The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at, is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).

[31a - 34 lines; 31b - 49 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Mishnah, Gemara and Rosh.

[1] Gemara 31a [line 18]:

"Hayah Chosech v'Yored Ad ha'Shidrah" היה חותך ויורד עד השדרה

There are printings which are Gores

"Hayah Chosech v'Yored Im ha'Shidrah" היה חותך ויורד עם השדרה

[2] Rosh 31a DH Lo Hayah ד"ה לא היה:

The words "v'Oseh Nekev b'Regel" ועושה נקב ברגל

should be "v'Oseh Nekev b'Regel ha'Acher" ועושה נקב ברגל האחר

[3] Gemara 31b [line 19]:

"Kofsin Es ha'Tleh" כופתין את הטלה

These words should be followed by a colon

[4] Rosh 31b DH Ika Beinaihu ד"ה איכא בינייהו:

The words "Chukei Tzeduki u'Vaisus" חוקי צדוקי ובייתות

should be "Chukei ha'Nochrim" חוקי הנוכרים

[5] Rosh DH Tenan ד"ה תנן:

The words "AR'Y Masnisin" אר"י מתניתין

should be "a'Ha Masnisin" אהא מתניתין

[6] ibid.:

The words "Ha d'Amrinan" הא דאמרינן are the beginning of a new Dibur

[7] Rosh DH Nosnin ד"ה נותנין:

The words "she'Ma'alin Zeh Achar Zeh" שמעלין זה אחר זה

should be "she'Ma'alan Zeh Achar Zeh" שמעלן זה אחר זה


1)[line 2]ערקובוARKUVO- the joint of the lower knee

2)[line 9]הפדרHA'PADER- (a) the fatty intestinal membrane that divides the intestines from the stomachs (RAMBAN to Vayikra 1:8); (b) the fat in general

3)[line 10]הקרבייםHA'KERAVAYIM- the intestines

4)[line 12]בית המדיחיןBEIS HA'MADICHIN- VS #22, TY #32. The Rinsing Chamber, where the Keres was cleaned

5)[line 14]מעוטן על שולחנותMI'UTAN AL SHULCHANOS- (a) in a type of utensil, on tables... (see BACH #1); (b) at the very least, on tables... (BARTENURA); (c) according to the Girsa "MI'UTAN SHEL SHULCHANOS" - on the smallest of the tables (MEFARESH)

6)[line 14]שולחנות של שישSHULCHANOS SHEL SHAYISH- VS #25, TY #45. Eight marble tables upon which the intestines were washed

7)[line 16]אצבע הכבדETZBA HA'KAVED- and the caudal lobe of the liver or the diaphragm

8)[line 21]גרהGERAH- neck

9)[line 29]הטחולHA'TECHOL- the spleen


10)[line 1]הראשון בראש וברגלHA'RISHON B'ROSH UV'REGEL (KORBAN HA'TAMID)

(a)See Background to Tamid 25:1.

(b)The Korbenos Tamid are Olos, which are dismembered and burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon. Our Mishnah states that thirteen Kohanim were employed to carry out the offering of the Korban Tamid (see below, (c)). In addition, after six of them carry the parts of the animal to the Kevesh (ramp) of the Mizbe'ach and place them there, another Kohen (or other Kohanim — see Tamid 32b, Mishnah 5:2) would throw them from the Kevesh onto the bonfire on top of the Mizbe'ach. This procedure is a result of the verse, "b'Rov Am Hadras Melech" - "With a multitude of people is the King glorified" (Mishlei 14:28).

(c)The Mishnah (ibid.) lists the order of the Kohanim who perform the service:

1.The Kohen who slaughters the animal

2.The Kohen who collects the blood into a Kli Shares (a sanctified utensil) and performs Zerikas ha'Dam (casting the blood on the Mizbe'ach)

3.The one who cleans out the ashes of the Mizbe'ach ha'Penimi

4.The one who cleans out the ashes of the Menorah

5.The one who carries the head (with the cut neck covered by the Peder) in his right hand and the right hind leg in his left hand

6.The one who carries the right foreleg in his right hand and the left foreleg in his left hand

7.The one who carries the hind quarters (including the fat tail, the gall bladder and the kidneys) in his right hand and the left hind leg in his left hand

8.The one who carries the Chazeh (chest) in his right hand and the Gerah (neck) in his left hand

9.The one who carries the Dofen Yemin (the right side with the upper ribs) in his right hand and the Dofen Semol (the left side with the upper ribs) in his left hand

10.The one who carries the Keravayim (innards) in a pan, with the Kera'ayim (feet) on top

11.The one who carries the Minchas Nesachim

12.The one who carries the Minchas Chavitin

13.The one who carries the wine libation.

11)[line 7]מדולדלתMEDULDELES- hanging down

12)[line 13]בזךBAZACH- bowl

13)[line 18]יד ורגל כעקידת יצחק בן אברהםYAD V'REGEL K'AKEIDAS YITZCHAK BEN AVRAHAM- with each foreleg tied to each hind leg, like the binding of Yitzchak the son of Avraham

14)[line 21]חוקי העמיםCHUKEI HA'AMIM - the statutes of the [Nochri] Nations (CHUKOS HA'AMIM / DARCHEI HA'EMORI)

(a)It is forbidden to imitate the Nochrim by following their statutes and customs. For example, it is forbidden to worship HaSh-m or perform the Divine service with rituals that have been taken on as the permanent rituals of idol worship (see Sifrei Shoftim 146 and RASHI to Devarim 16:22).

