[14a - 49 lines; 14b - 46 lines]
1)[line 11]"וּמֵאֵת עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יִקַּח שְׁנֵי שְׂעִירֵי עִזִּים לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל אֶחָד לְעֹלָה""U'ME'ES ADAS BENEI YISRAEL..."- "And he shall take from the congregation of the people of Yisrael [two kid goats as a Korban Chatas, and one ram as a Korban Olah.]" (Vayikra 16:5)
2)[line 19]שנה עליו לעכבHA'KASUV SHANAH ALAV L'AKEV- the verse repeated it in order to teach that it is mandatory [that Aharon pay for the Par Chatas of Yom ha'Kipurim]
3)[line 24]בשלמא לר"ש היינו דכתיב תרי וידוין ודם הפרBI'SHLAMA L'REBBI SHIMON HAINU DI'CHESIV TREI VIDUYIN V'DAM HA'PAR- it is understandable according to Rebbi Shimon why there are two Viduyin (confessions) over the Par of the Kohen Gadol and one sprinkling of its blood. Rebbi Shimon rules that the first Viduy provides atonement for Aharon, his wife and the Kohanim (see TOSFOS DH Shenei, RAMBAN, RITVA), for sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav, for a person who did not know initially about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) when he sinned. Only after he ate the Kodshim or entered the Mikdash while he was Tamei did he find out about his sin (this parallels the Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh ba'Chutz). The second Viduy provides atonement for all other sins besides sins of Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (this parallels the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach). The sprinkling of the blood of the Par is Toleh (holds back) the impending punishment of a person who initially knew about his Tum'ah (or the Kodshim or Mikdash) and subsequently forgot about it when he sinned. In addition, it provides atonement for people who sin b'Mezid (intentionally) with Tum'as Mikdash v'Kodashav (this parallels the Sa'ir ha'Na'aseh Bifnim).
PEREK #2 YEDI'OS HA'TUM'AH
4)[line 44]תוספת העזרהTOSEFES HA'AZARAH- an addition to the courtyard of the Beis ha'Mikdash
5)[line 45]אין מוסיפין על העיר ועל העזרותEIN MOSIFIN AL HA'IR V'AL HA'AZAROS
(a)The Mishnah states that when the Beis Din ha'Gadol decides to extend the boundaries of Yerushalayim and/or the courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the approval of the following are needed: the king, a prophet, the Urim v'Tumim and the Beis Din ha'Gadol of seventy-one judges itself.
(b)In order to extend the boundaries of Yerushalayim, the Beis Din ha'Godol brings two Korbenos Todah (for a description of the Korban Todah, see below, entry #9) and takes from them two of the Lachmei Todah, specifically, two loaves of the leavened bread. A procession starts from the Azarah, led by Kohanim carrying the two loaves, one after the other. The Beis Din ha'Gadol follows them, and at each corner and at every large stone (i.e. every new landmark) added to the city, the procession stops to play musical instruments and to sing the verses of Tehilim 30, which is the "Psalm of the Dedication." Additional verses of Tehilim are recited, as the Gemara states on Daf 15b. At the outskirts of the area being added to the city the procession stops for the last time and one of the Lachmei Todah is eaten there and the other one is burned. The prophet is responsible for revealing which one is to be eaten and which one is to be burned (Shevuos 15a-16a, RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 6:11-12).
(c)In order to extend the boundaries of the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a similar ceremony is performed. However, a Korban Minchah is brought instead (for a description of the Korban Minchah, see Background to Shevuos 11:5). The addition to the Azarah is sanctified by a procession with loaves of the Sheyarei ha'Minchah (the remainder of the Minchah) (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 6:13).
