[7a - 56 lines; 7b - 41 lines]

1)[line 6]שקולהSHEKULAH- equal

2)[line 6]קבעוה בתחיית המתיםKAV'UHA BI'TECHIYAS HA'MESIM- [the members of the Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah, who composed the Shemoneh Esreh,] established [that one should recite Mashiv ha'Ru'ach u'Morid ha'Geshem] in Techiyas ha'Mesim (the second Berachah of Shemoneh Esreh)

3)[line 8]"יערף כמטר לקחי תזל כטל אמרתי""YA'AROF KA'MATAR LIKCHI, TIZAL KA'TAL IMRASI"- "My bequest (i.e., the Torah) shall drip as the rain, my utterance shall flow like dew..." (Devarim 32:2)

4)[line 8]"והורדו זקני העיר ההוא את העגלה אל נחל איתן אשר לא יעבר בו ולא יזרע וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל""V'HORIDU ZIKNEI HA'IR HA'HU ES HA'EGLAH EL NACHAL EISAN ASHER LO YA'AVOR BO V'LO YIZARE'A V'ARFU SHAM ES HA'EGLAH B'NACHAL"- "And the elders of that town shall take the calf down to a hard (infertile) valley which has not been worked on or sown, and there in the valley they shall break the calf's neck." (Devarim 21:4) - See below, entry #13.

5)[line 10]"כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם תורתי אל תעזובו""KI LEKACH TOV NASATI LA'CHEM; TORASI AL TA'AZOVU"- "For I have given you a fine acquisition; do not desert my Torah." (Mishlei 4:2)

6)[line 12]מי נתלה במיMI NITLEH B'MI?- what is compared to what?

7)[line 15]הגוןHAGUN- who acts in a befitting manner

8)[line 15]עורפהו כמטרORFEIHU K'MATAR- (a) let him be killed through Heavenly means (RASHI); (b) desert him, like rain [that ceases to fall in the summer] (MAHARSHA)

9)[line 17]לשמהLI'SHMAH- (a) in order to fulfill HaSh-m's command (RASHI); (b) out of love for HaSh-m (TOSFOS HA'ROSH to Yoma 72b)

10)[line 17]סםSAM- a potion

11)[line 19]"רפאות תהי לשרך [ושקוי לעצמותיך]""RIF'US TEHI L'SHARECHA, [V'SHIKUY L'ATZMOSECHA.]"- "It shall be health for your stomach [and marrow for your bones.]" (Mishlei 3:8)

12)[line 20]שלא לשמהSHE'LO LI'SHMAH- with impure intent, such as (a) in order to be honored (RASHI); (b) in order to show up others (TOSFOS DH v'Chol); (c) out of fear that HaSh-m will otherwise punish him (TOSFOS HA'ROSH to Yoma 72b)

13)[line 22]"וערפו שם את העגלה בנחל""V'ARFU SHAM ES HA'EGLAH BA'NACHAL" (EGLAH ARUFAH)

(a)See above, entry #4.

(b)If a Jew is found murdered in a field in Eretz Yisrael and the murderer is unknown, an Eglah Arufah is required to atone for his death (Devarim 21:1).

(c)Five elders from the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the supreme court which sat in the Beis ha'Mikdash) measure the distances between the body and the surrounding cities in order to determine to which of them it is closest.

(d)The elders of that city then bring a female calf which has never been performed any labor to a Nachal Eisan. This is either a valley with infertile soil (RASHI) or a swiftly flowing stream (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2). (By taking a calf that had not produced offspring, and breaking its neck in a valley that had not produced fruit, the people atone for the death of the murdered man who was prevented from producing fruit.) They strike the back of its neck with a cleaver (Arifah), severing its spinal column, gullet, and windpipe. Afterward, no one may derive any benefit from the dead calf.

(e)The elders then wash their hands and declare, "Our hands did not spill this blood, nor did our eyes see [the murder]" (Devarim 21:7). This proclamation carries with it the assertion that the dead man had been sent from their city with both provisions for his journey and accompaniment. The Kohanim present then beseech, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). Following the procedure of the Eglah Arufah, HaSh-m forgives his nation for the innocent blood that had been spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).

