[28a - 48 lines; 28b - 50 lines]
1)[line 1]דאית ליה רווחאIS LEI RAVCHA- there is room [to read from the following Parshah, whereas on the day of a Ma'amad one must read from the two Parshiyos of Bereishis specific to that day and no others]
2)[line 12]כולן נכנסין וקורין אותהKULAN NICHNASIN V'KOR'IN OSAH- everyone enters [the synagogue] and reads it [in unison]
3a)[line 14]מה הפרש בין זה לזהMAH HEFRESH BEIN ZEH LA'ZEH?- what is the difference between (a) this that the Korban Etzim defers the Ma'amad of Ne'ilah and this that it does not defer that of Minchah? (RASHI); (b) the Korban Musaf [which defers the Ma'amad of Minchah and yet not that of Ne'ilah] and a Korban Etzim [which defers the Ma'amad of Ne'ilah and yet not that of Minchah]? (TOSFOS DH Mah); (c) the Korban Musaf [which defers the Ma'amad of Minchah and yet not that of Ne'ilah] and a Korban Etzim [which defers both the Ma'amad of Minchah and that of Ne'ilah]? (RABEINU GERSHOM). See also RABEINU CHANANEL who has a different Girsa in the Mishnah and therefore a fourth understanding of this Gemara's question and answer.
b)[line 14]הללו דברי תורה והללו דברי סופריםHALALU DIVREI TORAH V'HALALU DIVREI SOFRIM- (a) the prayer of Ne'ilah is a Rabbinic obligation, whereas the obligation to recite the prayer of Minchah is mid'Oraisa (RASHI); (b) the Korban Musaf is mid'Oraisa [and therefore defers the Ma'amad of Minchah, which is mid'Oraisa] whereas a Korban Etzim is Rabbinic in origin [and therefore defers the Ma'amad of Ne'ilah, which is mid'Rabanan] (TOSFOS DH Halalu); (c) According to the Girsa of RABEINU GERSHOM, in which the words DIVREI TORAH EINAN TZERICHIM CHIZUK, V'DIVREI SOFRIM TZERICHIM CHIZUK appear - the Korban Musaf is mid'Oraisa and does not need to be strengthened, whereas a Korban Etzim is mid'Rabanan and requires strengthening
4)[line 17]כשעלו בני הגולהKESHE'ALU BNEI HA'GOLAH- when those who returned from [the] exile [of Bavel] came [to Eretz Yisrael with Ezra ha'Sofer to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash]
5)[line 17]בלשכהLISHKAH- the Lishkas Dir ha'Etzim (Wood Storage Room) in the Beis ha'Mikdash, where firewood for the Mizbe'ach is stored. This Lishkah is located in the northeast corner of the Ezras Nashim.
6)[line 20]"והגורלות הפלנו על קֻרְבַּן העצים...""VEHA'GORALOS HIPALNU AL KURBAN HA'ETZIM..."- "And we drew lots concerning which of the Kohanim, Leviyim, and the rest of the nation would bring the Korban Etzim to the house of our G-d, the house of our fathers, at specific times every year; to burn on the Mizbe'ach of HaSh-m, as the Torah specifies" (Nechemyah 10:35).
7)[line 25]עליALI- a pestle
8)[line 26]קוצעי קציעותKOTZ'EI KETZI'OS- those who dry figs
(a)The Mitzvah of Bikurim involves bringing those fruits which were the first to emerge in one's field at the beginning of the season to the Beis ha'Mikdash. After arriving in the Beis ha'Mikdash, while the basket is still on his shoulder, the owner of the fruit recites certain verses (Devarim 26:3,5-10), thanking HaSh-m for taking us out of Mitzrayim and granting us the land of Eretz Yisrael. He then places the basket of fruit at the base of the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach (Bikurim 2:3, RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 3:12), and bows down before HaSh-m. The Bikurim are afterward given to a Kohen (Mishnah Bikurim 3:8, RAMBAM ibid. 3:1).
