SHEKALIM 16 (24 Nisan 5781) Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Yitzchak ben Baruch Hersh, in honor of his first Yahrzeit. Sponsored by his brother in law Ze'ev Rosenbaum of Yerushalayim.

[16a - 69 lines; 16b - 71 lines]

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We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Gaon printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.

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1)[line 1] ( ) [ ]SECHACH, SHE'LO B'KIRUY- it was covered, but not with a [stone] roof; that is, it was in a tent

2)[line 3] TZINTZENES HA'MAN- the flask of Manna [which Aharon put away in order to show it to future generations (Shemos 16:33)]

3)[line 4]TZELOCHIS- the flask


(a)Moshe Rabeinu prepared special oil with which to anoint the Mishkan and its vessels, as well as all future Kohanim Gedolim and kings of the House of David (Shemos 30:22-33). It contained the following ingredients:

1.500 Maneh (approximately 212 kilograms) of MOR DEROR, either (a) distilled myrrh, a resin produced by trees and shrubs which grow in Arabia and Africa. It has a lasting, bitter, aromatic taste; or (b) according to Rabeinu Sa'adya Ga'on and the Rambam, this refers to musk, a liquid obtained from the musk deer which lives in Nepal and Tibet.

2.250 Maneh (approximately 106 kilograms) of KINEMAN BESEM, either (a) the fragrant dried bark of the cinnamon tree, cultivated mainly in Ceylon; or (b) aloeswood (or lignum aloes), which grows in the East Indies and tropical Southeast Asia. (There are indications that it used to grow in the Holy Land.) This is the opinion of our Gemara. The Talmud Bavli (Kerisus 5a), however, interprets the verse (Shemos 30:23) to mean that two portions of 250 Maneh of Kineman Besem were added to the Shemen ha'Mishchah.

3.250 Maneh (approximately 106 kilograms) of KENEH VOSEM - fragrant cane. (a) Some identify this with the sweet calamus. This is the sweetflag or flagroot, a species of which apparently grew in the Chula valley in the Holy Land. (b) Others identify it with the Indian plant Cympopagan martini, which looks like red straw.

4.500 Maneh (approximately 212 kilograms) of KIDAH, either (a) cassia, the bark of a tree that grows in China; or (b) costus (Kosht), the root of a herb that grows in Kashmir.

(b)The total weight of these dry ingredients is 1500 Maneh (approximately 636 kilograms or 1400 pounds). According to the Talmud Bavli, the total weight was 1750 Maneh (approximately 743 kilograms or 1635 pounds). These ingredients were mixed with one Hin (12 Log, approximately 3.6, 4.14 or 7.2 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of olive oil.

5)[line 4] MAKLO SHEL AHARON - Aharon's Staff

Following the downfall of Korach and the dissolution of his rebellion, HaSh-m commanded Moshe to place Aharon's staff, along with the staffs of the princes of the other tribes, on the ground before the Aron. HaSh-m intended to clearly demonstrate his choice of Aharon of Shevet Levi as High Priest. The staff of Aharon and only his flowered and bore almonds. This staff was retained as a reminder to future generations, in case one should think to complain about or vie for the priesthood (Bamidbar 17:16-26).

6a)[line 4]PERACHAV- its flowers

b)[line 4]SHEKEDAV- its almonds

7)[line 5] ARGAZ SHE'HESHIVU PELISHTIM - the chest that the Pelishtim returned [with the Aron] (THE ARON IS CAPTURED AND RETURNED)

(a)At the end of the era of the Shofet, Eli ha'Kohen, the Pelishtim waged war against Bnei Yisrael. The Aron ha'Kodesh was taken to the battlefield in order to sway the outcome of the war. However, due to the sins of the nation, the war effort was unsuccessful, and the Pelishtim captured the Aron ha'Kodesh (Shmuel I 4:1-11; see Background to 15:99)).

(b)HaSh-m afflicted the Pelishtim with unusual diseases during the seven months in which they held the Aron. As a result, they decided to return the Aron, along with special gifts to the G-d of Yisrael. One of these gifts was an Argaz (chest), which became a permanent addition to the Aron ha'Kodesh (Shmuel I 6:8). According to Rebbi Yehudah, the Sefer Torah of Moshe Rabeinu was placed on this Argaz (see 16b, and Bava Basra 14a).

