SOTAH 15 (5 Sivan) - Dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Reb Chaim Aryeh ben Aharon Stern Z'L by Shmuel Gut of Brooklyn, N.Y.

[15a - 44 lines; 15b - 45 lines]

1)[line 6]אזכרתהAZKARASAH- its Kometz (lit. its memorial part) (Vayikra 2:2)

2)[line 10]משתשלוט בו האורMISHE'TISHLOT BO HA'UR- from when the fire of the Mizbe'ach has taken hold of the Kometz to the extent that it will continue to be consumed on its own [by the flame that has taken hold of the Kometz, even though only a small part of the Kometz has actually been burned]

3)[line 11]משתיצת האור ברובוMISHE'TITZAS HA'UR B'RUBO- from when the fire has taken hold of most of the Kometz

4)[line 13]למשחהL'MASHCHAH- for prestige (Bamidbar 18:8)

5)[line 15]"לא תאפה חמץ חלקם [נתתי אתה מאשי]""LO SE'AFEH CHAMETZ, CHELKAM [NASATI OSAH ME'ISHAI...]"- "It shall not be baked with leaven. [I have given it to them for] their portion [of My offerings made by fire...]" (Vayikra 6:10) - Chazal apply the word "Chelkam" to the first half of the verse also, rendering it as, "Even the portion of it [that the Kohanim may eat, the Sheyarei ha'Minchah,] shall not be baked with leaven."


(a)There is a prohibition to cause the dough of Menachos (either the Kometz or the Shirayim, the part that the Kohanim eat) to become leavened, as it states, "Kol ha'Minchah... Lo Se'aseh Chametz" (Vayikra 2:11). An additional verse, "Lo Se'afeh Chametz" (Vayikra 6:10), specifically prohibits baking leavened Menachos.

(b)This extra verse teaches that once the dough of a Minchah offering is leavened, each and every subsequent process involved in preparing a baked Minchah offering is also prohibited (Mechametz Achar Mechametz). For example, if one person leavens the dough and another bakes it, they both transgress a Lav (Shabbos 111a).


(a)A person brings a Korban Oleh v'Yored in three specific cases: Shevu'as ha'Edus (see Background to Yoma 74:1), Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (see Background to Nazir 17:3b), and Korban Shevu'ah (see Background to Nedarim 2:3).

(b)What constitutes a Korban Oleh v'Yored varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas (Korban Ashir). If he cannot afford this, he brings two Torim or two Benei Yonah, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalus). If he cannot afford even the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas (Korban Oleh v'Yored b'Dalei Dalus). (Vayikra 5:6-13)

(c)The Minchas Chatas is not mixed with oil, and Levonah (frankincense) is not sprinkled on top of it (Vayikra 5:11). When a non-Kohen brings a Minchas Chatas, a Kometz of the flour alone is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Kohanim receive the Shirayim (the rest of the flour, which they must eat before the following sunrise - RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 10:7). The Minchas Chatas of a Kohen is the subject of a Machlokes Tana'im (Menachos 73b-74a). According to one opinion, it is treated like the normal Minchah of a Kohen. Another opinion rules that a Kometz is removed and burned as in the Minchah of a non-Kohen. However, unlike the Minchah of a non-Kohen, the Shirayim (remainder of the flour) are also burned. A third opinion rules that the Kometz is burned on the Mizbe'ach and the Shirayim are sprinkled (RASHI) or burned (TOSFOS, TOSFOS HA'ROSH) on the Beis ha'Deshen.

8)[line 31]חטאת חלבCHATAS CHELEV - a Chatas that is brought for eating forbidden fats

(a)Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach. It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks (Vayikra 3:4).

(b)It is forbidden to eat the Chelev of a Kosher Behemah (domesticated animal), but it may be used for any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah (a Kosher wild animal), however, may even be eaten. "Shuman" refers to all the other fat of an animal that is permitted.

(c)If a person eats Chelev b'Mezid (intentionally), he is Chayav Kares; b'Shogeg (unintentionally) he must bring a Korban Chatas, as in the Shogeg of all other sins for which one is liable Kares b'Mezid. The Korban Chatas is a female goat or sheep. If a person is in doubt about whether the fat he ate was Chelev or Shuman, he must bring a Korban Asham Taluy (see Background to Nazir 23:2b).

(d)All normal Chata'os are called "Chatas Chelev" since the Torah discusses them after teaching the prohibition of Chelev (forbidden fats) (RASHI). Alternatively, normal Chata'os are called "Chatas Chelev" since most Chata'os are brought for sinning with items which are commonly found in the house, like Chelev.

