ההוא מיבעי ליהHA'HU MIBA'I LEI- that [verse telling us when Yitzchak had children] is necessary [and therefore unavailable to hint to this Halachah]
16)[line 29]כדי לייחס בהן שנותיו של יעקבKEDEI L'YACHES BA'HEN SHENOSAV SHEL YAAKOV- in order to determine how old Yaakov was at various stages of his life. Part of this calculation requires the aforementioned verse detailing that Yitzchak was sixty when his sons were born; the point of the calculation is that learning Torah is so important that Yaakov was not punished for his failure to honor his parents during the years that he spent learning Torah (see Megilah 17b).
17)[line 31]"וַיֶּעְתַּר יִצְחָק לַה' לְנֹכַח אִשְׁתּוֹ [כִּי עֲקָרָה הִוא]; וַיֵּעָתֶר לוֹ ה' [וַתַּהַר רִבְקָה אִשְׁתּוֹ]""VA'YE'TAR YITZCHAK LA'SH-M L'NOCHACH ISHTO [KI AKARAH HI]; VA'YE'ASAR LO HASH-M [VA'TAHAR RIVKAH ISHTO]"- "And Yitzchak prayed to HaSh-m opposite his wife [for she was barren]; and HaSh-m responded to him [and his wife Rivkah conceived]" (Bereishis 25:21).
18)[line 38]עתרESER- a spade (O.F. pele). In other places in Shas (e.g., Sukah 14a) Rashi translates this word as a pitchfork (O.F. forches); see HAGAHOS HA'BACH #1.
19)[line 39]רגזנותRAGZANUS- anger
20)[last line]טומטמיןTUMTEMIN- those whose genitals are covered [such that it is impossible to determine whether they are male or female]
21)[last line]"... הַבִּיטוּ אֶל צוּר חֻצַּבְתֶּם, וְאֶל מַקֶּבֶת בּוֹר נֻקַּרְתֶּם. הַבִּיטוּ אֶל אַבְרָהָם אֲבִיכֶם וְאֶל שָׂרָה תְּחוֹלֶלְכֶם...""... HABITU EL TZUR CHUTZAVTEM, V'EL MAKEVES BOR NUKARTEM. HABITU EL AVRAHAM AVICHEM V'EL SARAH TECHOLELCHEM..."- "... look to the rock from which you were hewn, and to the hole of the pit from which you emerged. Look to your father Avraham and to Sarah who birthed you..." (Yeshayah 51:1-2).
22)[line 4]אילוניתAILONIS- a woman lacking a womb, and therefore incapable of conception. (The word "Ailonis" is derived from the word "Ayil" - a male ram [Kesuvos 11a].)
23)[line 4]"וַתְּהִי שָׂרַי עֲקָרָה; אֵין לָהּ וָלָד""VA'TEHI SARAI AKARAH; EIN LAH VALAD"- "And Sarai was barren; she had no children" (Bereishis 11:30) - The second half of this verse is seemingly extraneous.
24)[line 5]בית ולדBEIS VELAD- a womb
25)[line 7]לא שנוLO SHANU- that which we learned [in the Mishnah that one is allowed to remain married for ten childless years] does not apply
26)[line 8]שנותיהן מרובותSHENOSEIHEN MERUBOS- they were long-lived
27)[line 10]כנגד שלשה עיבוריםKENEGED SHELOSHAH IBURIM- parallel to three pregnancies. Three nine-month pregnancies equal twenty-seven months, and one month is added per pregnancy since a woman is fertile only at one specific time of her monthly cycle.
28)[line 11]פקידותPEKIDOS- times at which [barren women] are remembered [by HaSh-m; namely, Rosh Hashanah]
29)[line 12]חנהCHANAH (ELI AND CHANAH)
(a)Eli, the Kohen Gadol, saw Chanah praying quietly and suspected her of praying while drunk. After he realized his mistake, he blessed the childless woman that she should have a son.
(b)His Berachah took immediate effect, and Chanah conceived. The son of Chanah grew up to be Shmuel ha'Navi.
(c)Our Gemara teaches that HaSh-m "remembered" Chanah and granted her a son on Rosh Hashanah.
30)[line 13]ליתנהו להני כלליLEISNEHU L'HANEI KELALEI- these rules [that stipulate that nowadays one may not wait a full ten childless years] are untrue
31)[line 13]תקיןTAKIN- established
32)[line 14]"יְמֵי שְׁנוֹתֵינוּ בָהֶם שִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה, [וְאִם בִּגְבוּרֹת שְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה...]""YEMEI SHENOSEINU BA'HEM SHIV'IM SHANAH..."- "The days of their years are seventy years; [eighty years if they are strong...]" (Tehilim 90:10) - This verse was presumably authored by David ha'Melech, who wrote the book of Tehilim and lived to the age of seventy.
