SHEKALIM 15 (5 Sivan) - Dedicated l'Zecher Nishmas Reb Chaim Aryeh ben Aharon Stern Z'L by Shmuel Gut of Brooklyn, N.Y.

[15a - 68 lines; 15b - 54 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Ga'on printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any OTHER important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, as well as Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.

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1a)[line 3]" " ?"O LA'AYIL," LAMAH NE'EMAR?- Why does the Torah mention the Nesachim of a ram in this verse, when the Torah just described them five verses earlier (Bamidbar 15:6)?

b)[line 6]" " ?"O LA'SEH BA'KESAVIM," LAMAH NE'EMAR?- Why does the Torah mention the Nesachim of sheep in this verse, when the Torah just described them six verses earlier (Bamidbar 15:5)?

c)[line 9]" " ?"O VA'IZIM," LAMAH NE'EMAR?- Goats are implied by the word "Keves" in the verse earlier (Bamidbar 15:5) as well.

2)[line 11]TAYISH- a mature male goat

3)[line 14] HAGA B'ATZMECHA- consider for yourself

4)[line 14] SHE'ZIYEG OSO HA'YOM- for [an unscrupulous individuals] can [wait, and] match [the day that was written on the Chosam]


(a)Every family of Kohanim belongs to one of 24 shifts (Mishmaros). Each Mishmar serves in the Mikdash for one week at a time, meaning that each one performs the Avodah for at least two weeks out of the year. The Mishmaros change on Shabbos, when the outgoing Mishmar performs the Avodah in the morning and the incoming Mishmar performs the Avodah in the afternoon.

(b)Every Mishmar is further divided into six Batei Avos. Each Beis Av serves on a different day of the week. On Shabbos, the Kohanim of all of the Batei Avos perform the Avodah together (RASHI Menachos 107b). Some contend that the Mishmaros are divided into seven groups, and only one group serves on Shabbos (RASHI Ta'anis 26a; see Insights to Shekalim 18:1).

(c)On the Shalosh Regalim (the festivals of Pesach, Shavuos, and Sukos) all the Mishmaros Kehunah come to Yerushalayim to fulfill the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel. At those times, Kohanim from any Mishmar are permitted to perform the Avodah of the Regel.

6)[line 16] SHEM SHABAS- which week of the month

7)[line 18]LESHACHOS- rooms [in the Beis ha'Mikdash]

8)[line 19]CHASHA'IN- secretive ones

9)[line 21] BENEI TOVIM- from reputable families


There are two classifications into which all items consecrated to Hekdesh fall. These are:

1.KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - that which holds intrinsic Kedushah, such as an animal fit to be offered upon the Mizbe'ach, or a utensil fit to be used in the performance of the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5). This is also termed KODSHEI MIZBE'ACH.

2.KEDUSHAS DAMIM - that which is not fit to be used in its present state in the Beis ha'Mikdash, but whose value is consecrated to Hekdesh. Such items are sold, and the proceeds go toward any day-to-day needs of Hekdesh. This is also termed KODSHEI BEDEK HA'BAYIS.

11)[line 27]PARNASIM- treasurers of public charity funds

12)[line 27] VA'HAVUN YEHAVIN L'REBBI CHAMA AVU'I D'REBBI YEHOSHAYA- and they would give to Rebbi Chama the father of Rebbi Yehoshayah [ostensibly since he required charity]

13)[line 28]L'CHORANIN- to others

14)[line 29] MALIZIN ALAV- slander him

15)[line 30]NASAV- takes

16)[line 30] MIN D'DAMACH- after his death

17)[line 30] BADKIN V'ASHKECHIN- they checked and found

18)[line 31] MAFLIG LEI- he would distribute it

19)[line 32]MITZVAH- charity

20)[line 32] RABEHON D'RUCHAYA- the chieftain of the spirits [who roam in the night]

21)[line 33] LO KEN ALEFUN REBBI?- did you, our teacher, not teach us [the following]?

22)[line 33]" ...""LO SASIG GEVUL RE'ACHA..."- "Do not encroach upon your fellow's border..." (Devarim 19:14) - i.e., why are you about at night?

23)[line 34]" [ ]""MATAN BA'SESER YICHPEH AF..."- "An anonymous gift will cover anger, [and an unseen bribe [will appease] strong wrath]" (Mishlei 21:14) - i.e., I am performing a Mitzvah, and a powerful one at that!