14)[line 23]ליתי מר ליתניLEISI MAR LISNI- come, Mar (a third-person term of respect), and learn [Torah]

15)[line 24]חלש לבאיCHALASH LIBA'I- my heart is weak

16)[line 25]דאגדתאAGADTA- the homiletic discussions of the Gemara

17)[line 26]"[כי תצור אל עירימים רבים...] כי ממנו תאכל ואתו לא תכרת כי האדם עץ השדה [לבא מפניך במצור. רק עץ אשר תדע...] אתו תשחית וכרת""[KI SATZUR EL IR YAMIM RABIM...] KI MI'MENU SOCHEL, V'OSO LO SICHROS; KI HA'ADAM ETZ HA'SADEH [LA'VO MI'PANECHA BA'MATZOR. RAK ETZ ASHER TEDA...] OSO SASCHIS V'CHARATA..."- "[When you besiege a city for many days so as to wage war against it and seize it, do not wield an ax against its [fruit] tree to destroy it,] for you gain food from it, and you should not cut it down. For is a tree of the field a man, [that it must suffer a siege? Rather, a tree which you are certain does not produce fruit] shall you destroy and cut down [in order to lay siege to the city which is waging war against you until it is subdued.]" (Devarim 20:19-20) - The phrase "Ki ha'Adam Etz ha'Sadeh" appears to equate a person and a tree.

18a)[line 29]ממנו תאכלMI'MENU SOCHEL- learn Torah from him

b)[line 30]ואותו לא תכרתV'OSO LO SICHROS- and do not leave him

19)[line 31]"ברזל בברזל יחד [ואיש יחד פני רעהו]""BARZEL B'VARZEL YACHAD; [V'ISH YACHAD PNEI RE'EHU]"- "Iron sharpens iron; [so one person sharpens another.]" (Mishlei 27:17)

20)[line 32]אחד מחדד את חבירוECHAD MECHADED ES CHAVEIRO- one [iron implement, such as a knife] sharpens another. The MAHARSHA explains that the reason why this derivation is mentioned in our Gemara is that it qualifies what was written earlier regarding learning Torah she'Lo Lishmah. When Talmidei Chachamim argue with each other so as to sharpen each other's learning, this is not considered Torah she'Lo Lishmah. Alternatively, this serves as an introduction to the Gemara following, which states that a Rebbi gains from his student, who sharpens his learning. This then leads to the statement that if a Talmid is fitting, his Rebbi should go to him in order to teach him Torah. This certainly belongs in our Sugya, due to its similarity to the above lesson regarding a Talmid Chacham who does or does not act in a befitting manner (M. KORNFELD).

21)[line 34]"הלוא כה דברי כאש נאם ה' וכפטיש יפצץ סלע""HA'LO KOH DEVARI KA'ESH NE'UM HASH-M, UCHE'PATISH YEFOTZETZ SELA" - "Are My words not like fire, says HaSh-m, and like a pick-ax [or a hammer] that smashes a rock?" (Yirmeyahu 23:29) (THE WORD OF HASH-M COME LIKE FIRE)

(a)The Navi is referring to false prophets who relate to their dreams as if they were prophesies, and present them to the people as such.

(b)After stating that their dreams to prophetic ones are as stubble is to corn, he goes on to explain that prophetic dreams are unique in that the dream of a Navi burns inside him like a fire (i.e. it has a deep emotional effect on him) and breaks him like a pick-axe breaks up a rock. This leaves him with the urge to tell it to the people (for the fire to abate [unlike a regular dream, which is quickly forgotten]).