33)[line 15]והאיV'HAI- and this [that was stated by the Beraisa on the previous Amud]
34)[line 15]ודלמא איהי דלא זכיאV'DILMA IHI D'LO ZACHYA!- perhaps it was she who did not merit [children, and she therefore does not deserve her Kesuvah]! [Why should she receive it out of doubt?]
35)[line 16]מפקדאMIFKEDA- commanded
36)[line 16]איני!EINI!- it is not so [as our Mishnah implies, that it is possible for one who did not merit children with one spouse to merit them with another]!
37)[line 17]הוו לי מקמייתאHAVU LI MI'KAMAISA- I would have had [children] with my first [wife]
38)[line 18]איעקר מפרקיה דרב הונאI'AKAR MI'PIRKEI D'RAV HUNA- became sterile as a result of the [long] discourse of Rav Huna [during which he would not leave in order to urinate]
39)[line 20]אחדתיה (סוסכינתא) [ססגוניתא]ACHADTEI (SUSKINTA) [SASGUNISA]- he was gripped by Suskinta, a sickness brought about by withholding urine that leads to sterility. The Girsa of the ARUCH is Sasgunisa, which alludes to that which the skin of one with this disease turns colors (see TARGUM ONKELUS to Shemos 25:5).
40a)[line 21]תליוה בארזא דבי רבTALYUHA B'ARZA D'VEI RAV- they hung him upside down upon the pillar supporting the Beis ha'Midrash
b)[line 21]ונפק מיניה כהוצא ירקאV'NAFAK MI'NEI K'HUTZA YARKA- and [a substance] as green as a palm frond came forth from him (this presumably refers to urine)
41)[line 22]שיתין סבי הוינאSHITIN SAVEI HAVEINA- we were sixty elders
42)[line 23]"[כִּי בְּצֵל הַחָכְמָה בְּצֵל הַכָּסֶף; וְיִתְרוֹן דַּעַת] הַחָכְמָה תְּחַיֶּה בְעָלֶיהָ""... HA'CHOCHMAH TECHAYEH BEALEHA"- "[For one who sits in the shade of wisdom sits in the shade of money, but the advantage of knowledge is that] wisdom grants life to those who own it" (Koheles 7:12).
43)[line 24]מלה הראשוןMALAH HA'RISHON - she circumcised her first [child... - does this constitute Halachic establishment of precedent] (CHEZKAS SHALOSH PE'AMIM / SHNEI PE'AMIM)
(a)When an event or result occurs a certain number of times consecutively, one may Halachically presume that the outcome in future occurrences will be identical unless there is evidence that the equation has changed. Such establishment of precedent is termed Chazakah.
(b)Tana'im disagree as to how many times an occurrence must be observed before such a presumption is Halachically valid. Rebbi is of the opinion that after an event is observed to have occurred twice, one may presume that it will thus occur under identical conditions. Raban Shimon ben Gamliel maintains that a Chazakah is established only after an event has occurred three times. The Halachah follows Raban Shimon ben Gamliel in monetary matters, and Rebbi in matters of Isur (restrictions).
(c)One classic example of Chazakah involves an ox that has gored other animals. If this ox is a Tam - one whose habit to gore other animals has not been established - then its owner need only pay half of the damages, since such behavior is unusual among oxen. Furthermore, he need not pay any more than the worth of his ox (mi'Gufo) (Shemos 21:35). If the ox was a Mu'ad - one whose habit to gore other animals has been established - then its owner has been negligent to the point where he must make full restitution for the damages caused by his animal, even if this amounts to more that the value of his animal (Min ha'Aliyah) (Shemos 21:36). Additionally, if a Mu'ad kills a person, then his owner is liable to Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (death delivered through natural means; see Background to 3:27). He may, however, redeem himself by paying "Kofer" to the children or heirs of the dead man (Shemos 21:30). The amount paid as Kofer is either his own value, or the value of the dead man, depending upon the various opinions of the Tana'im (Makos 2b). If a slave was killed by a Mu'ad, then the Kofer is set at thirty Sela'im and it is paid to the slave's owner. Once an ox has gored - and its owner warned - three times, it has been established as a Mu'ad.
(d)This is true only if an ox has gored the same species of animal three times. If an ox has gored, for example, two sheep and one cow, then it has not yet been established as a Mu'ad for either species of animal. If, however, an ox has gored three different species of animal in succession, then one may assume that it does not discriminate among different species, and that it is a Mu'ad for all animals.