24a)[line 34] V'HAVAH MISTEFI MINEI- and he (the chieftain of the spirits) was afraid of him

b)[line 35] VA'ARAK MIN KOMO'I- and fled from before him

25)[line 36]" [ ']""ASHREI MASKIL EL DAL; [B'YOM RA'AH YEMALETEHU HASH-M]"- "Fortunate is he who takes the needy into account, [on the day of evil HaSh-m will deliver him]" (Tehilim 41:2).

26)[line 39] SHE'YARAD MI'NECHASAV- who fell on hard times

27)[line 41] MIN DA'HAVAH NASIV- once he took [the money]

28)[line 42] IS HAVAH SABIN B'YOMENUN- there were elderly people in our days

29)[line 43] MI'BEIN REISH SHATA L'TZOMA RABA- between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur

30)[line 44] D'SHATAN GABAN- for our [livelihood that HaSh-m has decreed for us over the course of the upcoming] year is with us

31)[line 45] ZECHEH IMI- merit with me; i.e., fulfill the Mitzvah of Tzedakah through me

32a)[line 46] TOMISEI D'KUPAD- a coin with which one could buy beef

b)[line 47]U'MIS- and he died, since (a) he was used to chicken, and his stomach was unable to handle the unusual food (TIKLIN CHADTIN, KORBAN HA'EDAH); (b) he was used to chicken, which was of higher quality than beef (based upon Kesuvos Bavli 67b, where a similar story is related in which the poor man was fed beans instead of chicken); (c) the small amount of beef was not enough to satisfy his hunger (b and c based upon the PNEI MOSHE to Yerushalmi Pe'ah 8:8).

33)[line 48] NACHUM ISH GAM ZU- Nachum, Rebbi of Rebbi Akiva. He was called "Ish Gam Zu" because he always responded to seeming bad fortune with the words "Gam Zu l'Tovah" "This, too, is for the best" (Ta'anis 21a).

34)[line 49]DORON- a present [of three donkeys, one laden with food, one with drink, and one with all manner of tasty food]

35)[line 49] MUKEH SHECHIN ECHAD- a certain [starving] leper

36)[line 50]MICHZOR- [I will give you to eat] on my return

37)[line 51] , EINAYA DA'CHAMINACH V'LO YASEVUN LACH, YISTAMEYAN- the eyes that saw you and did not give you [sustenance], they should become blind

38)[line 52] D'LO PASHTAN MEITAN LACH- that did not extend to give you

39)[line 53]YISKAT'UN- should be cut off

40)[line 53] D'LO RAHATAN- that did not run

41)[line 53]YITABERUN- should be broken

42)[line 53] U'MATSEI KEN- and these things came to pass

43)[line 54] OY LI- woe unto me

44)[line 57]MEVA'ET- lit. kick; contemptuous towards

45)[line 57] HAVAH RABEI DI'VREI, CHAD SAGI NEHORA- the Rebbi of his son was blind

46)[line 58] V'HAVAH YALIF- and he was accustomed

47)[line 59] V'LO MATA MEICHOL IMEI- and he (Rebbi Hosh'aya) did not come to eat with him (his son's Rebbi)

48)[line 59]B'RAMSHA- at night

49)[line 59]MARI- my master

50)[line 59]B'GIN- because

51)[line 60]DA'AMARIS- for I said

52)[line 60] D'LO LI'VEZUYEI BI'YEKARA D'MARI YOMA DEIN- that they should not disgrace the honor of my master on this day

53)[line 61] ATAH PIYASTA L'MAN D'MISCHAMEI V'LO CHAMI- you appeased one who is seen, but cannot see

54)[line 61] (= )DEIN D'CHAMI V'LO MIS'CHAMYAM- He who sees, but is not seen

55)[line 61] HADA M'NA LACH?- from where did you learn [such a clever Berachah]?

56)[line 62]L'KARTEI- to his city

57)[line 63] L'RA MINEI- below him [in the front row]

58)[line 63]D'YEIMERUN- that people should say

59)[line 63] ILULEI D'HAVA BAR NASHA RABA- if he were not a great person

60)[line 64] PARNASA D'IKAR- generous support (lit. with honor)

61)[line 64] ?MAHU HACHEIN?- "what is [the reasoning behind] this [unusual generosity]?"