6)[line 46]אלא במלך ונביא ואורים ותומיםELA B'MELECH V'NAVI V'URIM V'TUMIM V'SANHEDRIN SHEL SHIV'IM V'ECHAD- see previous entry, (a)
7)[line 46]ואורים ותומיםURIM V'TUMIM
(a)A Name of HaSh-m was written on a parchment that was called the Urim v'Tumim. The Urim v'Tumim was placed in the Choshen, one of the eight vestments of the Kohen Gadol (Shemos 28:30). The eight vestments are 1. Tzitz (forehead-plate), 2. Efod (apron), 3. Choshen (breastplate), 4. Me'il (robe), 5. Kutones (long shirt), 6. Michnasayim (breeches), 7. Avnet (belt), 8. Mitznefes (turban).
(b)It was possible for a king of Yisrael to ask HaSh-m questions regarding the people of Yisrael and receive an answer using the letters engraved upon the gemstones of the Choshen. Letters containing the answer to his question would stick out in their places (in the order of the answer — MAHARSHA to Yoma 73b) or would come together to form the words and sentences of the answer. The Kohen Gadol would assist the Urim v'Tumim in the process of receiving an answer through his power of Ru'ach ha'Kodesh (Divine inspiration).
(c)The Gemara (Yoma 73b) gives two reason as to why the parchment was called Urim v'Tumim. Either they were Me'irin (similar to "Urim") Es Divreihen, they clarify their words, or they were Mashlimin ("Tumim" means Shalem, complete) Es Divreihen, they fulfill their words.
8)[line 47]סנהדרין של שבעים ואחדSANHEDRIN SHEL SHIV'IM V'ECHAD - the court of seventy-one
(a)Most Halachic judgements are administered by three distinct courts: courts of three judges, who are fit to adjudicate in monetary matters; courts of twenty-three judges, who are fit to adjudicate even in capital cases; the Beis Din ha'Gadol of seventy-one judges, the Jewish "Supreme Court," that convenes in the Lishkas ha'Gazis in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)The Beis Din ha'Gadol is known as the Sanhedri Gedolah. It is responsible for appointing the king of Yisrael and the Batei Din of twenty-three judges (Sanhedri Ketanah) in every tribe and city in Eretz Yisrael. In addition, only the Beis Din ha'Gadol may judge an entire tribe that was led astray and was convinced to worship Avodah Zarah (see Background to Sanhedrin 2:26 and 56:47). The capital cases of the Kohen Gadol and a Nevi Sheker (see Background to Sanhedrin 84:9) are also judged by the Beis Din ha'Gadol. Similarly, the Beis Din ha'Gadol is the only court that can judge a Zaken Mamrei (see Background to Sanhedrin 84:8), an Ir ha'Nidachas (see Background to Sanhedrin 76:16) and the Sotah woman (see Background to Shevuos 5:4). Lastly, only the Beis Din ha'Gadol may enlarge the boundaries of Yerushalayim and the courtyards of the Beis ha'Mikdash (see above, entry #5), decide to wage a Milchemes ha'Reshus (see Background to Sanhedrin 2:29) and measure the distance between a murder victim found in the fields and the nearest town (see Background to Makos 10:48, Eglah Arufah) (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 5:1).
9)[line 47]בשתי תודותSHTEI TODOS (LACHMEI TODAH)
(a)The Todah (thanksgiving offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban (Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(b)An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
1.Chalos Matzos - Matzos mixed with oil;
2.Rekikin - flat Matzos saturated with oil;
3.Soles Murbeches - Matzos made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
4.Loaves of leavened bread. (Vayikra 7:12-13)
(c)One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
10)[line 48]ובשירSHIR- (lit. song) verses from Tehilim 30, 91 and 3, as the Gemara states on Daf 15b
11)[line 6]ששהה בכדי השתחואהSHAHAH KEDEI HISHTACHAVA'AH- he lingered for the time that it takes to bow down onto the floor, with outstretched arms and legs. (The Gemara - Daf 16b - states that this action takes as long as the recitation of the words of the verse in Divrei ha'Yamim II 7:3, which describes the day of the dedication of the first Beis ha'Mikdash. There is an argument between the Amora'im as to whether the time period is measured by the recitation of the entire verse or only the second half, from the word "va'Yichre'u," "and they bowed down.")