(e)The Beraisa quoted in our Gemara discusses the case of a woman whose sons have died as a result of circumcision. How many of them must die before it would be prohibited to circumcise any subsequent sons is the subject of a disagreement between Rebbi and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel.
44)[line 26]איפכאIFCHA- [that Rebbi and Rebbi Shimon ben Gamliel were of] the opposite [opinions]
45)[line 26]הי מינייהו אחריניתא?HAI MINAIHU ACHARANISA?- which of [the Beraisos] was recorded last [since that presumably records their final opinions]?
46)[line 27]צפוריTZIPORI- a city in the lower Galilee, approximately midway between present-day Tiberias and Haifa
47)[line 27]מלה ראשונהMALAH RISHONAH- the first [sister] had her [son] circumcised
48)[line 29]מאי אסהדותיה...?MAI AS'HADUSEI...?- what [value] is the testimony...?
49)[line 30]אחיות מחזקותACHAYOS MECHAZKOS- [sons of] sisters [dying as a result of circumcision] can establish a Chazakah
50)[line 31]נכפיןNICHPIN- epileptics
51)[line 32]מאי הוה עלה?MAI HAVEI ALAH?- what is the Halachah [regarding how many times an event must occur before a Chazakah is established]?
52)[line 32]עובדא הוהUVDA HAVAH- there was a case
53)[line 33]כנישתא דמעוןKENISHTA D'MA'ON- the synagogue in Ma'on (alt. Beis Ma'on), a city near Tiberias
54)[line 33]מלה ראשונהMALAH RISHONAH- one [sister] had had her [son] circumcised [at some previous point]
55)[line 34]חזי דקשרית איסורא וסכנתא!CHAZI DEKA'SHARIS ISURA V'SAKANTA!- see that [Rebbi Yochanan] has permitted that which was [possibly] forbidden [since, if a Chazakah had been established, the Milah was forbidden on Yom ha'Kipurim and Shabbos] and that which posed a danger!
56)[line 35]אזל נסבה לחומהAZAL NASBAH L'CHOMAH- he went and married [a woman named] Chomah
57)[line 36]שכיבSHACHIV- he died
58)[line 38]איהוIHU- Abaye himself
59)[line 38]אבין דסמכאAVIN D'SAMCHA- [that which] Avin [relates in the name of Rebbi Yochanan] is reliable (see also ME'IR NESIV to Kidushin 44a)
60)[line 38]יצחק סומקאYITZCHAK SUMKA- lit. Yitzchak the Red; Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef
61)[line 39]אבין ישנו בחזרהAVIN YESHNO B'CHAZARAH- (a) Avin reviews [what he learned from Rebbi Yochanan]; (b) Avin [was always present in front of Rebbi Yochanan and therefore] would know had he retracted [his earlier teaching]
62a)[line 42]רפי דמאD'RAFI DAMA- whose blood is loose [and does not coagulate quickly]
b)[line 43]קמיט דמאD'KAMIT DAMA- whose blood is tied up (i.e., it coagulates quickly)
63a)[line 44]מעין גורםMA'AYAN GOREM- lit. her spring causes; her menstrual flow physically affects her husbands, causing them to die
b)[line 44]מזל גורםMAZAL GOREM- her inauspicious fate causes [her husbands to die]
64)[line 45]אירסה ומיתIRSAH U'MIS- he betrothed her [and was forbidden to make physical contact with her] and then died [before consummating the marriage]
65)[line 45]נפל מדיקלא ומיתNAFAL MI'DIKLAH U'MIS- he fell from a palm tree and died [from the impact, which is unrelated to their physical relationship but may have been affected by her Mazal]
66)[line 46]איןIN- yes
67)[line 47]אחוכי אחיך ביACHUCHEI ACHICH BI!- he is making fun of me!
68a)[line 47]סתמי (היא) [נינהו]SETAMEI (HI) [NINHU]- There are [Mishnayos] which record [the laws of Chazakah] anonymously [and these represent the Halachah]
b)[line 47]ופשיט לךU'PASHIT LACH- and he is ruling for you [that some follow the opinion of Rebbi while others follow the opinion of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel]
69)[line 48]מלקיותMALKIYOS - penalty of forty lashes (MALKUS ARBA'IM)
(a)One is liable to receive Malkus Arba'im (lit. forty lashes; actually thirty-nine) if he transgresses a Lav (negative Torah commandment) after having been warned that this would be his punishment by at least two witnesses (Devarim 25:2). These lashes may only be administered in Eretz Yisrael by a court of three judges who are Semuchin (Halachically ordained) (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 16:2).
