[4a - 42 lines; 4b - 34 lines]
We recommend using the Girsa'os of the Vilna Ga'on printed in the margins of the Vilna Shas, and the commentary "Tiklin Chadtin" upon which they are based. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that conform to the commentary of the Tiklin Chadtin which are not noted in the Hagahos ha'Gra, and Girsa corrections in the text of the Tiklin Chadtin itself.
 תקלין חדתין ד. ד"ה רישא בנכרים
"כדמוקי לה רבי אלעזר לא תקשי לך רישא"
צ"ל "כדמוקי לה רבי אלעזר ולא תקשי לך רישא"
 גמרא ד: [שורה 16]
"ואחד סלע שהוא נוטל דתניא"
צ"ל "ואחד דבר תורה דתניא"
 גמרא ד: [שורה 23]
צ"ל "האחים השותפים"
(כן הוא ברוב ראשונים, ערש"י בכורות נו:)
(a)Every year, each Jew must contribute one half-Shekel toward the purchase of the Korbenos Tzibur offered in the Beis ha'Mikdash (see Background to 2:2). In addition, in certain situations one must include a small coin known as a Kalbon along with the donation. The worth of a Kalbon was one Me'ah — worth 1/12 of a half-Shekel (see chart, entry #3 below) — according to the opinion of Rebbi Meir, or half that according to the opinion of the Chachamim.
(b)There are three different explanations given by the Rishonim as to why and when a Kalbon was necessary:
1.As a commission to Hekdesh for changing a larger coin, such as a Sela, or a number of smaller coins into one worth a Machatzis ha'Shekel;
2.As a compensation to Hekdesh. The demand for half-Shekel coins in Adar when they were donated to the Lishkah was so great that it drove up their value. Therefore one who gave a larger coin or a collection of smaller coins must make up for the difference in value with a Kalbon;
3.As a "Hechra" — a bit extra to insure that the donation which he has given Hekdesh has indeed the weight (i.e.value) of a half-Shekel.
(c)See Shekalim 4b and Insights there for an understanding of when, and according to which opinions, these reasons apply.
2)[line 3]ע"י (על ידי)AL YEDEI- on behalf of
3)[line 5]סלעSELA (CURRENCY OF THE TALMUD)
1.1 Sela (Torah Shekel) = 4 Dinarim
2.1 Shekel (Torah Half-Shekel = 2 Dinarim
3.1 Dinar = 6 Ma'in
4.1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyonim
4a)[line 6]עני... שכינו... בן עירוANI... SHECHENO... BEN IRO- a destitute individual... his neighbor... someone from his city - these people are too indigent to afford a half-Shekel
b)[line 7]פטורPATUR- he is exempt [from paying a Kalbon, since whatever Hekdesh receives on this person's behalf is already a bonus]
5)[line 7]אם הלווןV'IM HILVAN- if he lent them [the half-Shekel which he donated on their behalf]
6)[line 8]מעשר בהמהMA'ASAR BEHEMAH
(a)The Torah states, "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shavet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-m" - "And all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod; the tenth one shall be consecrated to HaSh-m" (Vayikra 27:32). Once a year, one must designate every tenth Kosher animal born into his herd/flock over the course of the previous year as Ma'asar Behemah. This is accomplished by gathering all of each type of animal born in the previous year into a corral. They are then made to leave the corral in a single-file line through a narrow opening. Their owner stands by and counts them, marking every tenth one.
(b)Animals designated as Ma'asar Behemah are eaten by their owner. If they are unblemished, they are offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by their owner in Yerushalayim. If they have a Mum, their owner may slaughter and eat them as he would any Kosher animal.
7)[line 10]מעה כסףME'AH KESEF- a coin worth 1/12 of a half- Shekel; see entry # 3 above
8)[line 11]הכאHACHA- the first Gemara following the previous Mishnah (3b)
9)[line 14]תיפתר (תריץ)SIPASER- explain [it]
10)[line 15]דאתפלגין (פליגי)D'ISPALEGIN- they disagree
11)[line 16]מתני'MASNISIN- [the end of] our Mishnah [which states that we do not accept Korbanos from them]
12)[line 17]ותני כןV'SANI KEN- this is the way we learned (Toras Kohanim [Sifra] chapter 2)
13)[line 17]"... אדם כי יקריב מכם קרבן לה'...""ADAM KI YAKRIV MI'KEM KORBAN LA'SH-M..."- "a person, should he bring from among you a sacrifice to HaSh-m" (Vayikra 1:2).