22)[line 34]אינו דולק יחידיEINO DOLEK YECHIDI- does not [easily] alight upon a single [stick]

23)[line 36]שונאיהן של תלמידי חכמיםSON'EIHEM SHEL TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM- lit. those who hate Talmidei Chachamim; this is a euphemism for Talmidei Chachamim themselves

24)[line 36]בד בבדBAD B'VAD- by themselves

25)[line 37]שמטפשיןMETAFSHIN- become foolish

26)[line 36]"חרב על הבדים ונואלו חרב אל גיבוריה וחתו""CHEREV EL HA'BADIM V'NO'ALU CHEREV EL GIBOREHA VA'CHATU" - "A sword on the sorcerers and they will become foolish, a sword to their strong men and they will be broken." (Yirmeyahu 50:36) (THE DESTRUCTION OF BAVEL)

Notwithstanding the Gemara's Derashah, the verse is actually speaking about the downfall of Bavel. First, the Navi refers to the destruction of Bavel, its inhabitants, its princes, and its wise men, and then to the destruction of its sorcerers, and finally to the destruction of its horses, riders, and the mixed multitude of residents that dwelt within its walls.

27)[line 38]"ויאמר אהרן אל משה בי אדני אל נא תשת עלינו חטאת אשר נואלנו ואשר חטאנו""VA'YOMER AHARON EL MOSHE BI ADONI AL NA TASHES ALEINU CHATAS ASHER NO'ALNU VA'ASHER CHATANU" - "And Aharon said to Moshe, 'Please, my master, do not hold a grudge against us for having been foolish and for having sinned." (Bamidbar 12:11) (WHEN AHARON AND MIRIAM SPOKE AGAINST MOSHE)

(a)Aharon and Miriam criticized Moshe for having separated from his wife, Tziporah. They argued that they were prophets as well, and yet they had not separated from their respective spouses.

(b)After HaSh-m explained to them Moshe's superiority over all other prophets (including themselves), and He struck Miriam (who seems to have been primarily responsible for the above criticism) with Tzara'as, Aharon made the above comment.

28)[line 39]"נואלו שרי צאן נשאו שרי נף התעו את מצרים פנת שבטיה""NO'ALU SAREI TZO'AN NIS'U SAREI NOF, HIS'U ES MITZRAYIM PINAS SHEVATEHAH"- "The princes of Tzo'an [the capital of Egypt] have become foolish the princes of Nof [another name for Egypt] have been led astray, the heads of its tribes have [mis]led it to believe that they would defeat their enemies." (Yeshayah 19:13) - The Navi makes this statement in connection with the downfall and exile of Egypt at the hand of Sancheriv, King of Assyria.

29)[line 44]"לקראת צמא התיו מים ישבי ארץ תימא בלחמו קדמו נדד""LIKRAS TZAMEI HEISEYU MAYIM YOSHVEI ARETZ TEMA B'LACHMO KIDMU NODED" - "They brought water to the thirsty ones, the inhabitants of the land of Teima, they greeted the wanderers with food." (Yeshayah 21:14) (THE TREACHERY OF YISHMAEL)

(a)The Jewish people were in chains, on their way to the Babylonian exile, when they passed the Bnei Yishmael. It was the height of summer, and they were starving and thirsty. The Yishmaelim appeared to sympathize with their poor cousins, and brought food and flasks to the captives. The Jewish people ate the salty food, which sharply increased their thirst. When they then opened the flasks to drink, the hot air rushed into their parched lungs. Many died, and those who survived suffered terribly.

(b)In the context of our Gemara, this verse in interpreted homiletically. Since the Torah is compared to water, we see that Torah learning ought to be brought to those who thirst for it.

30)[line 44]"הוי כל צמא לכו למים ואשר אין לו כסף לכו שברו ואכלו ולכו שברו בלוא כסף ובלוא מחיר יין וחלב""HOY! KOL TZAMEI, LECHU L'MAYIM; VA'ASHER EIN LO KASEF, LECHU, SHIVRU VE'ECHOLU; U'LECHU, SHIVRU B'LO KESEF UV'LO MECHIR YAYIN V'CHALAV."- "Hoy! All who are thirsty go to water; and he who has no money, go, purchase and eat; go, and purchase wine and milk for free and without cost!" (Yeshayah 55:1) - This verse, which describes purchasing items of value for free, refers to Torah, which one may acquire without having to pay for it.