(b)Darchei ha'Emori is the term that refers to those customs of the Nochrim that have no logical foundation, but are not idol worship. As such, it is forbidden to wear their style of clothes, cut one's hair like them, or build their style of buildings. It is also forbidden to imitate their forms of amusement, such as to go to theaters and circuses (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #262).

(c)The prohibition of performing Darchei ha'Emori is derived from the verse, "Lo Sa'aseh k'Ma'aseihem" (Shemos 23:24; RASHI, RAMBAN to Shemos ibid.), or from the verse "uve'Chukoseihem Lo Seileichu" (Vayikra 18:3; RASHI to Shabbos 67a).

15)[line 22]כפתיה בשיראיKAFTEI B'SHIRA'EI- he bound it with silk

16)[line 23]הוצא דדהבאHUTZA D'DAHAVA- (a) with a strand made of gold filaments (ROSH); (b) a strap of gold ("Chut" refers to flexible string; "Hutza" refers to a less flexible strap — RA'AVAD)

17)[line 24]שמונה של שישSHEMONAH SHEL SHAYISH- VS #25, TY #45. Eight marble tables upon which the intestines were washed

18)[line 25]שנים במערבה של כבשSHENAYIM B'MA'ARAVAH SHEL KEVESH- VS# 34, TY #51. Two tables were located to the west of the Kevesh (ramp), one made of marble and one made of silver. A Kohen who single-handedly offered an Olas Yachid placed the Eivarim and Eimurim of the Korban on the marble table (ROSH). It was also known as the Shulchan ha'Chalavim (see Background to Daf 33:33). The ninety-three Kelei Shares were placed on the silver table (ROSH; however, the CHIDUSHIM U'BI'URIM argues, contending that this table could not hold all of those utensils, and that the Divine service did not require that they all be in that location. Rather, some of the Kelei Shares were placed there; those that were needed for the Mizbe'ach, or others if the Kohen needed to put them down temporarily on his way to the Mizbe'ach. The other Kelei Shares remained in the Achsadrah at the perimeter of the Azarah.)

19)[line 28]אולםULAM- VS #36, TY #56. The Hall, (which opened into the Heichal); the largest and most ornate structure in the Beis ha'Mikdash, which was as high as a 17-story building

20)[line 28]שנים מבפנים על פתח הביתSHENAYIM MI'BIFINIM AL PESACH HA'BAYIS- VS #36, TY #57, 58. The two tables in the Ulam, at the entrance to the Heichal, are used as temporary stations for the Lechem ha'Panim. The Lechem ha'Panim is placed upon the one made of marble on Erev Shabbos, and remains there until Shabbos, when it is taken to the Shulchan ha'Zahav inside of the Heichal. When the Lechem ha'Panim is removed from the Heichal to be distributed to the Kohanim on Shabbos, it is placed on the one made of gold.

21)[line 31]מעלין בקודש ולא מורידיןMA'ALIN B'KODESH V'EIN MORIDIN

(a)When a person or object receives a higher status of holiness, we do not lower its status at a later time. We may only raise it to a higher level.

(b)Gold is considerably more important than marble, and as such, once the Lechem ha'Panim has been placed on the Golden Table in the Heichal, it no longer may be placed upon the marble table in the Ulam. Rather, Ma'alin ba'Kodesh v'Ein Moridin dictates that it must be placed only upon a golden table.

22)[line 32]אחד של זהב בפניםECHAD SHEL ZAHAV BI'FNIM- VS #45, TY #69. The Golden Table in the Heichal, upon which the Lechem ha'Panim is placed

23)[line 33]אין עניות במקום עשירותEIN ANIYUS BI'MKOM ASHIRUS

In honor of the Beis ha'Mikdash everything is done with extravagance and it is not proper to be skimpy.

24)[line 36]מרתיחMARTI'ACH- metal would keep the meat of the slaughtered Korbanos warm, causing them to spoil

25)[line 39]"[ואמרת להם] זה האשה אשר תקריבו לה' כבשים בני שנה תמימם שנים ליום עלה תמיד""[V'AMARTA LAHEM,] 'ZEH HA'ISHEH ASHER TAKRIVU LA'SH-M: KEVASIM BNEI SHANAH TEMIMIM, SHENAYIM LA'YOM, OLAH SAMID.'"- "[And you shall say to them,] 'This is the fire-offering that you shall bring to Hash-m: unblemished yearling sheep, two each day, as a constant burnt offering.'" (Bamidbar 28:3) - Since the requirement to bring two sheep per day as Korbenos Tamid is recorded in the next verse, the Gemara interprets the phrase "Shenayim la'Yom" to describe the location of each Korban Tamid at the time that it is slaughtered.

26)[line 39]כנגד היוםKENEGED HA'YOM- the side that is opposite the rising or setting sun; alternatively, facing towards (and being able to view) the rising or setting sun (RASHI to Yoma 62b)

27)[line 49]אלכסנדרוס מוקדוןALEKSANDRUS MOKDON- Alexander the Macedonian; also known as Alexander the Great, the first king of the Greek Empire

28)[line 49]זקני הנגבZIKNEI HA'NEGEV- the Elders of the [desert to the] south [of the Land of Yisrael — the MAHARAL states that these elders are not to be confused with the "Ziknei ha'Darom" who lived in Eretz Yisrael itself]