62)[line 64] U'TZELUYEI ALO'I HADA TZELOSA- and he prayed for him with this prayer

63)[line 65] GAMALTA CHESED- you extended kindness

64)[line 66] HAVU METAYELIN- were strolling

65)[line 66] B'ILEIN KENISHTA D'LOD- among those synagogues in the city of Lod

66)[line 67] SHIKE'U AVOSAI KAN- my forbears invested here [in these synagogues]

67)[last line] ?LO HAVA IS BAR NASH D'YIL'UN B'ORAISA?- were there no people then to toil in Torah [who would have been able to spend more of their time on this important pursuit had they been supported with those funds]?

68)[last line] []ILEIN TAR'AYHU- those gates


69)[line 1] D'SIDRA RABA- of the great Beis ha'Midrash

70)[line 2]" -, ...""VA'YISHKACH YISRAEL ES OSEHU, VA'YIVEN HEICHALOS..."- "And Yisrael forgot their Maker, and built halls..." (Hoshea 8:14).

71)[line 4] MOTZI'IN ES HA'RA'UY LAHEN- remove that which is fit for them

72)[line 6] ...V'HA TENINAN- The Gemara asks that our Mishnah implies that even if a particular vessel or utensil is fit for use in the Beis ha'Mikdash and therefore has the status of Kodshei Mizbe'ach it may not be removed for that purpose from the Lishkas ha'Kelim, which has the status of Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis (KORBAN HA'EDAH). See Insights for the ways in which other commentaries interpret the Gemara's question.

73)[line 8] (= )KENI MASNISIN- indeed, our Mishnah [agrees with the Tosefta]

74)[line 8] L'LISHKAS BEDEK HA'BAYIS- The Mishnah means that first any object usable for either Kodshei Mizbe'ach or Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis should be removed for those purposes, and only then should the rest be redeemed (KORBAN HA'EDAH). See Insights for the ways in which other commentaries interpret the Gemara's answer.


75)[line 11]SHOFAROS- large collection boxes that were narrow on top where the slot to put the money was, wide on the bottom, and had no door. These features guarded against theft by allowing money into the box, but not allowing any out.

76)[line 13]HISHTACHAVAYOS- [places at which one must] bow down

77)[line 15] DIR HA'ETZIM- The room in which wood for the Mizbe'ach and fireplace was stored, located in the northeast corner of the Ezras Nashim.

78)[line 16]NIGNAZ- hidden

79)[line 17] SHE'HAYAH MIS'ASEK- (a) was busy checking the wood for worms (TIKLIN CHADTIN); (b) was whiling away his time (RASHI to Yoma 54a)

80)[line 17]HA'RITZFAH- one of the marble tiles [of which the floor was made up of]

81)[line 19] V'YAD'U B'YICHUD- and they knew for a certainty

82)[line 20]AKUMOS- slanted

83)[line 22] ( = )MAI TA'AMA?- what is the source?

84)[line 22]"[ , '. , , ;] , ' ""... LO YIVASER DAVAR, AMAR HASH-M" - "[And Yeshayah said to Chizkiyahu, 'Hear the word of HaSh-m! Behold days will come, and everything that is in your house and that which your ancestors stored away, will be taken to Bavel;] nothing will remain, says HaSh-m'" (Melachim II 20:16-17) (THE PROPHECY OF YEHUDAH'S DOWNFALL AT THE HANDS OF BAVEL)

(a)When Chizkiyahu recovered from his illness, the sun miraculously moved back ten degrees as a sign of that recovery. Berodach Baladan ben Baladan, King of Bavel, was impressed, and sent emissaries with letters of peace and gifts to Chizkiyahu. Chizkiyahu, flattered by the visit, gave his guests a guided tour of all of his treasuries, both in Yerushalayim and throughout the country.

(b)When Yeshayah ha'Navi asked the king who his guests were, the king replied haughtily, saying that they had come all the way from Bavel and that there was nothing that he had not shown them. The Navi responded with the prophecy recorded in this verse.

(c)Additionally, Yeshayah continued, royal descendents of Chizkiyahu would be taken captive, and raised as officials in the Babylonian court. These would include Daniel, Chananya, Mishael and Azarya (RASHI). Chizkiyahu responded with the hope that peace would last at least in his days (ibid. 18-19).