(b)Malkus are delivered three at a time. The court first determines how many lashes the culprit is able to withstand. He is then instructed to stand against a post and his clothes are ripped to reveal his heart. Beis Din chooses a weak Torah scholar to stand behind him upon a rock and deliver the blows. One third land upon his chest, one third upon his shoulder, and the remaining third upon his other shoulder (Makos 22b).
(c)Before each blow, the deputy judge announces the number of the lash and a third judge proclaims "Hakehu!" - "Whip him!" During the whipping, the senior judge reads aloud the verse, "If you do not carefully perform all the commandments in this Torah ... then HaSh-m will cause you to receive extraordinary blows..." (Devarim 28:58-59).
(d)Our Gemara discusses one who received lashes for a sin punishable with Kares (see Background to 3:27) (Sanhedrin 81b).
70)[line 48]וסתותVESTOS - the establishment of a regular menstrual cycle (KEVI'US VESES)
(a)A Veses is a woman's fixed menstrual cycle. A woman may assume that she will menstruate on any given month at the same time that she had done so in the previously month. On that day she is prohibited to her husband whether she actually experiences bleeding or not. If a woman does not have an established cycle than her Veses is called a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a; if it is established, then it is a Veses Kavu'a.
(b)The Gemara (Nidah 63 (see Chart there) and elsewhere) and Rishonim discuss various ways in which a woman may be able to establish a Veses Kavu'a:
1.VESES HA'GUF - Menstruation whose onset is marked by specific bodily functions such as sneezing, aches, etc. (Mishnah Nidah 63a);
2.VESES B'ONES - Menstruation brought on by an external factor. This type of Veses can be further categorized into two sub-categories:
i.A Veses b'Ones that does not directly cause the onset of the Veses, such as that which follows the consumption of garlic, onions or peppercorns (Gemara Nidah 63b; see TOSFOS DH Achlah);
ii.A Veses b'Ones that directly causes the onset of the Veses, such as that which follows jumping or another physical activities (Nidah 11a; see TOSFOS ibid.);
3.VESES HAFLAGAH - Menstruation that occurs at intervals, such as a cycle that repeats every X number of days. A woman must observe four cycles in order to record three intervals;
4.VESES HA'CHODESH - Menstruation that occurs on a specific calendar date, even if the intervals are uneven since not every month has the same amount of days;
5.VESES YAMIM - Menstruation that occurs on a specific day of the week, such as every third Sunday (RAMBAN to Nidah 64a citing TOSFOS).
(c)Certain of these Vestos can be expressed in more than one way:
1.L'DILUGIN - A Veses in which the trigger increases incrementally, e.g., she menstruates after intervals of 28, 29, and 30 days;
2.L'SEIRUGIN - A Veses in which the trigger alternates, e.g. she menstruates on every second Rosh Chodesh;
3.L'SHA'AH KEVU'AH - A Veses in which the trigger occurs at a certain time of day, e.g., after she eats garlic at sunrise (BEIS YOSEF to YD 189, citing the RA'AVAD in BA'ALEI HA'NEFESH);
4.TZEIRUF - A Veses that is established by a combination of two factors, e.g., menstruation that occurs after she jumps on Rosh Chodesh.
(d)There are two possible differences between a Veses Kavu'a and a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a:
1.A woman with a Veses Kavu'a does not become Teme'ah retroactively for the twenty-four hours prior to the onset of her menstruation. According to some Tana'im, however, a woman with a Veses she'Eino Kavu'a does become Teme'ah retroactively for the twenty-four hours prior to the onset of her menstruation (Metamei me'Es l'Es.
2.According to the opinion that maintains that the Halachos of Vestos are mid'Oraisa (Biblical) in origin (Nidah 16a), then a woman with a Veses Kavu'a becomes Teme'ah at the time that she expects to begin menstruating even if she did not conduct an internal examination at that time, and even if she found no blood afterward.
(e)Whether a woman establishes a Veses Kavu'a after three times or only two is the subject of a disagreement between Rebbi and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel.
71)[line 48]שור המועדSHOR HA'MU'AD- see above, entry #43:c-d
72)[line 49]שנהSHANAH- repeats [the same sin, receiving lashes a second time]
73)[line 49]ב''ד כונסין אותו לכיפהBEIS DIN KONSIN OSO L'CHIPAH- [if he repeats his a third time, then] Beis Din places him into a room
74)[last line]מאכילין אותו שעוריםMA'ACHILIN OSO SE'ORIM- they [first sustain him with a minimal amount of bread and water so that his stomach shrinks and then] feed him barley [which swells when wet]
75)[last line]כריסו נבקעתTEHEI KEREISO NIVKA'AS- his stomach will split