TEMURAH 23 (10 Av) - Dedicated by Mrs. Gitti Kornfeld in memory of her father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel, whose Yahrzeit is on 10 Av.

[23a - 40 lines; 23b - 37 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, the Tzon Kodashim, the Vilna Ga'on and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 23a [line 8]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #3

[2] Rashi 23a DH Hachi Ka'amar ד"ה הכי קאמר:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #11

[3] Gemara 23b [line 22]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #7

[4] Gemara [line 24]:

The words "v'Ela Aliba d'Rebbi Shimon" ואלא אליבא דרבי שמעון

should be "Ela Aliba d'Rebbi Shimon" אלא אליבא דרבי שמעון

[5] Rashi 23b DH b'Chad ד"ה בחד:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #23



1)[line 28]שופרותSHOFAROS

(a)"Shofaros" refers to boxes in the shape of a Shofar-horn (wide at the base and thin at the top) into which money was deposited. Their openings were narrow so that it would be impossible to reach in and steal the contents. There were thirteen Shofaros in the Beis ha'Mikdash, each one for a different purpose.

(b)Six of the thirteen Shofaros in the Beis ha'Mikdash were designated for the collection of money for Nedavah (free will) offerings. There are various opinions in the Gemara (in the last Perek of Menachos) as to the purpose of these six Shofaros. The RAMBAM and the BARTENURA explain, based on a Tosefta, that they were used for the following:

1.The money left over from buying a Chatas

2.The money left over from buying an Asham

3.The money left over from buying the bird-offerings of Zavim, Zavos, Yoldos and Metzora'im

4.The money left over from buying the offerings of a Nazir

5.The money left over from buying an Asham Metzora

6.Money that is given as a Nedavah for the Mizbe'ach


(a)Every year, one half Shekel was collected from every Jew to fund the Korbenos Tzibur that were offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash. Beis Din placed the money that was collected in the Terumas ha'Lishkah, a room in the Mikdash reserved for that purpose (see Background to Bechoros 56:6).

(b)The half Shekalim were collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan so that the Korbanos of the new year (which starts with the month of Nisan) would be offered from the money that was collected for the new year. On the first of Adar, Beis Din announced that the Shekalim should be collected, in order to ensure that all of the Shekalim would be collected before Rosh Chodesh Nisan (see Insights to Shekalim 2a). Some commentaries contend that a portion of the Shekalim would not arrive until after Rosh Chodesh Nisan, while others claim that all of the Shekalim arrived by Rosh Chodesh Nisan, since the Shekalim were collected from the regions further from Yerushalayim earlier in the year. (This latter opinion appears to be the conclusion of the Yerushalmi, Shekalim 2a - see Mishnas Eliyahu ibid. 2b.)

(c)The amount that was collected from each Jew was not fixed at half a Shekel. Rather, the amount given was always half of the "Matbe'a ha'Yotzei" (the primary coin in use at the time), provided that it was not less than the value of half a Shekel.

(d)The word "Shekel," as used in the phrase "Machatzis ha'Shekel," refers to the Shekel that was in use at the time of Moshe Rabeinu, which was equivalent to the "Sela" of the times of the Gemara. Machatzis ha'Shekel is half of a Sela, or two Dinarim. People became accustomed to calling the coin that was valued at half of a Sela, "Shekel," since it was "paid out" ("Shoklim" Oso) in order to fulfill the Mitzvah of Machatzis ha'Shekel each year (RAMBAN to Shemos 30:13).

(e)"Tiklin Chadetin" refers to the new Shekalim that were given for the Korbanos of the coming year.

(f)"Tiklin Atikin" refers to the old Shekalim that were given by someone who owed Shekalim from the previous year.

3)[line 29]קיניןKININ - bird-offerings (SHOFAROS: KININ)

(a)See above, entry #1.

(b)There is a Machlokes concerning the purpose of this Shofar. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that it was used for giving a Nedavah of large Torim (turtledoves), while the Shofar of Gozalei Olah was used for giving a Nedavah of small Yonim (common doves). The Chachamim maintain that the Shofar of Kinin was used by those who brought money for their obligatory birds for atonement, i.e. Zavim, Zavos and Yoldos (see Background to Nazir 25:9). The other Shofar was used for voluntary bird offerings.

4)[line 31]ששה לנדבהSHISHAH LI'NEDAVAH

See above, entry #1b.

5)[line 31]עולה הבאה מן המותרותOLAH HA'BA'AH MIN HA'MOSAROS- an Olah that is brought from leftover [Korbanos]. When a Korban cannot be offered but must be put out to pasture and then redeemed when it develops a blemish, such as a Korban Asham the owner of which died, the money received for the sale (redemption) of the animal must be used to buy a Korban Olah, which is then offered as "Kayitz ha'Mizbe'ach" (see Background to Temurah 13:9).

6)[line 35]"אָשָׁם הוּא; [אָשֹׁם אָשַם לַה']""ASHAM HU; [ASHOM ASHAM LA'SH-M]"- "It is a guilt-offering; [he has acted with guilt to HaSh-m]" (Vayikra 5:19) - The beginning of the verse implies that the Korban must be given to a Kohen, like ever other Asham. The end of the verse, however, implies that it is given to HaSh-m. We infer from here that the money that remains from buying an Asham (or Chatas) is used to buy an Olah, so that it goes both to HaSh-m (the entire animal is offered on the Mizbe'ach) and to the Kohanim (who receive the hide).