14a)[line 18]הגריםGERIM- converts [including Kusim]
b)[line 18]המומריםMUMARIM- apostates
15)[line 21]רישא בנכרים וסיפא בכותים?REISHA B'NOCHRIM, V'SEIFA B'KUSIM?- [the Gemara asks: according to this understanding,] is the first law in the Mishnah (namely, that we do not accept Shekalim) referring to Nochrim [and Kusim both], while the second law in the Mishnah (namely, that we do not accept Korbanos) refers to [only] Kusim [when the main point of the Mishnah is to teach those laws that pertain to Nochrim, as is evidenced by that which Nochrim are mentioned first]?
16a)[line 23]בתחלהBA'TECHILAH- at the beginning [of the Beis ha'Mikdash; i.e., when it is being built]
b)[line 24]ובסוףBA'SOF- at the end [of the Beis ha'Mikdash; i.e., at any point following its construction]
17)[line 23]דבר מסויםDAVAR MESUYAM- a recognizably unique object (such as an Amah Kalya Orev, one of the Amah-by-Amah tiles set with Amah-high spikes placed atop the Heichal to discourage ravens from landing there)
18)[line 29]בדק הביתBEDEK HA'BAYIS
Bedek ha'Bayis refers to those assets of Hekdesh which are not fit to be offered as sacrifices nor to be used as or as part of the Klei Shares (vessels used in the Beis ha'Mikdash).
19)[line 30]פתר להPASAR LAH- [another possible way for Rebbi Yochanan to] explain it [is that the Mishnah is discussing donating to the Beis ha'Mikdash when it is being built]
20)[line 33]הכל שויןHA'KOL SHAVIN- everyone agrees. This is the continuation of a Mishnah in Erchin (5b) in which Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yehudah disagree as to whether a Nochri may pledge another's Torah value (Erech; see Background to 3:3) but not be the subject of another's Erech pledge, or if the law is the other way around.
21)[line 33]נודרין ונידריןNODERIN V'NIDARIN- may both pledge and be the subject of a pledge to give one's slave-market value (Damim) to Hekdesh (see Background to 3:3)
22)[line 34]פתר לה עולהPASAR LAH, OLAH- [Rebbi Shimon ben Lakish] would explain [that the Mishnah is referring not to the ability of a Nochri to pledge money to Bedek ha'Bayis, but rather to his ability to offer] a Korban Olah
23)[line 35]נידרין עולה [מה]?NIDARIN OLAH, [MAH]?- what sense does it make to say that a Nochri may be the subject of a pledge to bring a Korban Olah; can one force him to listen?
This refers to the Korban Minchah (meal-offering; see Background to Pesachim 79:3) and wine libation which are brought along with a Korban Shelamim (or Olah; Bamidbar 15:3-16).
25)[line 37]ומוֹתַר נסכיםMOSAR NESACHIM
(a)The Mishnah (10b) states that the leftover Nesachim (see previous entry) should be used to purchase Klei Shares, vessels used in the service performed in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)To which leftovers does the Mishnah refer? Rebbi Chiya bar Yosef explains that the price of the wine, oil and flour used in the Nesachim was set by the suppliers at the time of the harvest. In the event that the price went up, they would still have to sell these ingredients at the agreed upon price. If, for example, they had set the price at four Se'in per Sela, and now one can purchase only three Se'in for the same price, then the extra Se'ah which is supplied to Hekdesh is the "Mosar ha'Nesachim."
(c)Rebbi Yochanan explains that those who supplied the wine, oil and flour used in the Nesachim would give heaping measures of these supplies to the treasurers of Hekdesh, whereas Hekdesh would sell them to those who required them for their Korbanos using a measure which was leveled off. The difference constitutes the Mosar ha'Nesachim (Shekalim 11a)
26)[line 37]לא לכלי שרת אינון (הם)LO LI'CHLEI SHAREIS INUN?- are they not used to purchase Klei Shares (see previous entry)?