(b)The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) - wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, and dates (Bikurim 1:3, RAMBAM ibid. 2:2). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the only species of produce truly indigenous to Eretz Yisrael. Other "immigrant" species may be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these seven will always grow in the land; heard from a leading botanist -M. Kornfeld.)
(c)In certain instances, one does not recite the verses when bringing Bikurim (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if one brings Bikurim between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Sukah 36b and Rashi there).
(d)The Bikurim must be eaten by Kohanim within the walls of Yerushalayim. If one eats Bikurim outside of Yerushalayim once they have entered Yerushalayim (according to the RAMBAM) or once they have entered the Azarah (according to RASHI in Makos), then he receives Malkus (lashes). In such an instance, the Bikurim must be returned to Yerushalayim and eaten there.
10)[line 27]פרוזדאותPERUZDA'OS- guards
11)[line 28]ירבעם בן נבטYERAV'AM BEN NEVAT
(a)Rechav'am, the son of Shlomo ha'Melech, ignored the counsel of his father's ministers to win the people over by repealing the high tax and hard labor that Shlomo had instituted. He instead listened to the advice of his friends, who argued that he demonstrate his kingly power immediately. As a result, the people rebelled (Melachim I 12:1-17).
(b)All tribes other than those of Yehudah and Binyamin seceded from the kingdom and created another under the kingship of Yerav'am ben Nevat of the Shevet of Efrayim. To discourage his subjects from returning to the leadership of the Davidic kings, Yerav'am outlawed the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos). As an "alternative" he erected two golden calves - one in Beis El and one in Dan - and instructed the nation to worship them (ibid. 12:28).
12)[line 28]יעלו ישראל לרגלYA'ALU YISRAEL L'REGEL (ALIYAH L'REGEL)
Every Jewish male is commanded to visit the Beis ha'Mikdash three times a year, on the festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos (Shemos 23:17).
13)[line 29]סליSALEI- baskets of
14)[line 29]וחיפוםCHIPUM- they covered them
15)[line 30]כתפיהןKASFEIHEM- their shoulders
16)[line 31]עיגולי דבילהIGULEI DEVEILAH- round cakes of pressed figs
17)[line 31]במכתשתMACHTESHES- a mortar
18)[line 32]כיון שעברו מהןKEIVAN SHE'AVRU ME'HEN...- Because they used pestles as a subterfuge, these individuals were termed "those who stole [the hearts of the sentries with] pestles" (see, for example, Bereishis 31:26).
19)[line 32]עיטרום בסליםITRUM B'SALIM- they decorated [the fruits that were] in [the] baskets
20)[line 32]הן הןHEN HEN- similar to these were
21)[line 36]משובךSHOVACH- a dovecote
22)[line 39]פירקוםPIRKUM- they dismantled them
23)[line 40]ירקבYIRKAV- should rot
24a)[line 41]דוד בן יהודהDAVID BEN YEHUDAH- This refers to David ha'Melech, whose family was mentioned explicitly earlier in the Mishnah. According to Rebbi Meir, he is referred to as "Pachas Mo'av" since he was descended from Rus ha'Mo'aviyah, the great-grandmother of his father Yishai.
b)[line 42]יואב בן צרויהYO'AV BEN TZERUYAH- the general of David ha'Melech's army, as well as his nephew. Tzeruyah, David's sister, was also descended from Rus, as she was the daughter of Yishai.
25)[line 43]הן הן בני דוד בן יהודהHEN HEN BNEI DAVID BEN YEHUDAH...- The verse (Shmuel II 23:8) refers to "Adino ha'Etzni." The Gemara (Moed Katan 16b) explains that this refers to David ha'Melech, who "pampered (Adin) himself like a worm while learning Torah, but hardened himself like wood (Etz) when in battle." RASHI explains that Rebbi Yosi maintains that this refers to Yo'av ben Tzeruyah, and not David.