12a)[line 7]בא לו בארוכהBA LO BA'ARUCHAH- he came [out] using a long route
b)[line 7]בקצרהBA'KETZARAH- [he came out using] the short[est] route
13)[line 7]זו היא מצות עשה שבמקדש שאין חייבין עליהZO HI MITZVAS ASEH SHEBA'MIKDASH SHE'EIN CHAYAVIN ALEHA - this is a positive commandment concerning the Beis ha'Mikdash and its environs for which Beis Din is not liable to bring a Korban Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur and for which the Kohen Gadol is not liable to bring a Korban Par Kohen Mashi'ach (PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR / PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH)
(a)PAR HE'ELEM DAVAR SHEL TZIBUR - The Sanhedrin (the Jewish Supreme Court) is obligated to bring a Korban in the following instance. If they issued a mistaken ruling permitting an act that carries a Chiyuv Kares, instructed the Jewish people to act according to their ruling and the people in Eretz Yisrael (the majority of the people or the majority of the tribes) conducted themselves based upon this ruling. The sages bring twelve young bulls as Korbenos Chatas, one on behalf of each of the tribes. The people are exempt, since they relied upon the Beis Din ha'Gadol. If the sin committed was idolatry, the sages bring young bulls as Korbenos Olah and goats as Korbenos Chatas, one of each for each tribe. Each of these bulls is called a Par He'elem Davar Shel Tzibur (RAMBAM Hilchos Shegagos 12:1).
(b)PAR KOHEN MASHI'ACH - The Par Kohen Mashi'ach is the young bull brought as a Korban Chatas by a Kohen Gadol who transgresses an Isur Kares thinking that the Torah did not prohibit such an act. (The bull is brought by a Kohen Gadol for the same sins that a Par He'elem Davar (see above, (a)) is brought when the people commit transgressions upon being misled by Beis Din in a Halachic matter.)
(c)The blood of these bulls is sprinkled seven times on the Paroches, and is applied to the Keranos (raised corners) of the Mizbe'ach ha'Ketores in the Heichal. The Sheyarei ha'Dam (the remainder of the blood) is poured on the Western Yesod (foundation) of the Mizbe'ach while the Eimurim are offered on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon.
(d)The remains of the bulls (including the meat and parts that are not sacrificed) are burned outside of the city of Yerushalayim (Vayikra 4:3-21, Bamidbar 15:22-26). Those who carry the carcass out of the Azarah are Metamei Begadim. (According to Rebbi Shimon, Yoma 67b, those who are involved in burning the meat are Metamei Begadim.)
14a)[line 12]רבי אליעזר אומר, "[אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת] שֶׁרֶץ [טָמֵא] וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ [וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם]"REBBI ELIEZER OMER, "[O NEFESH ASHER TIGA B'CHOL DAVAR TAMEI, O V'NIVLAS CHAYAH TEME'AH O B'NIVLAS BEHEMAH TEME'AH O B'NIVLAS] SHERETZ [TAMEI;] V'NE'ELAM MIMENU [V'HU TAMEI, V'ASHEM.]"- "[Or if a person touches anything that is Tamei, whether it is a carcass of a non-Kosher Chayah (a non-farm animal), or a carcass of a Behemah (a farm animal), or the carcass of] creeping things [that are Teme'im,] and if it is hidden from him, [and he is Tamei, and guilty [of eating Kodshim].]" (Vayikra 5:2) - Rebbi Eliezer is of the opinion that this verse only refers to a person who eats Kodshim while he is Tamei. It does not refer to a person who enters the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash while he is Tamei.
b)[line 14]רבי עקיבא אומר, "וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא"REBBI AKIVA OMER, "V'NE'ELAM MIMENU V'HU TAMEI"- see previous entry. Rebbi Akiva, like Rebbi Eliezer, is of the opinion that this verse only refers to a person who eats Kodshim while he is Tamei. It does not refer to a person who enters the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash while he is Tamei. The repetition of the word "v'Ne'elam" (see next entry) teaches that in order for a person to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored for eating Kodshim while he is Tamei, he must have had prior knowledge of his Tum'ah before he forgot about it and ate the Kodshim (see RASHI to Daf 4a DH v'Ne'elam).