8)[line 6]" ' , ...""YOLECH HASH-M OSECHA, V'ES MALKECHA ASHER TAKIM ALECHA, EL GOY ASHER LO YADATA ATAH VA'AVOSECHA..."- "HaSh-m will lead you together with the king whom you shall raise over yourselves, to a nation that you did not know, neither you nor your fathers..." (Devarim 28:36) - This verse is part of the Tochachah, the Rebuke.

9)[line 8]" ', , ; [, ' -, ]""VA'YOMER LA'LEVIYIM HA'MEVINIM L'CHOL YISRAEL HA'KEDOSHIM LA'SH-M, 'TENU ES ARON HA'KODESH BA'BAYIS ASHER BANAH SHLOMO VEN DAVID MELECH YISRAEL, EIN LACHEM MASA BA'KASEIF; [ATAH, IVDU ES HASH-M E-LOKEICHEM, V'ES AMO YISRAEL]'" - "And he said to the Leviyim (the Kohanim) who taught Torah to Yisrael... Place the Aron ha'Kodesh in the house that Shlomo son of David... built, for you no longer need to carry it on your shoulders. [Now go and serve HaSh-m your G-d, and Yisrael His people ]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:3) (THE KORBAN PESACH OF YOSHIYAHU; YOSHIYAHU HIDES THE ARON HA'KODESH)

(a)Amon, king of Yehudah, continued in the idolatrous ways of his father, Menasheh, and he hid all the Sifrei Torah that he could find. When his eight-year old son, Yoshiyahu, inherited the throne, Torah was all but forgotten from Yisrael.

(b)Eight years later, when Yoshiyahu was a mere sixteen, he began to follow the path trodden by his great ancestor, David. Four years after that, at the age of twenty, he cleared Yehudah and Yerushalayim of idolatry, and he took the initiative of cleansing and preparing the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Avodah.

(c)After a Sefer Torah written by Moshe Rabeinu was found in the Beis ha'Mikdash, Yoshiyahu increased his efforts to serve HaSh-m with all of his heart. He then arranged for the whole of Yisrael to offer a Korban Pesach, entirely according to the Halachic requirements. He personally donated tens of thousands of animals for the occasion; lambs and goats for the Pesach offering, and bulls for the Korban Chagigah.

(d)Yoshiyahu offered words of encouragement to the Leviyim and Kohanim, who were about to bring a Korban Pesach "the likes of which had not been seen since the days of Shmuel ha'Navi" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 35:18; see RASHI there), as recorded in the above verse.

(e)Our Gemara cites this verse as a source that Yoshiyahu took the Aron ha'Kodesh from its place in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim and hid it in order to prevent it from being taken into exile. The Gemara understands that the reason behind his statement to the Kohanim that "you no longer need to carry it on your shoulders" was that Yoshiyahu hid it away.

10)[line 14] PITUM SHEMEN HA'MISHCHA- see above, entry #4

11)[line 16]SHOLEKIN- they would boil

12)[line 16]IKARIN- roots (spices)

13)[line 18]KOLET- absorb

14)[line 19]MA'AVIRO- remove it

15)[line 19]PATAMIN- spice-makers

16)[line 20]"[ ] , [ ...]""[V'ASISA OSO] SHEMEN MISHCHAS KODESH, [ROKACH MIRKACHAS MA'ASEH ROKE'ACH...]"- "[And you shall make it into] holy anointing oil, [a blended mixture, the craft of the spice-blenders...]" (Shemos 30:25) - The end of this verse implies that the Shemen ha'Mishchah was to be made with the methods normally employed by professionals for perfuming oil, i.e., smearing the oil onto the potent spices, and then removing it.

17)[line 25]SEFEK- enough

18)[line 25] HA'UR BOLE'A- the heat [of the fire] absorbs [some of the oil] - According to Rebbi Yehudah, the oil was placed on the fire and used to boil the spices.

