HALACHAH 4: MISHNAH: ACCEPTING GIFTS FROM THOSE NOT OBLIGATED
We accept the half-Shekel from women, Avadim and minors.
We do not accept the half-Shekel from Kusim and non-Jews.
As a rule, voluntary offerings are accepted from non-Jews, but not obligatory offerings (as taught by Ezra).
The extra "Kalbon" is given by the general population but not by those from whom we do not take security for their Shekel.
One who lends another their Shekel need not add a Kalbon.
One who gives a Shekel, half of which is a loan for another, must add only one Kalbon.
(R. Meir): He adds two Kalbonos.
One who gets a Shekel change must give two Kalbonos.
One who gives on behalf of another is exempt from the Kalbon if it is a gift, and obligated if it is a loan.
When brothers are obligated in Ma'aser Beheimah, they are exempt from the Kalbon, and when they are exempt from Ma'aser Beheimah, they are obligated in the Kalbon.
A Kalbon is a Ma'ah of silver (1/24 of a Selah or 16 Seorim).
(Chachachim): It is half a Ma'ah.
DEMANDING FROM A MINOR
Question: Here we infer that we do not demand the Shekel from minors, yet in the previous Mishnah we learned that we do not take security from them, but we do demand the half-Shekel!?
Answer: The difference is a minor who does/does not show signs of puberty.
GENTILES AND KUSIM
Our Mishnah follows the opinion of Rebbi (in a dispute between Rebbi and R. Shimon b. Gamliel) that Kusim are like Gentiles.
(R. Eliezer): Our Mishnah is speaking about Gentiles (when it speaks of not accepting their offerings), and it may hold that Kusim are considered as Jews (a Beraisa seems to support this).
Our Mishnah which teaches not to accept Kinin of Zavin and Zavos is a contradiction to R. Elazer, since there is no such Tumah by Gentiles!
The Reisha speaks of non-Jews and the Seifa speaks of Kusim.
SPECIFIC AND NON-SPECIFIC GIFTS OF NON-JEWS
(R. Yochanan): At the outset we did not accept specific gifts for Bedek ha'Bayis nor general gifts from non-Jews, whereas later we accepted only general gifts.
(Reish Lakish): We do not accept anything from non-Jews.
Question: A Beraisa argues with R. Yochanan (implying that we do not take anything from the non-Jews, apparently at any time).
Answer #1: The Beraisa speaks of specific gifts.
Answer #2: The Beraisa is only speaking at the offset.
Question: A Mishnah is a challenge to Reish Lakish (teaching that non-Jews may offer another person's worth).
Answer: That Mishnah means that we accept an Olah from him.
Question: But the Mishnah speaks of Nidarin which cannot speak of an Olah!?
Answer: It means Nidarin when he accepts a Jew's Neder upon himself (or the reverse - Taklin Chadetin).
Question (on Reish Lakish): If a non-Jew can bring Nesachim, then he must be able to donate a Kli Shares (a specific gift), as well (for the surplus)?
Answer: As in the Mishnah (which would be problematic even according to R. Yochanan since it permits specific gifts), the gift intended for Shamayim goes to Bedek ha'Bayis. (Taklin Chadetin)
Reish Lakish based his opinion on the fact that the Pasuk in Ezra seems to prohibit all forms of non-Jewish participation.
It would appear from the Pasuk in Nechemyah that we do not even accept donations from non-Jews for local infrastructure (cisterns, walls, towers, etc.).
GIVING THE KALBON
Our Mishnah (which obligates all donors to give a Kalbon) is R. Meir (who holds that the Kalbon is obligatory upon all).
Question: What is his source for the addition?
Answer: To compensate for impurities, to make it identical (ka'Zeh) to the celestial coin of fire.
(R. Elazar): The Mishnah which obligates one who receives a Shekel change to give two Kalbonos is the opinion of R. Meir (This opinion is indicated in the Beraisa).
(Rav): This requirement to give two Kalbonos is according to all opinions (one Kalbon for bringing a non-standard coin, and one for getting change).
According to Rav, R. Meir would require three Kalbonos.
This was, indeed, explicit in a citation of Rav.
BROTHERS AND PARTNERS GIVING MA'ASER
They are obligated in Kalbon and exempt from Ma'aser in the case where they split up (the inheritance) and re-joined as partners.
The reverse would be the case if they did not divide.
(R. Elazar): A split is only when they divided the assets by valuation (not just numerically) [Yesh Bereirah].
(R. Yochanan): Even a numerical split is considered a division [Ein Bereirah] and a purchaser (or one who receives a gift) is exempt from Ma'aser Beheimah.