[5a - 40 lines; 5b - 50 lines]

1)[line 4]כדרך שמונה עשרה ימים מראש השנה עד יום הכפוריםK'DERECH SHE'MONEH ASARAH YAMIM ME'ROSH HASHANAH AD YOM HA'KIPURIM- the same way in which the ten days between Rosh Hashanah and Yom ha'Kipurim are counted. This implies either that (a) one should always count from the first day of Rosh Hashanah, since that is always the first of Tishrei; (b) if it happens that Beis Din in Yerushalayim added a thirtieth day to the previous Elul, then this count should begin from the second day of Elul. Yom ha'Kipurim is mentioned since it is always one day only, and therefore serves as a reliable barometer of which day was considered the first of Tishrei.

2)[line 9]"ויורד לכם גשם יורה ומלקוש בראשון""VA'YORED LACHEM GESHEM, MOREH U'MALKOSH BA'RISHON"- "... and He let rain down for you, both the early and late rain in the first [month]" (Yo'el 2:23).

3)[line 14]יואל בן פתואלYO'EL BEN PESU'EL- the prophet Yo'el, one of the 48 prophets whose prophecies have been recorded in Tanach

4)[line 14]"יתר הגזם אכל הארבה...""YESER HA'GAZAM ACHAL HA'ARBEH..."- "That which was left by the cutting locust was consumed by the swarming locust; that which was left by the swarming locust was consumed by the hopping locust; and that which was left by the hopping locust was consumed by the destroying locust" (Yo'el 1:4).

5)[line 15]רביעה ראשונהREVI'AH RISHONAH- the first wave of rain


1.1 Kur = 30 Se'ah

2.1 Se'ah = 6 Kav

3.1 Kav = 4 Log

4.1 Log = 64 Kortov

5.One Kav is the equivalent of 1.2, 1.38, or 2.4 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

7)[line 17]או יזרענו וימותO YIZRE'ENU V'YAMOS- or should we sow it and die [of hunger before it finishes maturing]?

8a)[line 18]ומה שבחוריMAH SHEB'CHORI- those [grain kernels] which were [hidden] in [mouse] holes

b)[line 18]ומה שבחורי נמליםMAH SHEB'CHOREI NEMALIM- those [grain kernels] which were [hidden] in ant holes

9)[line 19]שני ושלישי ורביעיSHENI U'SHELISHI U'REVI'I- the second, third, and fourth [of Nisan]

10)[line 20]עומרOMER (KORBAN HA'OMER)

(a)It is a Mitzvah to offer the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall following the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.2, 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is then kneaded and offered as a Korban Minchah on the sixteenth of Nisan, which is also known as the Yom ha'Nef (the day of waving). This is because Tenufah - waving in the four directions of the compass as well as up and down - is performed with this Minchah. (This Korban is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim - Vayikra 2:14-16). A lamb is offered as an Olah along with the Minchah (Vayikra 23:12).

(b)Chadash refers to grain that begins to take root after the Korban ha'Omer is brought on the second day of Pesach. This grain may not be eaten until the following year's Korban ha'Omer is offered (Vayikra 23:14). When there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash may not be eaten until after the second day of Pesach, which is when the Korban Omer would have been offered.

11)[line 20]הגדילה בששה חדשיםHA'GEDEILAH B'SHISHAH CHODASHIM- that [normally requires] six months to grow

12)[line 22]"הזורעים בדמעה ברנה יקצרו. הלך ילך ובכה נושא משך הזרע בא יבוא ברנה נשא אלמתיו""HA'ZOR'IM B'DIM'AH B'RINAH YIKTZORU. HALOCH YELECH U'VACHOH, NOSEI MESHECH HA'ZARA; BO YAVO B'RINAH, NOSEI ALUMOSAV"- Those who sow in tears shall reap in joy. He walks along crying, carrying the yield of the seed; he shall surely come in joy, carrying his bundles [of grain]" (Tehilim 126:5-6).

13)[line 24]חורשCHORESH- plow

14)[line 25]חזיזCHAZIZ- tender shoots of grain

15)[line 25]התלםTELEM- furrow

16a)[line 26]קנה זרתKANEH ZERES- the stalk was one Zeres long

b)[line 26]שיבולת זרתיםSHIBOLES ZERASAYIM- the spike (consisting of the kernels and chaff) of grain was two Zerasayim long. One Zeres is the distance measured between the thumb and pinky (Zeres) of an open hand, and is equal to (a) half an Amah (three Tefachim), approximately 24 cm (9.45 in) or 28.8 cm (11.34 in), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions (RAMBAM Klei ha'Mikdash 9:6); (b) one third of an Amah, approximately 16 cm (6.3 in) or 19.2 (7.56 in), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions (Rebbi Eliezer ha'Kalir quoted by TOSFOS Eruvin 21a DH Echad). This proportion was an additional component of the miracle, as a normal wheat stalk is three to four times longer than the spike.