31)[line 46]"יפוצו מעינותיך חוצה [ברחבות פלגי מים]""YAFUTZU MA'AYENOSECHA CHUTZAH, [BA'RECHOVOS PALGEI MAYIM]"- "Your springs should diffuse outward, [in the streets of pools of water.]" (Mishlei 5:16)

32)[line 49]מניחיןMANICHIN- leave

33)[line 49]נמוךNAMUCH- low

34)[line 49]במי שדעתו שפלהMI SHE'DA'ATO SHEFELAH- one who is humble

35)[line 52]בפחות שבכליםPACHOS SHEB'KELIM- the least [valuable] of vessels; that is, earthenware vessels

36)[line 53]ברתיה דקיסרBERATEI D'KEISAR- the daughter of the Caesar

37)[line 53]אי חכמה מפוארה בכלי מכוערIY, CHOCHMAH MEFU'ARAH BI'CHLI MECHU'AR!- Woe, [such] glorious wisdom in [such an] an ugly vessel!

38)[line 53]רמי חמרא במני דפחראRAMI CHAMRA B'MANEI D'FACHRA- stores his wine in earthenware utensils

39)[line 54]אתון דחשביתוATUN D'CHASHVISU- you (the royal family), who are dignified

40a)[line 54]דהבאDAHAVA- gold

b)[line 54]וכספאCHASPA- silver

41)[line 55]ותקיףTAKIF- it became vinegar

42)[last line]קריוהוKARYUHU- they called [Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananya to appear before the Caesar]

43)[last line]שפירי דגמיריSHAPIREI DI'GEMIREI- handsome individuals who are learned


44a)[line 1]אי הוו סנוIY HAVU SANU- (a) had they been ugly (RASHI); (b) if they would have loathed [their handsome appearance] (TOSFOS)

b)[line 1]טפי הוו גמיריTEFEI HAVU GEMIREI- they would have been more learned

45a)[line 2]אין נפסלין אלא בהיסח הדעתEIN NIFSALIN ELA B'HEISACH HA'DA'AS- only become ruined when one pays no attention to them [as opposed to, for example, oil or honey, which do not spill easily, and from the surface of which one can easily skim garbage that has fallen upon them]

b)[line 3]אין משתכחין אלא בהיסח הדעתEIN MISHTAKCHIN ELA B'HEISACH HA'DA'AS- are only forgotten when one pays no attention to them [and does not review them]

46)[line 6]"הרעיפו שמים ממעל""HAR'IFU SHAMAYIM MI'MA'AL"- "Drip, O heavens, from above, and may benevolence flow from the skies; the earth should open and increase salvation, and generosity will sprout as well; I, HaSh-m, have created it." (Yeshayah 45:8)

47a)[line 8]בראתים לא נאמרBERASIM LO NE'EMAR- the verse does not say, "[... I, HaSh-m,] have created them" [which would imply (a) the skies (RASHI); (b) the heavens and earth (TOSFOS DH Berasim)]

b)[line 9]אלא בראתיוELA BERASIV- but rather, "[... I, HaSh-m,] have created it" [which implies that the rain is the part of the creation that HaSh-m takes the most pride in]

48)[line 10]פרה ורבהPARAH V'RAVAH- multiplies

49)[line 11]"רצית ה' ארצך...""RATZISA, HASH-M, ARTZECHA..."- "You have shown favor, HaSh-m, to your land [by depositing rain upon it]; you have returned the captives of [the descendants of] Yakov. You have borne the iniquity of your people; you have pardoned all of their sins, Selah." (Tehilim 85:2-3)

50)[line 13]"ואתה תשמע השמים וסלחת לחטאת עמך ישראל והשבתם אל האדמה אשר נתת לאבותם""VE'ATAH TISHMA HA'SHAMAYIM..." - "And You will listen in the heavens and forgive the sins of Your people Yisrael, and You will return them to the land that You gave to their fathers." (Melachim I 8:34) (SHLOMO HA'MELECH'S PRAYER)

See Background to Rosh Hashanah 8:22.

