SOTAH 16 - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's father, Mr. David Kornfeld, in memory of the members of his family, Hashem Yikom Damam, who perished at the hands of the Nazi murderers in the Holocaust and whose Yahrzeit is observed on 4 Sivan: his mother (Mirel bas Yakov Mordechai), brothers (Shraga Feivel, Aryeh Leib and Yisachar Dov, sons of Mordechai), grandfather (Reb Yakov Mordechai ben Reb David [Shpira]) and aunt (Charne bas Yakov Mordechai [wife of Reb Moshe Aryeh Cohen z'l]).

[16a - 35 lines; 16b - 47 lines]

1)[line 1]שילה נוב וגבעון ובית עולמיםSHILOH, NOV V'GIV'ON U'VEIS OLAMIM

(a)BAMAH - A Bamah is a raised area used for sacrifices. Before the Beis ha'Mikdash was built in Yerushalayim (when the Mishkan was not in use), there were times when it was permitted to offer sacrifices on public altars (Bamas Tzibur or Bamah Gedolah) and private altars (Bamas Yachid) (see Insights to Pesachim 91:2).

(b)BAMAS TZIBUR - Only one public altar was in use at any particular time. At various times in our history, the Bamas Tzibur was in Gilgal (where the Mishkan stood before the land was completely conquered, until it was moved to Shiloh), Nov and Giv'on (after the Mishkan in Shiloh was destroyed, see Zevachim 112b). An individual could offer only voluntary sacrifices on a Bamas Tzibur. There is a difference of opinion among the Tana'im as to whether all communal sacrifices could be offered on a Bamas Tzibur or only the communal sacrifices that have a fixed time (Zevachim 117a).

(c)BAMAS YACHID - Any person, even if he was not a Kohen, could build a Bamas Yachid anywhere in Eretz Yisrael and offer upon it his personal sacrifices. Only voluntary sacrifices were allowed to be offered on a Bamas Yachid.

(d)Shiloh is the city in the portion of Efrayim where the Mishkan was built after the 14 years of conquest and apportionment of Eretz Yisrael. The Mishkan stood there for 369 years (Seder Olam Raba 11).

(e)The Beis Olamim is the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was called by this name, the "Eternal Dwelling," because once it was chosen, it became the permanent dwelling place of the Shechinah.

2)[line 5]קופתוKUPASO- one's box, basket

3)[line 14]עוקבתOKEVES- circumvents, supersedes

4)[line 23]מקום כינוס שער ונראהMEKOM KINUS SE'AR V'NIR'EH- a place that has a collection of hair and that is exposed

5)[line 19]"והיה ביום השביעי יגלח את כל שערו, את ראשו ואת זקנו ואת גבות עיניו ואת כל שערו יגלח...""V'HAYAH VA'YOM HA'SHEVI'I YEGALACH ES KOL SE'ARO, ES ROSHO, V'ES ZEKANO, V'ES GABOS EINAV, V'ES KOL SE'ARO YEGALE'ACH..."- "And on the seventh day he shall shave off all of his hair, [the hair of] his head, his beard, and his eyebrows and all of his hair he shall shave off. [And he shall immerse his clothes, and immerse his flesh in water, and he shall be Tahor]" (Vayikra 14:9).

6)[line 25]שיער הרגליםSEI'AR HA'RAGLAYIM- the hair that grows at one's private parts (lit. the hair of the feet)

7)[line 25]דבית השחיBEIS HA'SHECHI- the armpit

8)[line 26]כדלעתK'DELA'AS- like a [hairless] pumpkin

9)[line 31]עוקבת מדרבנן היאOKEVES MID'RABANAN HI- this Halachah (of Metzora) supersedes a Rabbinic interpretation of the verse, as opposed to an open verse (According to MAHARATZ CHAYOS and RADAL, the Girsa should be "OKEVES MIDRASH HI")

10)[last line]כללי ופרטיKLALEI U'FRATEI

See next entry.


11)[line 1]ריבויי ומיעוטיRIBUYEI U'MI'UTEI / KLALEI U'FRATEI

(a)In order to extract the Halachah from the verses of the Torah, many Tana'im interpret the verses on the basis of Klalim (generalizations) and Pratim (specifications). Others interpret the verses on the basis of Ribuyim (inclusions, i.e. qualifications that enlarge the scope of the law) and Mi'utim (exclusions).