19)[line 26]HA'YOREH- the pot


(a)The first seven days during which the Avodah was performed in the Mishkan were called the "Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im." The word "Milu'im" means "filling," and refers to the fact that during these days the position of Divine servants was finally "filled" by the Kohanim (RASHI to Vayikra 8:22). These seven days began on the 23rd of Adar and lasted until Rosh Chodesh Nisan, which was the eighth day.

(b)During the Yemei ha'Milu'im, the Kohanim along with all of the components and utensils of the Mishkan were anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah (see above, entry #4). Many Korbanos, called Korbanos ha'Milu'im, were offered at this time. Moshe Rabeinu officiated as the Kohen Gadol, demonstrating the Avodah to Aharon and his sons. On each day, Moshe assembled and dissembled the Mishkan, until the eighth day, on which he left it standing. On that day, Aharon was officially appointed as the Kohen Gadol and the Shechinah descended to dwell permanently in the Mishkan (RASHI ibid. 9:23).

21)[line 31]"[ ; '] ""[VA'YISHLACH VA'YEVI'EHU, V'HU ADMONI IM YEFEH ENAYIM V'TOV RO'I; VA'YOMER HASH-M,] 'KUM MESHACHE'HU, KI ZEH HU!'" - "[And [Yishai] sent for and brought him [David], and he was ruddy with beautiful eyes and good appearance; and Hash-m said,] 'Arise, anoint him, for he is the one!'" (Shmuel I 16:12) (THE SELECTION OF DAVID AS KING)

(a)Following HaSh-m's rejection of King Shaul, He sent Shmuel ha'Navi to the house of Yishai in order to anoint one of his sons as the next king of Israel.

(b)One by one, HaSh-m rejected each of Yishai's sons, until only one remained. This was his youngest son, the shepherd David. For reasons enumerated in the Midrash, it did not even occur to Yishai to present David as a possible candidate for the throne. Only upon Shmuel's insistence was the young "outcast" brought before him. After describing him as "ruddy, with beautiful eyes and good looks," the verse concludes with HaSh-m's instructions to "arise, anoint him, for he is the one." Shmuel promptly anointed David with Shemen ha'Mishchah from the horn containing it. From that moment, the spirit of HaSh-m left Shaul ha'Melech and enveloped David, leaving Shaul with a Ru'ach Ra'ah (an evil spirit) in its place.

(c)Our Gemara derives from this verse, "he is the one," that only David and his dynasty are to be anointed with Shemen ha'Mishchah, to the exclusion of any future kings of Israel. Therefore, according to the TIKLIN CHADTIN, this verse should not appear at this point of the Gemara, but only later (line 42).

22)[line 33]KULO- the full measure [will miraculously remain]

23)[line 35] AL GABEI HA'MA'AYAN- next to a spring

24)[line 35]"... ; . ; [ , ]""V'HIRKAVTEM ES SHLOMO BENI AL HA'PIRDAH ASHER LI; V'HORADTEM OSO EL GICHON. U'MASHACH OSO SHAM TZADOK HA'KOHEN V'NASAN HA'NAVI L'MELECH AL YISRAEL..." - "... And place Shlomo my son on my mule, and lead him down to the Gichon spring. And Tzadok ha'Kohen and Nasan ha'Navi shall there anoint him king over Yisrael; [then you shall blow the Shofar and announce, 'Long live King Shlomo!]" (Melachim I 1:33-34) (THE REBELLION OF ADONIYAHU, AND THE CONFIRMATION OF SHLOMO AS HEIR TO THE THRONE)

(a)David ha'Melech was old and bedridden, and his son Adoniyahu wished to be the next monarch of Klal Yisrael. He was encouraged by Yo'av, David's erstwhile commander of the army, and Evyasar, the deposed Kohen Gadol. He invited all his brothers with the obvious exception of Shlomo along with the men of Yehudah to a great gathering, and had himself pronounced the heir apparent to the kingdom. He did not, however, invite Nasan ha'Navi, Benayahu (the head of Beis Din), or other notables who were close with his father the king.