51)[line 13]מדיהבתDIHAVAS- the name of a place

52a)[line 13]אתון מהכא מתניתו להATUN ME'HACHA MASNISU LAH- [whereas] you derive this lesson from that [source]

b)[line 13]אנן מהכא מתנינן להANAN ME'HACHAH MASNINAN LAH- we derive it from this [one]

53)[line 15]שונאיהן של ישראלSON'EIHEN SHEL YISRAEL- lit. those who hate Yisrael; this is a euphemism for Klal Yisrael themselves

54)[line 16]כליהKELAYAH- destruction

55)[line 16]"ציה גם חום יגזלו מימי שלג שאול חטאו""TZIYAH GAM CHOM YIGZELU MEIMEI SHELEG; SHE'OL CHATA'U."- "Both drought and heat steal the water [that flows from the] snow; [so does] Gehinom [consume] those who have sinned." (Iyov 24:19) - The Gemara interprets this verse as, "Both drought and heat steal the water [that flows from the] snow due to that which Klal Yisrael have sinned to the point that they deserve Gehinom."

56)[line 19]תרומות ומעשרותTERUMOS U'MA'ASROS

(a)After one's crop is harvested and brought to his house or yard, he must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify an amount that must be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at between one fortieth and one sixtieth of the total crop.

(b)Once Terumah is separated from the produce, the first tithe is separated. One tenth of the remaining produce is given to a Levi; this is known as Ma'aser Rishon. The Levi, in turn, separates one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon and give it to a Kohen. This is called Terumas Ma'aser (Bamidbar 18:26).

(c)Once Terumah Gedolah and Ma'aser Rishon have been separated from the crop, it is time to separate the second tithe. In the third and sixth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle this tithe is called Ma'aser Ani, and it is given to the poor.

(d)During the first, second, fourth and fifth years of the seven-year Shemitah cycle, the second tithe is called Ma'aser Sheni. Ma'aser Sheni must be brought to Yerushalayim and eaten there while one is in a state of purity (Devarim 13:22-28).

(e)Until Terumah and Ma'asros have been properly separated, the produce is termed "Tevel" and may not be eaten. The word "Tevel" means a mixture, and can be used to refer to any produce that one is required to separate part of, such as dough from which one must separate Chalah. If one intentionally eats Tevel, then he receives Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (see Background to Sukah 25:25).

(f)Mid'Orasia, one need only separate Terumos and Ma'asros from the five species of grain (wheat, barley, spelt, oats, and rye), grapes, and olives. The Rabanan, however, instituted that one must separate Terumos and Ma'asros from all edible produce.

57)[line 20]שצויתיSHE'TZIVISI- that I have commanded. This is a play on the word "Tziyah" in the verse quoted above (see above, entry #55).

58)[line 20]בימות החמהBI'YEMOS HA'CHAMAH- in the summer (which is the time of the harvest, and hence the time to separate Terumos and Ma'asros)

59)[line 22]"רוח צפון תחולל גשם ופנים נזעמים לשון סתר""RU'ACH TZAFON TECHOLEL GASHEM, U'FANIM NIZ'AMIM LESHON SASER."- "Just as a northerly wind brings rain, gossip spoken in secret results in an angry face." (Mishlei 25:23) - The Gemara interprets this verse as, "A northerly wind chases away the rain clouds due to those who gossip."

60)[line 24]עזי פניםAZEI PANIM- those who are brazen

61)[line 24]"וימנעו רביבים ומלקוש לוא היה ומצח אשה זונה היה לך מאנת הכלם...""VA'YIMAN'U REVIVIM..." - "The early rain has been withheld, and there have been no late rains; yet you have the brazenness (lit. forehead) of a harlot, [refusing to be ashamed.]" (Yirmeyahu 3:3) (YISRAEL KNEW NO SHAME)

(a)A person tends to feel shame and embarrassment when his sins are exposed. A harlot feels no shame, by virtue of her "profession." That is why the Navi refers to "the forehead," or "brazenness," of a harlot.

(b)Consequently, the Metzudas David explains, Yirmeyahu - when he rebukes Yisrael prior to the Churban - compares them to a harlot due to their refusal to be embarrassed, even though the total lack of rain exposed them as sinners.