17a)[line 29]בהמה טהורהBEHEMAH TEHORAH- kosher animals

b)[line 30]בהמה טמאהBEHEMAH TEME'AH- non-kosher animals

c)[line 30]שקצים ורמשיםSHEKATZIM U'REMASIM- scampering animals (such as Sheratzim; see Background to Shekalim 21:44) including rodents, reptiles, and insects

18)[line 31]בשר בניהם ובנותיהםBASAR BENEIHEM U'VENOSEIHEM- [some were reduced to eating] the flesh of [some of] their [own] sons and daughters (see RASHI and MAHARSHA)

19)[line 31]בשר זרועותיהםBASAR ZERO'OSEIHEM- [some were reduced to eating] the flesh of [some of] their [own] forearms (see RASHI and MAHARSHA)

20)[line 34]לא אבוא בירושלים של מעלה עד שאבוא לירושלים של מטהLO AVO B'YERUSHALAYIM SHEL MA'ALEH AD SHE'AVO LI'YERUSHALAYIM SHEL MATEH- Our Gemara interprets the verse as follows: "Until the interior of the earthly Yerushalayim is holy, I shall not enter the heavenly Yerushalayim."

21)[line 35]"ירושלם הבנויה כעיר שחוברה לה יחדיו""YERUSHALAYIM HA'BENUYAH K'IR SHE'CHUBRAH LAH YACHDAV"- "The rebuilt Yerushalayim is like a city attached together" (Tehilim 122:3) - Our Gemara reads this verse as, "The rebuilt Yerushalayim is like the city already attached together." As there is no city comparable to Yerushalayim here on earth, it must be referring to a heavenly equivalent.

22)[line 36]"ובאחת יבערו ויכסלו מוסר הבלים עץ הוא""UV'ACHAS YIV'ARU V'YICHSALU; MUSAR HAVALIM, ETZ HU"- "And on one [issue] they will be boors and fools; reproach is useless, as they are [as impervious to it as] wood" (Yirmeyahu 10:8).

23)[line 38]"הבל המה מעשה תעתועים""HEVEL HEMAH, MA'ASEH TA'ATU'IM"- "They are useless, mistaken creations..." (Yirmeyahu 10:15) - This verse refers to idols.

24)[last line]עשרין וארבע שביקא להו!ESRIN V'ARBA SHEVIKA LEHU!- it has left [(a) the full list of] twenty-four [major transgressions of the Jewish people (Yechezkel 22); (b) all of the many transgressions detailed in the] twenty-four [books of Tanach]!


25)[line 1]שקולהSHEKULAH- the equivalent of

26)[line 1]"כי שתים רעות עשה עמי אותי עזבו מקור מים חיים לחצוב להם בארות בארות נשברים נשברים [אשר לא יכלו המים]""KI SHETAYIM RA'OS ASAH AMI: OSI AZVU, MEKOR MAYIM CHAYIM, LA'CHTZOV LAHEM BOROS, BOROS NISHBARIM [ASHER LO YACHILU HA'MAYIM]"- "For My nation has committed two evils: they have deserted me, the source of living water, in favor of digging wells, broken wells [which cannot hold water]" (Yirmeyahu 2:13).

27)[line 4]"כי עברו איי כתיים וראו וקדר שלחו והתבוננו מאד; וראו הן היתה כזאת. ההימיר גוי אלהים, והמה לא אלהים; ועמי המיר כבודו בלוא יועיל""KI IVRU IYEI CHITIYIM U'RE'U, V'KEDAR SHILCHU V'HISBONENU ME'OD; U'RE'U, HEN HAYESAH KA'ZOS? HA'HEMIR GOY ELOHIM ,V'HEMAH LO ELOHIM! V'AMI HEMIR KEVODO B'LO YO'IL"- "When they (members of Klal Yisrael) travel to the islands of Chitiyim to observe, and they send [representatives] to Kedar to watch intently; take note, has such a thing ever occurred? Does a nation switch its allegiance from its god? And those are not gods! And yet My nation has switched My honor for that which is helpless!" (Yirmeyahu 2:10-11).