(b)When Nasan heard of this, he immediately informed Bas Sheva, mother of Shlomo. David had given her his word that her son would replace him on the throne. She immediately brought news of the rebellion to her husband David, and reminded him of his promise to her. As planned, Nasan joined her and added weight to her words. Realizing the urgency of the situation, David instructed that Shlomo be publicly anointed immediately, while David was still alive (Melachim I 1:33-35).

(c)Tzadok, Nasan, and Benayahu followed David's instructions to the letter. Finally, Nasan took the horn containing the Shemen ha'Mishchah and anointed Shlomo, they blew the Shofar, and all the people cried out, "Long live the King!" The rebellion was over and all those connected with it dispersed.

25)[line 37]GICHON- the Shilo'ach spring, located to the south of the Temple Mount, from which the water was drawn for the Nisuch ha'Mayim on Sukos

26)[line 45]AFARSEMON- balsam oil

27)[line 52]" ; , , , ""U'VENEI YOSHIYAHU: HA'BECHOR YOCHANAN, HA'SHENI YEHOYAKIM, HA'SHELISHI TZIDKIYAHU, HA'REVI'I SHALUM" - "And the sons of Yoshiyahu: the firstborn was Yochanan, the second was Yehoyakim, the third was Tzidkiyahu, and the fourth was Shalum" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 3:15) (THE SONS OF YOSHIYAHU HA'MELECH)

(a)Our Gemara explains that Yoshiyahu actually had three sons Elyakim, Yochanan (alias Yeho'achaz) and Matanyah (alias Shalum and Tzidkiyahu). After their father's death, the first to rule was Yeho'achaz, who (unlike most other kings of Yehudah) was anointed with oil, to prevent his older brother Elyakim from claiming the throne. Pharaoh Nechoh (the Lame), however, deposed him and exiled him to Egypt. In his place, he crowned Elyakim, whose name he changed to Yehoyakim. Yehoyakim was captured by Nevuchadnetzar (who had taken over from Pharaoh Nechoh the role of the most powerful king in the region) and died on his way to captivity. He was succeeded by his son Yechonyah, whose reign (like that of his uncle Yeho'achaz before him) lasted only three months.

(b)Nevuchadnetzar deposed Yechonyah and sent him into exile, and he replaced him with his uncle Matanyah, whose name he now changed to Tzidkiyahu.

28)[line 56]' REVI'I LA'MALCHUS- he was the fourth to rule [after Yoshiyahu]

29)[line 66] ( = )DU AMAR- this says

30)[line 67]A'SHITA- [was comprised] of six [Tefachim]

31)[line 67] , U'FALGUS AMAH, TELASA- and half an Amah is three [Tefachim]


32)[line 10] U'TEFACHAYIM L'SHILUT MAKOM SHE'SEFER TORAH MUNACH- and two Tefachim [allowed] room to remove [and return] the Sefer Torah

33)[line 14] (= )V'HAHEN ARON- and this Aron

34)[line 38] BEIN NESER L'NESER- between the planks of the Aron (that is, where they connect)

35)[line 50]TETROGA- in a cube; the Aseres ha'Dibros were written on all four sides

36)[line 53]"[ ] ; [ ]""[YADAV GELILEI ZAHAV,] MEMULA'IM BA'TARSHISH..."- "[His arms are like rods of gold,] filled with Tarshish; [his innards are like ivory inlaid with sapphires]" (Shir ha'Shirim 5:14) - "Tarshish" is also the name of a sea (KORBAN HA'EDAH). This verse appears in the section of Shir ha'Shirim containing Klal Yisrael's praise for the beauty of Torah (see RASHI to Shir ha'Shirim, end of Perek 5).

37)[line 53] K'YAMA RABA- like the (a) fish in the great sea (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) small waves in between the large ones, as Reish Lakish goes on to explain (TIKLIN CHADTIN)

38)[line 57] () ISKASHIYAS KOMEI REBBI PINCHAS- I asked Rebbi Pinchas a question

39)[line 62]'GELUSKIYA- (a) a type of chest (KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) a board or shelf (TIKLIN CHADTIN)

40)[line 67]CHARUSAH- engraved

41)[line 67]MUVLELES- mixed

42)[line 67] () []CHATZUVAH BA'ESH- (lit. it was quarried from fire) it originated in a spiritual place before it was given its current earthly form