62)[line26]נכשלNICHSHAL- stumbles

63)[line 27]בידועB'YADU'A- one can be certain

64)[line 28]"העז איש רשע בפניו [וישר הוא יבין דרכו]""HE'EZ ISH RASHA B'FANAV, [V'YASHAR HU YAVIN DARKO]"- "A wicked man loses control and demonstrates his brazenness when he becomes angry, [but one who is upright carefully considers his way at all times.]" (Mishlei 21:29) - The Gemara interprets this verse as, "It is permitted to call a brazen person a 'Rasha' to his face...."

65)[line 28]"כי נר מצוה ותורה אור ודרך חיים תוכחות מוסר""KI NER MITZVAH V'TORAH OR V'DERECH CHAYIM TOCHACHOS MUSAR" - "For Mitzvah is a lamp, but Torah is light, and reproving discipline is the way of life." (Mishlei 6:23) (THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A LAMP AND LIGHT)

(a)Just as the light of a lamp is contingent upon a wick and oil, so does a Mitzvah protect the performer only while he is performing it. In contrast, just as daylight is constant, so does Torah protect whoever learns it even when he is not actually learning it.

(b)In addition, the light of the sun is brighter than that of a thousand lamps, and, likewise, Chazal have taught that Torah-study is equal to all of the Mitzvos.

66)[line 29]"[חכמת אדם תאיר פניו] ועז פניו ישנא""[CHOCHMAS ADAM TA'IR PANAV,] V'OZ PANAV YESHUNEI"- "[... the wisdom of a man lights up his face,] and the strength of his face improves." (Koheles 8:1) - Our Gemara understands "v'Oz" ("the strength") to mean "v'Az" ("the brazenness") since it is spelled without a "Vav."

67)[line 31]"בעצלתים ימך המקרה...""BA'ATZALTAYIM YIMACH HA'MEKAREH..."- "Through laziness the roof beams will collapse; [and through idleness of the hands the house will leak.]" (Koheles 10:18)

68)[line 32]שונאו של הקדוש ברוך הואSON'O SHEL HA'KADOSH BARUCH HU- lit. He who hates HaSh-m; this is a euphemism for HaSh-m Himself

69)[line 33]"מך הוא מערכך...""V'IM MACH HU ME'ERKECHA..." (ERECH)

(a)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether himself or another - to Hekdesh, there are two ways to do so. The first is to appraise him based upon how much he would fetch on the slave market. This takes into account factors such as physical strength, trade skills, health, etc. This is known as the Damim - worth - of a person.

(b)In addition, every individual has a Torah value, known as an "Erech." An Erech (endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alai" - "I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so [to Hekdesh]," he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8. It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.

(c)If one wishes to pledge the value of an individual - whether his own or that of someone else:

1.For ages 1 month to 5 years - the Erech for males is 5 Shekalim and for females is 3 Shekalim

2.For ages 5 years to 20 years - the Erech for males is 20 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

3.For ages 20 yrs. to 60 years - the Erech for males is 50 Shekalim and for females is 30 Shekalim

4.For ages 60 years and older - the Erech for males is 15 Shekalim and for females is 10 Shekalim

(d)The value of an Erech is negotiable. The Torah states, "But if he is too poor to afford your estimation, [then the subject of the pledge shall be made to stand before the Kohen, and the Kohen shall reevaluate him; the Kohen shall evaluate him according to what he who pledged can afford]" (Vayikra 27:8). Our Gemara interprets the word "Yimach" in the aforementioned verse to mean that HaSh-m becomes, as it were, unable to "afford" rain.

70)[line 33]"המקרה במים עליותיו...""HA'MEKAREH VA'MAYIM ALIYOSAV..."- "He Who lays the beams of His attic upon the upper water; [Who fashions His chariot from the clouds; Who travels upon the wings of the wind.]" (Tehilim 104:3)

71)[line 34]"ועתה לא ראו אור בהיר הוא בשחקים ורוח עברה ותטהרם""V'ATAH LO RA'U OR; BAHIR HU BA'SHECHAKIM V'RU'ACH AVRAH VA'TETAHAREM."- "And now they did not see light; they are as clouds in the skies that were blown away by the wind." (Iyov 37:21) - This verse characterizes the inability of Iyov's three friends to answer his questions regarding the way in which HaSh-m had dealt with him.

