[31a - 43 lines; 31b - 54 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 31a [line 8]:

"Amar Rav Huna, Modim Chachamim l'Rebbi Eliezer b'Efro'ach" אמר רב הונא, מודים חכמים לרבי אליעזר באפרוח

Before these words, Rashi's text included the Lishna Acharina mentioned below (Girsa #3)

[2] Rashi 31a DH Vlad b'Me'ei Behemah ולד במעי בהמה

The words "l'Achar she'Nolad v'Holech v'Gadel" לאחר שנולד והולך וגדל

should be "l'Achar she'Nolad Holech v'Gadel" לאחר שנולד הולך וגדל (as Tosfos quotes)

[3] ibid. (at the end of the Dibur):

"Leshon ha'Yerushalmi" לשון הירושלמי (and the next Dibur ha'Maschil)

(a) This Lishna is quoted in part by Rabeinu Gershom, as follows:

"Iy l'Lishna Kama, Mashkachas Lah Kegon ... Iy l'Lishna Basra, Mashkachas Lah b'Shichla Kama uv'Ha Peligi..." אי לישנא קמא, משכחת לה כגון ... אי לישנא בתרא, משכחת לה בשחלא קמא ובהא פליגי

(b) Accordingly, Rashi's words should be emended as follows:

1.The words "Amar Lei Rava l'Rav Huna" אמר ליה רבא לרב הונא

should be "Amar Rav Huna" אמר רב הונא (as is found in Hagahos ha'Gra #1; however, these words are in the correct place and do not belong above as the Gra suggests)

2.The words "a'Lishna Kama" אלישנא קמא

should be "Iy l'Lishna Kama" אי ללישנא קמא

3.The words "l'Lishna Basra" ללישנא בתרא

should be "Iy l'Lishna Basra" אי ללישנא בתרא

[4] Rashi DH Rebbi Eliezer Metamei ד"ה רבי אליעזר מטמא:

The words "Aval b'Efro'ach Afilu Rebbi Eliezer Modeh d'Yikarev" אבל באפרוח אפילו רבי אליעזר מודה דיקרב are the beginning of a new Dibur, and they refer to the words of Abaye (as corrected by the Bach #2 in the Gemara)

[5] Rashi DH Ika d'Amrei Tizbach ד"ה איכא דאמרי תזבח:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #21

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1)[line 13]מלא תרוד רימהMELO TARVAD RIMAH- a spoonful of maggots

2)[line 16]פירשא בעלמא הואPIRSHA B'ALMA HU- it is merely an excretion. That is, the worms that are produced from flesh (Rimah) are not of the same material as flesh itself. In contrast, an egg begins its existence as an actual part of the hen itself (while it is attached to the Eshkol) — see Tosfos DH Melo Tarvad.

3)[line 22]אימת גדלה? לכי מסרחא!EIMAS GADLAH? L'CHI MASRECHA!- When does it grow? — After it rots! (That is, the chicken begins to develop only after the yolk has become inedible.)

4)[line 36]אלא משעת זביחה ואילךELA MI'SHE'AS ZEVICHAH V'EILACH- rather, from the time of slaughter and onward. That is, an animal of Pesulei ha'Mukdashin is permitted only after being slaughtered, or after being killed in any other manner, in which case if it would be redeemed, it would have no use other than to be thrown to the dogs.

5a)[line 39]קדשי מזבחKODSHEI MIZBE'ACH- objects dedicated to be offered on the Mizbe'ach as sacrifices

b)[line 39]קדשי בדק הביתKODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS- objects dedicated to the property of the Mikdash (see Background to Me'ilah 12:8)

6a)[last line]פיגולPIGUL

(a)A sacrifice that was slaughtered (or any of the other three main actions involved in offering a sacrifice: Kabalas ha'Dam, Holachas ha'Dam, Zerikas ha'Dam — see Background to Menachos 2:18) with the intention of eating it or offering it Chutz li'Zemano (after its allotted time) becomes disqualified. Similarly, a Minchah that was offered with intentions of offering it (i.e. doing one of its essential Avodos) or eating it after its allotted time becomes disqualified.

(b)It is forbidden to eat such a Korban, as the verse states, "v'Im He'achol Ye'achel mi'Besar Zevach Shelamav ba'Yom ha'Shelishi, Lo Yeratzeh, ha'Makriv Oso Lo Yechashev Lo, Pigul Yiheyeh" - "If [the person offering the sacrifice plans] to eat it on the third day, [the sacrifice] will not be accepted. It is considered Pigul (putrid, rejected) and it will not be counted in his favor" (Vayikra 7:18).

(c)If a person eats a k'Zayis of Pigul b'Mezid (intentionally) after Hasra'ah (being forewarned), he is punished with Malkus (lashes); the Lav for eating Pigul is learned from the verse of the Milu'im (Shemos 29:34). If he was not given Hasra'ah, he is Chayav Kares. If he eats it b'Shogeg (unintentionally), he must bring a Korban Chatas (as with all sins for which one is liable to Kares b'Mezid) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #144.)

b)[last line]נותרNOSAR

(a)If any meat of a Korban remains after the time that was allotted for it to be eaten, it is termed "Nosar" and it must be burned. With regard to the Korban Pesach, the verse states, "Do not leave any of it (i.e. the Korban Pesach) over until the morning. Anything that is left over until the morning must be burned in fire" (Shemos 12:10). The repetition of the phrase "until the morning" signals that the verse is referring to the mornings of two different days, and can be understood as follows: "Do not leave any of the Korban Pesach over until the morning (which is Yom Tov). If anything is left over, on the following morning (which is Chol ha'Moed), it must be burned."

(b)The Torah warns us four times not to allow the meat of a Korban to remain past the time during which it may be eaten, each of which is counted as an individual Mitzvah. The first three apply to specific Korbanos (Korban Pesach, in Shemos 12:10 and SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #8; Korban Pesach Sheni, in Bamidbar 9:12 and Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #382; the Chagigah that is brought with the Pesach, in Devarim 16:4 and Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #486). The fourth time this prohibition is written is with regard to the Korban Todah (Vayikra 7:15 and 22:30), which serves as the source for the prohibition of leaving over meat from any Korban after the allotted time (Sefer ha'Chinuch Mitzvah #142). (The Minchas Chinuch 8:5 suggests that the latter Lav applies even to the three Korbanos for which the Isur of Nosar is written explicitly; however the Acharonim reject his suggestion based on the Gemara in Zevachim 36a.)

c)[line 43]טמאTAMEI

(a)The verse states, "b'Chol Kodesh Lo Siga" - "... she (a woman after childbirth) shall touch no consecrated thing" (Vayikra 12:4), from which the Gemara (Yevamos 75a, Makos 14b) learns that it is forbidden for a person who is Tamei to eat Kodshim.

(b)One who transgresses this prohibition b'Shogeg (unintentionally) becomes obligated to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored (see Background to Menachos 72:30). If he transgresses it b'Mezid (intentionally) and witnesses saw him and he was warned (Hasra'ah) not to transgress, he is punished with Malkus (lashes). If he was not warned, the punishment for transgressing this Lav b'Mezid is Kares (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20) (SEFER HA'CHINUCH Mitzvah #167).

31b----------------------------------------31b

7a)[line 48]שפוייSHEFUYEI- sawdust

b)[line 49]ניבאNIVA- fallen leaves

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