27)[line 39]נערכין ועורכיןNE'ERACHIN V'ORECHIN- [that Nochrim] may both pledge and be the subject of a pledge to give one's Torah value (Erech; see Background to 3:3) to Hekdesh
28)[line 40]היך מה דאת אמר תמן (מה התם)HEICH MA D'AT AMAR TAMAN- just as you must explain there
29)[line 2]רשב"ל פתר להREBBI SHIMON BEN LAKISH PASAR LAH- Reish Lakish explains [that the basic understanding of the following verse bears his opinion out; see Background to 3:85]
30a)[line 4]לאמת המיםL'AMAS HA'MAYIM- for [the upkeep of] the Amah-wide, Amah-deep channel of water which flowed through the Azarah
b)[line 4]ולחומות העיר ומגדלותיהUL'CHOMOS HA'IR U'MIGDELOSEHA- and for [the upkeep of] the wall surrounding Yerushalayim and its towers
31)[line 5]"[וָאָשִׁיב אֹתָם דָּבָר וָאוֹמַר לָהֶם, אֱ-לֹהֵי הַשָּׁמַיִם הוּא יַצְלִיחַ לָנוּ, וַאֲנַחְנוּ עֲבָדָיו נָקוּם וּבָנִינוּ;] וְלָכֶם אֵין חֵלֶק [וּצְדָקָה וְזִכָּרוֹן בִּירוּשָׁלָיִם]""[VA'ASHIV OSAM DAVAR VA'OMAR LAHEM, 'EL-KEI HA'SHAMAYIM HU YATZLI'ACH LANU, VA'ANACHNU AVADAV, NAKUM U'VANINU!] V'LACHEM EIN CHELEK [U'TZEDAKAH V'ZIKARON BI'YERUSHALAYIM]!'"- "[I answered them as follows: 'The G-d of Heaven will grant us success, and we, his servants, will arise and build;] you, however, have no portion [nor merit nor remembrance in Yerushalayim]!'" (Nechemyah 2:20) - Nechemyah gave this retort to certain prominent Nochrim who mocked him for his efforts to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash.
32)[line 10]תורהTORAH- [a] Biblical [obligation]
33)[line 14]כזה יתנוKA'ZEH YITENU- [make sure to] give like this [half-Shekel that I am showing you]. From the stress placed by the Torah on the proper value of the Machatzis ha'Shekel, one must clearly be extremely careful not to give less than that. Therefore, an extra Kalbon must be added. This is the explanation of the TIKLIN CHADTIN according to the Girsa of the VILNA GA'ON; see Insights for the ways in which other Rishonim understand this Gemara.
34a)[line 18]שקל שהוא נותןSHEKEL SHE'HU NOSEN- [the commission one must pay for changing a Sela into a] Shekel that he [has an obligation to] give [for Machatzis ha'Shekel]
b)[line 19]שקל שהוא נוטלSHEKEL SHE'HU NOTEL- [the commission one must pay for breaking a Sela into two] Shekalim that he wishes to retain; i.e., one must pay two commissions, one for each of two services rendered, each of which for one must give a Kalbon had they been performed separately.
35a)[line 24]בשחילקו וחזרו ונשתתפוBSHE'CHILEKU V'CHAZERU V'NISHTATEFU- when they split [their inheritance, even if] they subsequently rejoined their portions in a partnership. From the extra word "Lecha" (Shemos 13:12), we learn that partners in a herd of animals are not obligated to separate Ma'asar Behemah. Two people who give one whole Sela for their Machatzis ha'Shekel, however, are considered to have borrowed one from the other and must give a Kalbon.
b)[line 26]בשלא חלקוBSHE'LO CHILEKU- when they have not yet divided [their inheritance]. Since both of them have a stake in all of the herd/Sela, they are like an individual who must separate Ma'asar Behemah, but need not add a Kalbon.
36a)[line 27]שחלקו גדיים כנגד תיישיםSHE'CHILEKU GEDIYIM K'NEGED TEYASHIM- that one brother took all of the kid goats, while the other took all of the mature male goats
37)[line 29]הוא חלקו משעה הראשונהHU CHELKO MI'SHA'AH HA'RISHONAH - [we consider it as] his portion since the beginning (YESH BEREIRAH/EIN BEREIRAH)
(a)In numerous places in Shas, we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (Bereirah is effective) or "Ein Bereirah" (Bereirah is not effective). Bereirah means making the effect of one's action contingent retroactively upon future events. Examples of this are: buying or selling an object on the condition that it rains the following day, or that the object of the sale will remain undefined until it is selected the following day. "Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation is not effective. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains this opinion with the following logic : "It is not proper for something to take effect when upon what it will take effect is still in question." (See Insights to Chulin 15:2.) "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation is effective.
(b)When it comes to inheritance, nearly every opinion agrees that Bereirah plays a role. This is, when two inheritors split their inheritance evenly, we view it as if they have determined that portion which was always theirs. In our discussion, since each brother owned part of each flock at the time that it fell to them jointly, when they later split them evenly, Bereirah says that this part of the flock is that which had been his from the time that the inheritance became theirs. Therefore, when they rejoin in a partnership after the division, the situation is identical to that which existed before they divided the inheritance to begin with.
38)[line 31]כלקוחות הןKI'LEKUCHOS HEN- Rebbi Yochanan is of the opinion that Bereirah is not effective even with regard to an inheritance.
39)[last line]לית נן אמריןLEIS 'NAN AMRINAN- do we not say
40)[last line]בזה ובזהB'ZEH UV'ZEH- both in Ma'asar Behemah and in a Kalbon