26)[line 46]ליתני שבו בני דוד בן יהודה שניהLISNI SHAVU BNEI DAVID BEN YEHUDAH SHENIYAH- let us learn "the descendants of David from [Shevet] Yehudah returned a second time" [similar to the way in which we learned regarding the descendants of Par'osh]
27)[line 1]דדחי דידיהDACHI DIDEI- it defers [the Korban which is] its [counterpart; namely, the morning Korban Tamid]
28)[line 3]הכי קאמינא לךHACHI KA'AMINA LACH- this is what I meant to say
29)[line 8]דידיה נמי לא דחי?DIDEI NAMI LO DACHI?- shall it not then defer its own [Korban] as well?
30)[line 9]קרבן עצים דחי(KORBAN ETZIM DACHI)- (the Korban Etzim [already] defers [the prayer of Minchah]) (The VILNA GA'ON omits these words)
31)[line 14]הלילא דבריש ירחאHALEILA DEV'REISH YARCHA- Halel recited on Rosh Chodesh
32a)[line 17]החגCHAG- the festival of Sukos
b)[line 19]עצרתATZERES- the festival of Shavuos
33)[line 19]ובגולהBA'GOLAH- outside of Eretz Yisrael
34)[line 23]איקלעIKLA- went
35)[line 23]חזינהוCHAZINHU- he saw them
36)[line 25]מדלגי דלוגיMEDALGEI DILUGEI- skipping [parts of Halel]
37)[line 26]יחיד לא יתחילYACHID LO YASCHIL- an individual is not [required] to begin [reciting Halel]
38)[line 29]בששה לחדשB'SHISHAH L'CHODESH- on the sixth of the month [of Sivan]
39)[line 32]עלה משהALAH MOSHE- Moshe Rabeinu went up [to Har Sinai to receive the Luchos]
40)[line 33]"ויקרא אל משה ביום השביעי... ויבא משה בתוך הענן ויעל אל ההר ויהי משה בהר ארבעים יום וארבעים לילה""VA'YIKRA EL MOSHE BA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I... VA'YAVO MOSHE B'SOCH HE'ANAN, VA'YA'AL EL HA'HAR VA'YEHI MOSHE BA'HAR ARBA'IM YOM V'ARBA'IM LAILAH" - "[And the Glory of HaSh-m rested on Har Sinai, and the Cloud covered him/it for six days;] and He called to Moshe on the seventh day from the Cloud... And Moshe came into the Cloud and he ascended the mountain. And Moshe was on the mountain for forty days and forty nights" (Shemos 24:16, 18) (FORTY DAYS ON HAR SINAI)
How to read the words, "and the Cloud covered him/it for six days," depends on when the Torah was given, as the Gemara explains in Yoma. If the Torah was given on the seventh of Sivan, then the cloud covered Har Sinai for the six days prior to it, and Moshe entered the cloud and ascended all the way up to the Heavenly Throne on the following day. If the Torah was given on the sixth of Sivan, then on the seventh Moshe entered the Cloud which covered him for six days (from the seventh of Sivan until the twelfth , to cleanse him from the food that he had eaten, before he ascended to Heaven for the remaining 34 days).
41)[line 36]עשרים וארבעה דסיוןESRIM V'ARBA'AH D'SIVAN- [the last] twenty-four days of Sivan (including both the seventh, which was the day upon which he ascended, and the thirtieth, since Sivan is generally thirty days long)
42a)[line 37]ושיתסרSHITSAR- the sixteenth
b)[line 37]בשיבסרSHIVSAR- the seventeenth
43)[line 37]מלוMALU- completed
44)[line 38]נחיתNACHIS- went down
45)[line 38]אתא ותברינהוASA V'TAVRINHU- he came and broke them
46)[line 39]"ויהי כאשר קרב אל המחנה וירא את העגל... וישלך מידו את הלוחות וישבר אותם תחת ההר""VA'YEHI KA'ASHER KARAV EL HA'MACHANEH VA'YAR ES HA'EGEL... VA'YASHLECH MI'YADAV ES HA'LUCHOS VA'YESHABER OSAM TACHAS HA'HAR" - "And it was when Moshe approached the camp and saw the Calf [and the dances], he cast from his hands the Luchos and he smashed them underneath the mountain" (Shemos 32:19) (THE BREAKING OF THE LUCHOS)
(a)HaSh-m gave over the two Luchos before informing Moshe that the people were worshipping the Egel ha'Zahav. We would have expected HaSh-m to withhold them on account of the terrible sin being perpetrated. It was a great kindness that He did not withhold them.