15)[line 17]ונעלם ונעלםV'NE'ELAM V'NE'ELAM- the two words "v'Ne'elam" from the verse of the previous entry and the following verse: "[O CHI YIGA B'TUM'AS ADAM, L'CHOL TUM'ASO ASHER YITMA BAH;] V'NE'ELAM [MIMENU V'HU YADA, V'ASHEM.]" - "[Or if he touches a source of Tum'ah of people, whatever Tum'ah it is with which a person becomes Tamei,] and it is hidden [from him, and [subsequently] he knows of it, and he is guilty [of eating Kodshim or entering the Mikdash].]" (Vayikra 5:3) - Rebbi Yishmael is of the opinion that the repetition of the word "v'Ne'elam" teaches that these verses refer to both a person who eats Kodshim while he is Tamei and to a person who enters the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash while he is Tamei.
16)[line 23]תמניTAMNEI- eight
17a)[line 35]שרץSHERETZ (TUM'AS SHERETZ)
A Sheretz (a crawling pest — see Background to Shabbos 107:5), even if it or a part of it is only the size of an Adashah (lentil bean), is an Av ha'Tum'ah (Vayikra 11:29-38, Chagigah 11a). It makes a person or object Tamei through Maga (contact), whether the Sheretz was touched willingly or unwillingly. The person who becomes Tamei by touching a Sheretz may not eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah of the Beis Ha'Mikdash. However, he can immediately immerse in a Mikvah. After nightfall he becomes Tahor and may eat Terumah or Kodshim or enter the Azarah.
b)[line 36]צפרדעTZEFARDE'A- a frog (which is Tahor)
18)[line 36]זיל קרי בי רב הואZIL KARI BEI RAV HU- it is a case of "Go and read it in the Yeshiva"
19)[line 37]כעדשהK'ADASHAH- the size of an Adashah (lentil bean)
The Pri Megadim (in his Igeres preceding his introduction to Orach Chaim, #9) quotes and discusses various explanations for the word Teiku:
1.It is sealed in its container ("Tik") (ARUCH, Erech Tik).
2.Tehei Ka'i - "Let it (the question) stand" (MUSAF HA'ARUCH).
3.Tishbi Yetaretz Kushyos v'Ibayos - "Eliyahu ha'Navi will answer difficulties and questions" (TOSFOS YOM TOV, end of Eduyos).
21)[line 43]ידיעת בית רבו שמה ידיעהYEDI'AS BEIS RABO SHEMAH YEDI'AH- the knowledge that one received [as a child] from his teacher is [sufficient to be] considered a [prior] "Yedi'ah" (which is necessary to create a liability to bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored)
22)[last line]"[ועָשׂוּ לִי מִקְדָּשׁ וְשָׁכַנְתִּי בְּתוֹכָם] כְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי מַרְאֶה אוֹתְךָ אֵת תַּבְנִית הַמִּשְׁכָּן וְאֵת תַּבְנִית כָּל כֵּלָיו וְכֵן תַּעֲשׂוּ""[V'ASU LI MIKDASH, V'SHACHANTI B'SOCHAM.] K'CHOL ASHER ANI MAR'EH OSCHA, ES TAVNIS HA'MISHKAN V'ES TAVNIS KOL KELAV, V'CHEN TA'ASU."- "[And let them make Me a sanctuary; that I may dwell among them.] According to all that I show you (sing.), the pattern of the tabernacle, and the pattern of all its utensils, and so shall you (plural) make it." (Shemos 25:9) - The phrase "v'Chen Ta'asu" is superfluous, teaching that the ensuing generations should also follow these instructions and guidelines when constructing a Mishkan.