85)[line 23]HA'DIBEROS- the [Ten] Statements (Commandments) [which were written on the sapphire tablets located inside of the Aron]

86)[line 24]" , , , '...""V'LI'SESHUVAS HA'SHANAH, SHALACH HA'MELECH NEVUCHADNETZAR, VA'YEVI'EHU VAVELAH, IM KELEI CHEMDAS BEIS HASH-M..." - "And at the turn of the year, King Nevuchadnetzar sent for him (Yehoyachin), and took him to Bavel together with the precious vessels from the House of HaSh-m; [and he crowned his (Yehoyakim's) brother Tzidkiyahu king over Yehudah and Yerushalayim]" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 36:10) (YEHOYACHIN IS SENT TO EXILE BY NEVUCHADNETZAR)

(a)Nevuchadnetzar, King of Bavel, who had conquered Eretz Yisrael, had already removed Yehoyakim from his position as King of Yehudah. Yehoyakim's eighteen-year-old son, Yehoyachin, ascended the throne in his place. He reigned for only three months when Nevuchadnetzar deposed him at the behest of his ministers, who claimed that a puppy was liable to turn out as wild as its father.

(b)Along with Yehoyachin, Nevuchadnetzar took the treasures of the Beis ha'Mikdash, the royal family and court, as well as the "Charash and Masger" - the Sanhedrin and Torah scholars (Melachim II 24:12-16). See Background to Gitin 88:16.

87)[line 28]" , , [ , ]""VA'YA'ARICHU HA'BADIM, VA'YERA'U ROSHEI HA'BADIM MIN HA'KODESH AL PENEI HA'DEVIR, V'LO YERA'U HA'CHUTZA; [VA'YIHYU SHAM AD HA'YOM HA'ZEH]"- "And the poles extended, and the ends of the poles were seen from the Kodesh at the front of the Devir (the Heichal), and they were not seen outside, [and they have been there until this very day]" (Melachim I 8:8).

88)[line 31]BOLETIN- jutting out

89)[line 31]DADEI- breasts

90)[line 33] BA'AL MUM

(a)A Kohen who has a Mum (physical blemish) may not perform the Avodah in the Beis ha'Mikdash, whether his Mum is a Mum Kavu'a (a permanent blemish, such as an amputated hand or foot) or a Mum Over (a temporary blemish, such as an outbreak of boils). (According to the RAMBAM in SEFER HA'MITZVOS these are counted as two separate Lavin (#70 and 71), while the RAMBAN maintains that they are counted as only one Lav.)

(b)There are three types of Mumin:

1.blemishes which invalidate both a Kohen from performing the Avodah as well invalidating an animal from being offered as a sacrifice on the Mizbe'ach

2.blemishes that invalidate only a Kohen but not an animal

3.blemishes that invalidate both Kohanim and animals, but only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin since they appear to be Mumin (Bechoros 43a).

(c)If a Ba'al Mum did perform Avodah, such Avodah is invalid if his Mum is in category #1 above, whether he did so intentionally or otherwise. Additionally, he is liable to Malkus if he did it b'Mezid according to the Rabanan. Rebbi rules that he is liable to receive Misah b'Yedei Shamayim. If his Mum is in category #2 above, then his Avodah is acceptable (RAMBAM Hilchos Bi'as Mikdash 6:6). If the Mum is one that is invalid only due to Mar'is ha'Ayin, then his Avodah is valid, and he does not receive Malkus (Sefer ha'Chinuch #275, 276).

91)[line 33] U'MEFATZEL ETZIM- and he was checking the wood for worms

92)[line 38] HEKISH ALEHA B'KURNAS- [the Kohen who discovered the odd tile] banged upon it with a hammer

93)[line 43] OHEL MO'ED- the Mishkan

94)[line 44]MASHU- budge

95)[line 46] HAYAH NICHNAS V'YOTZEI IMAHEN- would go out [to war] and back [to the encampment] with them

96)[line 48]ELI- the Kohen Gadol in the Mishkan in Shilo, when Shmuel ha'Navi was alive

97)[line 48]NISHBAH- captured

98)[line 48] KARYA MESAYE'A LEHU- the [following] verse bears out their opinion

99)[line 48]" , ; [ - ]""OY LANU! MI YATZILENU MI'YAD HA'E-LOKIM HA'ADIRIM HA'ELEH? [ELEH HEM HA'E-LOKIM HA'MAKIM ES MITZRAYIM B'CHOL MAKAH BA'MIDBAR!]" - "Woe unto us! Who will save us from this mighty G-d? [This is the G-d who smote Egypt with all sorts of plagues in the desert!]" (Shmuel I 4:8) (THE DAY THE ARON WAS CAPTURED)

(a)The armies of Yisrael and the Pelishtim were arranged opposite each other, waiting for the battle to begin, when the jubilant sound of the Shofar rang out from the camp of Yisrael. When the Pelishtim discovered that the cause of the jubilation was the Aron ha'Kodesh, brought from Shiloh, they were terror-stricken.