28)[line 11]"ויהי כאשר זקן שמואל וישם את בניו שפטים לישראל. ויהי שם בנו הבכור יואל ושם משנהו אביה שפטים בבאר שבע. ולא הלכו בניו בדרכיו ויטו אחרי הבצע ויקחו שחד ויטו משפט""VA'YEHI KA'ASHER ZAKEN SHMUEL VA'YASEM ES BANAV SHOFTIM L'YISRAEL. VA'YEHI SHEM BENO HA'BECHOR YO'EL, V'SHEM MISHNEHU AVIYAH, SHOFTIM BI'VE'ER SHAVA. V'LO HALCHU BANAV BI'DERACHAV, VA'YITU ACHAREI HA'BATZA VA'YIKCHU SHOCHAD VA'YATU MISHPAT" - "And it came to pass, when Shmuel became old, he appointed his sons judges over Yisrael. The name of his firstborn was Yo'el and the name of his second son, Aviyah, [both were] judges in Be'er Sheva. But his sons did not go in his ways; they turned to monetary gains, thereby twisting justice" (Shmuel I 8:1-3) (SHMUEL APPOINTS HIS SONS AS JUDGES)

(a)The Navi records how Elkanah had children from his wife Peninah, but not from his beloved wife Chanah, who was initially barren. Through Tefilah, however, Chanah merited to have children, the most well-known of whom was Shmuel ha'Navi. The "Tza'ar" to which the Gemara refers is the fact that Shmuel's children did not go in his ways.

(b)Chazal explain that the "monetary gains" and bribes mentioned in the verse cannot be taken literally. What they actually did was to avoid taking their cue from their righteous father (who would constantly travel from town to town judging the people). Rather, they remained in their hometown so that the people were forced to come to them. The reason that they did so was to ensure that those who worked for the Beis Din received a higher salary.

29)[line 11]סיבSIV- old

30)[line 13]שמואל הרמתיSHMUEL HA'RAMASI- Shmuel ha'Navi, who lived in Ramasayim Tzofim (Mount Efrayim to the north of Yerushalayim; also known as Ramah)

31)[line 14]זקנה קפצה עליוZIKNAH KAFTZAH ALAV- he aged suddenly

32)[line 15]"נחמתי כי המלכתי את שאול למלך כי שב מאחרי ואת דברי לא הקים; ויחר לשמואל ויזעק אל ה' כל הלילה""NICHAMTI KI HIMLACHTI ES SHA'UL L'MELECH KI SHAV ME'ACHARAI V'ES DEVARAI LO HEKIM; VA'YICHAR L'SHMUEL VA'YIZ'AK EL HASH-M KOL HA'LAILAH" - "I regret that I crowned Shaul as king, for he has turned from Me, and he did not fulfill My command. Shmuel was aggrieved (by this) and he cried out to HaSh-m the entire night" (Shmuel I 15:11) (SHAUL FORFEITS THE RIGHT TO RULE)

(a)Shaul ha'Melech was commanded by HaSh-m through Shmuel ha'Navi to go to war against Amalek. He was instructed to wipe out the entire nation, including every man, woman and child, as well as every ox, lamb, camel, and donkey.

(b)Shaul suffered an internal conflict over the command to slaughter those whom he perceived as innocent people. He therefore took pity on the sheep of Amalek, allowing his soldiers to take them in order to sacrifice them to HaSh-m. In addition, Shaul held back from killing Agag, king of Amalek. The Rishonim and Acharonim discuss what exactly the sin of Shaul was; see Insights to Yoma 22:2).

(c)HaSh-m immediately notified Shmuel ha'Navi that Shaul had forfeited the kingship as a result of his actions. The implication of this message was that Shaul was to die immediately.

33)[line 16]שקלתניSHIKALTANI- You have equated me

34)[line 17]"משה ואהרן בכהניו ושמואל בקוראי שמו...""MOSHE V'AHARON B'CHOHANAV, U'SHMUEL B'KOR'EI SHEMO..."- "Moshe and Aharon among his Kohanim, and Shmuel among those who call His name..." (Tehilim 99:6) - This verse equates Shmuel ha'Navi to Moshe and Aharon.

35)[line 18]לא בטלו מעשה ידיהם בחייהםLO BITLU MA'ASEH YEDEIHEM B'CHAYEIHEM- their (lit. handiwork) primary student (Yehoshua) did not pass away in their lifetime

36)[line 21]שביקSHAVIK- allow

37a)[line 21]אדזוטרAD'ZUTAR- since he is young

b)[line 22]מרנני אבתריהMERANENEI A'BASREI- people will speak ill of him [falsely assuming that he must have died as a result of his sins]

38)[line 24]כמלא נימאMELO NIMA- a hairsbreadth

39)[line 26]"ושאול יושב בגבעה תחת האשל ברמה""V'SHA'UL YOSHEV BA'GIV'AH TACHAS HA'ESHEL BA'RAMAH"- "... and Shaul was sitting in the hill underneath a tamarisk tree upon the height" (Mount Efrayim; see above, entry #30) (Shmuel I 22:6). The hill upon which Shaul lived is identified by Chazal as Giv'as Binyamin. This is currently the area of Tel Al Ful, located to the right of the road between French Hill and Neveh Yakov in northern Jerusalem.

