The reference numbers below that appear in parentheses (e.g., TY #43) represent vessels or parts of the structure of the Beis ha'Mikdash. The labeling follows that of the diagram of the Tiferes Yisrael. This diagram, which has been included in a separate mailing and can also be found on our site (at http://www.dafyomi.co.il/midos/mids-charts.htm), is printed both in the Tiferes Yisrael Mishnayos (Midos Chapter 2 or following Midos) and in Rav P. Kahati's Mishnayos (page 290, at the beginning of Midos).
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Mishnah, Gemara, and Rosh.
 Rosh [at the beginning of the Perek]:
The words "Ad Sof ha'Perakim" עד סוף הפרקים are unnecessary
1)[line 1]בשלשה מקומותBI'SHELOSHAH MEKOMOS (KORBAN TAMID)
(a)The Korban Tamid, a communal offering (Korban Tzibur), consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered at dawn and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon, ideally 2 1/2 Halachic hours before sunset. One tenth of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (flour offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approximately 0.9, 1.04 or 1.8 liters) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation (Bamidbar 28:5).
(b)To insure that at least two sheep would be available for the Korban Tamid each day, six sheep were kept in the Lishkas ha'Tela'im, the Chamber of Lambs (TY # 43, also known as the Lishkas ha'Korban or Lishkas Tela'ei Korban). The lambs were checked for four days prior to being offered to ensure that they had no Mum (blemish).
There is a Mitzvas Aseh to guard the Mikdash and to patrol it every night, as the verse states "v'Shamru Es Mishmeres Ohel Mo'ed" - "and they shall keep the charge of the Tent of Meeting" (Bamidbar 18:4). The purpose for guarding it is in order to glorify the Beis ha'Mikdash; not to safeguard it from thieves and enemies (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #388; see Insights). There is also a prohibition to interrupt the Shemirah, which is learned from the verse "u'Shemartem Es Mishmeres ha'Kodesh" (Bamidbar 18:5). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #391)
3)[line 3]בית אבטינסBEIS AVTINAS- VS #63; TY #34 (see Insights). This Lishkah had an upper story where a Kohen stood guard. It is the place where the Ketores was made.
4)[line 3]בית הניצוץBEIS HA'NITZOTZ- VS #57; TY #40. This Lishkah was a portico, open on one side, with an upper story where a Kohen stood guard. According to the Rosh, it was given this name because the sunlight shone into it, making it very well-lit.
5)[line 3]בית המוקדBEIS HA'MOKED- VS #51; TY #43. The Fireplace Room was a large, domed room where Kohanim could warm themselves. (They became chilled easily while working barefoot outdoors, on cold, marble floors.)
6)[line 4]עליותALIYOS- [they contained] upper stories
7)[line 4]הרוביםHA'ROVIM- the very young Kohanim (see Insights to Tamid 27:1)
8)[line 5]כיפהKIPAH- a dome
9)[line 6]רובדין של אבןROVADIN SHEL EVEN- stone slabs
10)[line 6]בית אבBEIS AV (MISHMAROS / BEIS AV)
(a)The Kohanim were divided into 24 shifts (Mishmaros) according to their families, each of which served in the Mikdash for two one-week periods during the course of a year. The Mishmaros changed on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar did the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar did the Avodah in the afternoon.
(b)Every Mishmar was further divided into six Batei Avos, with the Kohanim of each Beis Av serving on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, all of the Batei Avos of the Mishmar did the Avodah together (RASHI to Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros were divided into seven, and not six, groups, and only one group served on Shabbos (RASHI to Ta'anis 26a — for a further discussion of this topic, see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).
(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the holidays of Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos) all of the Mishmaros Kehunah came to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar were permitted to do the Avodah of the Regel.
(d)The 24 Mishmaros, as listed in Divrei ha'Yamim I 24:7-18, are:
11)[line 7]פרחי כהונהPIRCHEI KEHUNAH- young Kohanim (see Insights to Tamid 27:1)
12)[line 8]בכסותB'KASTO- (a) with his clothing (MEFARESH); (b) his pillow (ROSH)