(b)The Pelishtim immediately recovered from their momentary lapse, however, and went on to win the battle. They killed 30,000 Jewish troops, including Chofni and Pinchas, the sons of Eli the Kohen Gadol. They also captured the Aron ha'Kodesh, which would cause them so much trouble that they would gladly return it within the year, together with accompanying gifts.

(c)From the surprised cries of the Pelishtim it is clear that the Aron did not usually accompany the Jewish army to war.

100)[line 49] MILAH D'LO CHAMUN MIN YOMEIHON- that which they had never seen in all of their days

101)[line 51]" , ""VA'YOMER SHA'UL LA'ACHIYAH, HAGISHAH ARON HA'E-LOKIM; [KI HAYAH ARON HA'E-LOKIM BA'YOM HA'HU U'VENEI YISRAEL]" - "And Shaul said to Achiyah (the Kohen Gadol), 'Bring the Aron of HaSh-m close to me;' [for the Aron of HaSh-m was with Bnei Yisrael that day]" (Shmuel I 14:18) (YONASAN'S INITIATIVE AGAINST THE PELISHTIM)

(a)Yonasan, son of Shaul ha'Melech, together with his armor-bearer had attacked the Pelishti camp, and they were wreaking havoc there. Meanwhile, the watchmen who were standing on guard in Giv'as Binyamin reported to Shaul ha'Melech that many Pelishtim seemed to be coming toward them, although he was too far away to make out any details.

(b)The king wished for Achiyah to consult HaSh-m as to how to proceed. In the meantime, the Pelishtim who actually were fleeing from Yonasan and his armor-bearer came close enough for Shaul to realize the situation, at which point he mobilized his troops and joined ranks with Yonasan. The enemy fled in utter confusion, killing one another in the process.

102)[line 52] ?MAH AVDUN LEI RABANAN?- what do the Rabanan interpret this verse [to be discussing]?

103)[line 52] HAGISHAH ELAI HA'TZITZ- bring close to me the Tzitz (the thin gold plate upon which the words "Kodesh La'Sh-m" were inscribed, worn on the forehead of the Kohen Gadol) [which had been stored in a box (along with the rest of the Bigdei Kohen Gadol, including the Urim v'Tumim - KORBAN HA'EDAH)]

104)[last line]"[ ,] ...""... HA'ARON V'YISRA'EL VI'YEHUDAH YOSHEVIM BA'SUKOS..." - "[And Uriyah said to David,] 'The Aron, Yisrael, and Yehudah are dwelling in Sukos (the location of the battle with the Pelishtim), [and my master Yo'av and the servants of my master (the king) are encamped upon the field, and I should go to my house to eat and drink, and to be with my wife...?]" (Shmuel II 11:11) (URIYAH'S SIN)

(a)When David ha'Melech discovered that the wife of Uriyah ha'Chiti was expecting his child, he summoned Uriyah from the battlefield and ordered him home to his wife in an attempt to extricate himself from the embarrassing situation.

(b)Uriyah, however, refused to comply. As long as the Aron and the army were away at war, he argued, it was not right for him to go home to his wife. Note that although this episode was an embarrassing one for David, he had not actually committed adultery, due to the prevalent custom among his soldiers to divorce their wives before going to war.

(c)David ha'Melech responded by sending Uriyah to the front line, where he met his death. According to some opinions, it was due to this act of insubordination that Uriyah was liable for the death penalty. Others maintain that it was either because he referred to Yo'av as his master in the presence of the king, or because he mentioned first Yo'av and only afterwards the king (see Tosfos Kidushin 43a DH Mored).

(d)This verse seems to support Rebbi Yehudah's opinion that an Aron would be taken out to war. The Rabanan respond (16a) that Uriyah was referring to the Aron in Yerushalayim, which was sheltered in a temporary structure (a Sukah), as the Beis ha'Mikdash had not yet been built.