72)[line 37]בהורין בהוריןBEHORIN BEHORIN- blotches [of clouds]

73)[line 38]"על כפים כסה אור ויצו עליה במפגיע""AL KAPAYIM KISAH OR, VA'YETZAV ALEHA B'MAFGI'A."- "He covers His hands with lightning, and instructs it where to strike." (Iyov 36:32)

74)[line 39]חמסCHAMAS- robbery

75)[line 39]"ויתכסו שקים האדם והבהמה ויקראו אל אלקים בחזקה וישבו איש מדרכו הרעה ומן החמס אשר בכפיהם""VA'YISKASU SAKIM HA'ADAM VEHA'BEHEMAH V'YIKRE'U EL ELOKIM B'CHAZKAH V'YASHUVU ISH MI'DARKO HA'RA'AH U'MIN HE'CHAMAS ASHER B'CHAPEIHEM" - "And the men and animals covered themselves in sackcloth, and vigorously called out to HaSh-m; and each man repented from his evil ways and from the robbery that was in their palms."(Yonah 3:8) (THE GREAT CITY OF NINVEH REPENTS)

(a)The prophet Yonah was instructed by HaSh-m to inform the great city of Ninveh that, due to its numerous sins, the city would be overturned in three days' time. The residents of the city took the warning to heart. They organized a public fast wherein men, women, children, and even animals neither ate nor drank. HaSh-m saw that they repented sincerely, and He decided not to execute His dire warning.

(b)Genuine Teshuvah encompasses the mind, speech, and deed. In other words, it must affect one's thoughts regarding the past and future, and it requires verbal confession and practical improvement.

(c)That is when it concerns sins between man and HaSh-m. When it concerns sins between man and man, the process entails more, inasmuch as one is required to seek forgiveness from the person against whom one sinned. This is what the verse means when it states, "and from the robbery that was in their hands." They returned all stolen objects (even beams that they had built into their houses, as Chazal explain).

76)[line 40]"[אף ברי יטריח עבי] פיץ ענן אורו""[AF BERI YATRIA'CH AV;] YAFITZ ANAN ORO."- "[He also burdens the thick cloud with an abundance;] the cloud scatters its lightning." (Iyov 37:11)

77)[line 42]"ואתה אל תתפלל בעד העם הזה ועל תשא בעדם רנה ותפלה ואל תפגע בי כי אינני שמע אתך""V'ATAH AL TISPALEL B'AD HA'AM HA'ZEH V'AL TISA BA'ADAM RINAH U'SEFILAH V'AL TIFGA BI KI EINENI SHOME'A OSACH" - "And now, do not pray on behalf of this nation; [do not sing praises nor pray on their behalf,] and do not contact me, [for I shall not listen to you.]" (Yirmeyahu 7:16) (DO NOT PRAY ON BEHALF OF KLAL YISRAEL)

(a)HaSh-m did not feel inclined to answer the Navi's prayers on behalf of Yisrael, as long as Yisrael used the Beis ha'Mikdash as a sanctuary in which to pray for forgiveness for having stolen, murdered, committed adultery, sworn falsely and sacrificed to Ba'al, with the express intention of repeating the same sins the following day. They also indulged in all kinds of idolatry in order to anger HaSh-m.

(b)HaSh-m therefore decided categorically to banish them from their land. Nothing would stop Him from doing so.

78)[line 43]"אם קהה הברזל והוא לא פנים קלקל וחילים יגבר ויתרון הכשיר חכמה""IM KEHAH HA'BARZEL, V'HU LO FANIM KILKAL, VA'CHAYALIM YEGABER; V'YISRON HACHSHER CHOCHMAH."- "If the iron [of the weapons] is blunt, and one has not whetted its edge, then he must [still] rally the troops [to victory]; and wisdom has yet more aptitude [than iron]." (Koheles 10:10)

79)[line 44]מקולקליןMEKULKALIN- twisted [with sin]

80)[line 45]ברחמיםRACHAMIM- prayer

81)[last line]אם הוכשרו מעשיהן מעיקראIM HUCHSHERU MA'ASEIHEN ME'IKARA- if they had straightened their actions to begin with [and had needed to intervene afterward]