(b)However, now that Moshe was holding the Luchos when he received the information about the sin, why did he not smash the Luchos on the spot? A number of answers are suggested:
1.He made a point of smashing the Luchos in front of the people to shock them into doing Teshuvah. Besides, grinding up the Calf and making them drink its dust was part of the punishment that he devised for them.
2.He was simply following the Halachic ruling that forbids accepting Lashon ha'Ra, regardless of whom one hears it from, and it was only when he actually saw them sinning that he believed it.
3.Even if he did believe HaSh-m's report, it was only when he actually saw them dancing, a sign that they were sinning joyfully, that he decided to break the Luchos. Up until that time he assumed that they were simply in the clutches of the Yetzer ha'Ra and were sinning reluctantly.
47)[line 41]גמראGEMARA- [we know through] tradition
48)[line 42]בחדש הרביעיCHODESH HA'REVI'I- the fourth month [counting from Nisan; namely, Tamuz]
49)[line 42]"בחדש הרביע בתשעה לחדש ויחזק הרעב בעיר""BA'CHODESH HA'REVI'I B'TISH'AH LA'CHODESH VA'YECHEZAK HA'RA'AV BA'IR" - "In the seventh month on the ninth of the month, the famine became critical in the city, [and there was no bread for the people to eat. And the city was breached and all the men of war fled" (Yirmeyahu 52:6-7) (THE BREACHING OF THE WALLS OF YERUSHALAYIM)
(a)As the Gemara explains, at the time of the first Churban the walls of Yerushalayim were breached on the ninth of Tamuz. We commemorate that tragedy on the seventeenth, the day on which the walls of the second Beis ha'Mikdash were breached, a tragedy from which we are still suffering.
(b)The METZUDAS DAVID comments on the odd expression, "And the city was breached," used by the verse, suggesting that this was some sort of automatic procedure, rather than a successful maneuver on the part of the Babylonian army. He attributes this to the state of the defenders, who had been so weakened by starvation (as the verse specifically states) that when the enemy breached the walls, they met with no resistance. It was almost as if the walls had breached themselves, without the Babylonians having to raise a finger.
50)[line 45]בראשונהBA'RISHONAH- regarding the first [Beis ha'Mikdash]
51)[line 48]"ומעת הוסר התמיד ולתת שקוץ שומם""UME'ES HUSAR HA'TAMID VELA'SES SHIKUTZ SHOMEM..."- "And from the time that the Korban Tamid was removed in order to place a mute abomination..." (Daniel 12:11) - Although this verse is discussing the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, our Gemara sees in it a hint to the date upon which King Menasheh had placed an idol in the Heichal many years earlier.
52)[line 49]"ועל כנף שקוצים משומם""V'AL KENAF SHIKUTZIM MESHOMEM..."- "... and the mute abominations shall be on soaring heights..." (Daniel 9:27) - From the plural form of the word "Shikutzim" it appears that more than one idol was placed in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
53)[last line]ותבריה ליה לידיהTAVREI LEI L'YADEI- sliced off its hand
54)[last line]ואשתכח דהוה כתיבISHTACHACH D'HAVA KESIV- it was found written [upon (a) the complete idol (RASHI, second explanation of TOSFOS DH v'Ishtachach); (b) the severed hand (first explanation of TOSFOS DH v'Ishtachach)]