9)[line 31]נסכיםNESACHIM

(a)The Nesachim are wine libations that are brought together with a Korban Shelamim or Olah, whether the Korban is offered by the Tzibur (Bamidbar 28:11-15, 20-21) or by an individual (Bamidbar 15:3-16). They are brought along with the Minchas Nesachim, a meal offering that is offered with these Korbanos.

(b)The amounts of wine, flour, and oil vary based upon which animal is being offered:

1.For a lamb or goat (within its first year): 1/4 Hin of wine; 1 Isaron of Soles (fine flour) mixed with 1/4 Hin of oil.

2.For a ram (from thirteen months and one day): 1/3 Hin of wine; 2 Esronim of Soles mixed with 1/3 Hin of oil.

3.For a bull: 1/2 Hin of wine; 3 Esronim of Soles mixed with 1/2 Hin of oil.

(c)1 Isaron is approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. 1 Hin is approximately 3.6, 4.14 or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

10)[line 33]חטאתו של מצורע ואשמוCHATASO SHEL METZORA V'ASHAMO

(a)THE PROCESS BY WHICH A METZORA BECOMES TAHOR - On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two Kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool, and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a new clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields. This ceremony takes place outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash (Nazir 60a).

(b)The Metzora next shaves with a razor all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden (Moed Katan 7b). He waits seven days, and on the seventh day he once more shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Nedarim 35:9).

(c)On the eighth day, the Metzora must bring Korbanos to complete his Taharah. The animal Korbanos are two male sheep and one female sheep. One of the male sheep is offered as an Olah, the other as an Asham. The female sheep is offered as a Chatas. If he could not afford to buy all these animals, he is called a poor Metzora. The poor Metzora brings two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves) as the Olah and the Chatas; however, a sheep is still brought as his Asham. An ordinary Metzora or a poor Metzora brings Nesachim with all of his animal Korbanos (Menachos 91a).

11)[line 37]מנגעיה הוא דאיכפרMI'NIG'EI HU D'ICHAPER- the Metzora receives atonement for his sin from the suffering and embarrassment through which he goes

12)[line 39]חטאת נזירCHATAS NAZIR (KORBAN NAZIR TAHOR)

(a)When a Nazir completes his period of Nezirus, he must offer three sacrifices: a male sheep as an Olah, a female sheep as a Chatas, and a ram as a Shelamim. Together with the Shelamim he brings 6 and 2/3 Esronos of Soles (fine flour), which are made into 20 loaves of Matzah, 10 Chalos (unleavened loaves of Matzah) and 10 Rekikin (flat Matzos). He then shaves off the hair of his head and burns it under the cauldron in which the Zero'a of the Shelamim is cooked (Bamidbar 6:18). (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #377)

(b)There is a Machlokes Tana'im as to whether shaving his hair (Tiglachas) prevents him from bringing his sacrifices or not (Nazir 47a).

13)[last line]סופרים הניחו ליSOFRIM HINICHU LI- the early teachers left [room] for me

14)[last line]כמין חומרK'MIN CHOMER- (a) like a knot or a string of jewels that is worn around the neck to fasten a cloak and/or as an ornament (RASHI, TOSFOS); (b) like sweet-smelling spices (TOSFOS); (c) [measure for measure,] like the action [that she committed] (ARUCH, citing Rabeinu Sa'adyah Ga'on)


15)[line 5]פיליPEYALI- an earthenware cup or broad flat bowl

16)[line 6]חצי לוגCHATZI LOG- one half of a Log, approximately 0.15, 0.17 or 0.3 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

17)[line 9]וטבלא של שישTAVLA SHEL SHAYISH- a marble slab


See above, entry #10.

19)[line 27]נתאכמו פניוNIS'AKMU FANAV- the outside of the utensil grew black

20)[line 32]כיון דהדור הדורKEIVAN D'HADUR, HADUR- since it returned [to its original appearance] it has returned [to its original state of permissibility]

21)[line 33]ושני תולעתU'SHENI TOLA'AS- it appears that these words do not fit into the context of our Gemara below (d'Ikluf Iklufei). The RAMBAM and the MEIRI quote only this Halachah about the Etz Erez and the Ezov, apparently because "Sheni Tola'as" was not in their Girsa of the Gemara. (RADAL)

22)[line 33]שהפשיל בהן קופתו לאחוריוSH'HIFSHIL BAHEN KUPASO LA'ACHORAV- with which one slung his basket or box over his shoulder

23)[line 35]דאיקלוף איקלופיD'IKLUF IKLUFEI- since they become stripped of their outer layer

24)[line 41]יחפור בקרדומותYACHPOR B'KARDUMOS- he should dig into the ground with a spade