(b)According to the approach that learns Ribuyei u'Mi'utei, when a Mi'ut is followed by a Ribuy, then everything is included except for one item that is totally dissimilar to the limiting Mi'ut. According to the approach that learns Klalei u'Fratei, when a Klal is followed by a Prat, which is followed in turn by another Klal, then everything belonging to the general category that is similar to the Prat is included. Anything that is not in the general category of the limiting Prat is not included. (This means that the verse will include less instances than the first opinion assumed.)

12)[line 8]רקבובית ירקRAKVUVIS YEREK- decayed vegetable matter

13)[line 9]דהואי עפרD'HAVAI AFAR- that becomes classified as "Afar" (dirt)

14)[line 11]ואפר פרהEFER PARAH

(a)The Parah Adumah, an exclusively red-haired female cow, is burned on Har ha'Zeisim and its ashes are used for making a person Tahor if he is Tamei Mes. Only a cow that has not had a yoke placed upon it and has had no other work done with it is fit to be used as a Parah Adumah. A place is prepared for its slaughter on Har ha'Zeisim, opposite the gate to the Azarah (the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash). After it is slaughtered, its blood is sprinkled in the direction of the Beis ha'Mikdash seven times. A cedar branch, some Ezov branches and a piece of crimson wool are thrown into the carcass of the cow while it is burning (Bamidbar 19:1-22).

(b)If a person (or utensil) became Tamei through touching Tum'as Mes or being in the same room as a Mes or something that is Metamei b'Ohel, he must wait seven days to become Tahor. On the third and seventh days he must have spring water mixed with the ashes of the Parah Adumah (Mei Chatas) sprinkled on him. A person who is Tahor dips three Ezov branches that have been bound together into the mixture, and sprinkles them on the person who is Tamei. On the seventh day, he immerses in a Mikvah after the mixture is sprinkled on him in order to complete his Taharah (Bamidbar 19:17-19).

15)[line 12]ורוק יבמהROK YEVAMAH - the saliva of a Yevamah (YIBUM)

(a)If a married man dies childless, his widow must undergo Yibum (the marriage of a dead man's brother with his wife) (Devarim 25:5-10). Chazal learn from the verses that there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum.

(b)If the brother chooses not to marry her, he must perform Chalitzah (a procedure in Beis Din that absolves her of the Mitzvah of Yibum - ibid.). He appears before a Beis Din of three and states, "I do not want to marry her," after which his sister-in-law approaches him before the elders, takes off his right sandal and spits in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build up a family for his brother," and she is then free to marry whomever she wants.

(c)The connection of the brother to the dead man's wife, which obligates one of the two, is called Zikah. It is comparable to the state of Eirusin (betrothal) before a marriage. The Tana of the Mishnah from Yevamos rules that the Zikah "connects" the Yevamah with all of the brothers, not only the oldest. While the Yevamah is waiting for Yibum or Chalitzah, she is called a Shomeres Yavam.

16)[line 13]דם צפורDAM TZIPOR (TZIPOREI METZORA)

See Background to Sotah 15:10.

17)[line 26]סמוך למנאSAMUCH L'MANA- next to the [new clay] bowl [that contains the spring water]

18)[line 26]ונינקטינהו לוורידיןV'NINKETINHU LA'VERIDIN- and one should hold the blood vessels [between one's fingers so that blood should not flow from them]

19)[line 28]ומדחת את המיםU'MADECHES ES HA'MAYIM- (lit. that washes the water) that overrides the appearance of the water

20)[line 30]לא תפיק נפשך לבר מהילכתאLO SAPIK NAFSHACH L'VAR ME'HILCHESA- do not let yourself go beyond the established Halachah; i.e. do not question the established words of the Chachamim

21)[line 31]בצפור דרורTZIPOR DEROR- (O.F. arondele) a type of wild bird (swallow) that is of a standard size such that its blood will be recognizable in a Revi'is of water

22)[line 45]שתהא חיותן בכליSHE'TEHEI CHIYUSAN BI'KLI- (a) the fresh spring water should be drawn directly in the utensil in which it will be made into Mei Chatas (RASHI); (b) the fresh spring water should be drawn in a utensil, not necessarily the one in which it will be made into Mei Chatas (RASH to Parah 9:3; see Insights to Pesachim 34b)