40)[line 30]ומי מידחי גברא מקמי גברא?U'MI MIDCHI GAVRA MEKAMEI GAVRA?- does one person (Shmuel) indeed die as a result of [the needs of] another (David)?

41)[line 31]"על כן חצבתי בנביאים הרגתים באמרי פי...""AL KEN CHATZAVTI BA'NEVI'IM, HARAGTIM B'IMREI FI..."- "Therefore, [because] I have made my words clear through the prophets [and you have ignored them], I have slain them due to these utterances of My mouth" (Hoshea 6:5) - Our Gemara understands that this verse hints to occasions in which HaSh-m kills due not to sins, but because of other extenuating circumstances.

42)[line 35]יתביYASVEI- sitting

43)[line 37]מסיחיןMESICHIN- converse

44)[line 37]שמא יקדים קנה לושטSHEMA YAKDIM KANEH LA'VESHET- perhaps the trachea will precede the esophagus; i.e., perhaps food will enter his windpipe

45)[line 38]יעקב אבינו לא מתYAAKOV AVINU LO MES- Yakov Avinu did not die (see Insights)

46a)[line 39]וכי בכדי ספדו ספדנייא?V'CHI BI'CHDI SAFDU SAFDENAYA?- did they eulogize (Yakov Avinu) for no reason?

b)[line 39]וחנטו חנטייאV'CHANTU CHANATAYA- and embalm

c)[line 39]וקברו קברייאKAVRU KIVRAYA- and bury

47)[line 40]תחתTECHAS- fear

48)[line 41]מארץ שביםME'ERETZ SHIVYAM- from the land where they are held captive. Although HaSh-m will resuscitate the dead at the time of Mashi'ach as well, this verse clearly refers only to those descendants of Yaakov Avinu who are living, as the dead cannot be held captive.

49)[line 41]מקישMAKISH (HEKESH)

(a)One of the methods employed by Chazal when determining Halachah from the verses of the Torah is "Hekesh." A Hekesh entails comparing two subjects that are mentioned together in one verse or neighboring verses.

(b)A Hekesh is a powerful way of determining Halachah. When two subjects are compared through a Hekesh, all possible parallels are drawn between them, unless a different Derashah teaches us otherwise ("Ein Hekesh l'Mechetzah"). Additionally, Pirchos (logical differences) that would impede a Kal va'Chomer (see next entry) or a Gezeirah Shavah (see Background to Sanhedrin 87:5) do not stand in the way of learning one subject from another through a Hekesh ("Ein Meshivin Al ha'Hekesh").

50)[line 42]רחבRACHAV

When Yehoshua was about to lead the conquest of Eretz Yisrael beginning with the fortified city of Yericho, he sent two spies to scout out the city. They met a woman innkeeper named Rachav who gave them lodgings for the night. When their presence was detected in the city, she hid them, and - after deflecting the government officials who were sent to her house to search for them - she helped them escape: "She lowered them by a rope through the window, for her house was built into the city wall, and she lived in the wall." Chazal describe her as one of the four most beautiful women to have ever lived. She converted to Judaism and married Yehoshua.

51)[line 42]נקריNIKRI- he would experience a seminal emission

52)[line 43]אנא אמינא ולא איכפת ליANA AMINA V'LO ICHPAS LI- I said it and it did not affect me

53)[line 43]ביודעה ובמכירהYOD'AH UV'MAKIRAH- (a) one who knows her (RASHI); (b) [both] one who had been intimate with her as well as one who [merely] knows her (TOSFOS DH b'Yod'ah)

54a)[line 44]כי הוו מיפטרי מהדדיKI HAVU MIFTERI ME'HADADI- when they took leave of one another

b)[line 44]אמר ליה ליברכן מרAMAR LEI LI'VARCHAN MAR- [Rav Nachman] said to [Rav Yitzchak], "May Mar (a third-person term of respect) please bless me"

55)[line 46]וצילוTZILO- its shade

56)[line 46]ואמת המיםAMAS HA'MAYIM- a channel of water

57)[last line]נטיעותNETI'OS- saplings