(a)'Shechuzos' means with the sheep's tails held upwards. What does Kevulos mean? Why was this done?
(b)What does the Gemara prove, in this regard, from the Pasuk in Melachim "Vayikra Lahem Eretz Kevul Ad ha'Yom ha'Zeh? About what and about whom is the Pasuk speaking?
(c)What are the two connotations of the word 'K'vul'?
(d)What is 'Kevunos', and why is it called by that name?
(a)'Kevulos' (from the word 'Kavlei Barzel' - meaning fetters) means with their tails tied down, to prevent the males from coming on them.
(b)The Pasuk "Vayikra Lahem Eretz K'vul" etc., which refers to the twenty-two cities which Shlomoh gave to Chiram King of Tyre. He called that area 'Eretz Kevul' because its inhabitants were people who were 'heavily laden' with silver, and he was not happy with the gift, because people who are so wealthy do not bother to work the land. Consequently, the land would prove to be unfruitful, which is also the meaning of the word in our Mishnah.
(c)As we just explained, 'K'vul' means a. unfruitful, and b. 'heavily weighed down'.
(d)'Kevunos' means 'joined together' (because one clips the two ends together like a brooch). It refers - to a woolen cloth which one wraps around the lamb's back, on the day it is born, in order to preserve the whiteness of its wool.
(a)According to one Lashon, Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yossi in our Mishnah, (who forbids goats to go out 'tied', whether it is to dry up the milk or to preserve it (see Rashi in our Mishnah DH 'Tzeruros').In another Lashon, he rules like Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira. What does Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira say?
(b)What is the difference between the two opinions (see Tosfos, DH 'Halachah')?
(c)Rav rules like Rebbi Yehudah, and Ravin quoting Rebbi Yochanan, like the Tana Kama. Which Tana Kama, and what does he say?
(a)According to one Lashon, Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yossi in our Mishnah, (who forbids goats to go out 'tied', whether it is to dry up the milk or to preserve it (see Rashi in our Mishnah DH 'Tzeruros').In another Lashon, he rules like Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira - who agrees, on principle, with Rebbi Yehudah, who differentiates between allowing a goat to go out with its teats tied in order to dry the milk on the one hand, and in order to catch the milk that drips, on the other. He disagrees with him in practice though, on the grounds that it is difficult to know why they have been tied, and the person who sees them tied will think that it is permitted, even when it is to catch the milk.
(b)The difference between the two opinions (see Tosfos, DH 'Halachah') will be in a place where people do not tie up the goats' teats to catch the milk, only to cause them to dry, Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira will permit it - like Rebbi Yehudah, whereas Rebbi Yossi will not.
(c)Rav rules like Rebbi Yehudah, and Ravin, quoting Rebbi Yochanan, like the Tana Kama of our Mishnah, who permits the goats to go out in both cases.
(a)A camel is not allowed to go out with a 'Metulteles'. Rashi, in the Mishnah, rejects the interpretation of this as being a strap under its tail, and accepts that of a saddle-cloth. How does he explain 'Metulteles' in the Sugya?
(b)What is the reason for this prohibition?
(c)Why is it permitted when it is tied to the placenta?
(a)A camel is not allowed to go out with a 'Metulteles'. Rashi, in the Mishnah, rejects the interpretation of this as being a strap under its tail, and accepts that of a saddle-cloth. In the Sugya however - he explains 'Metulteles' to be a stuffed pad that one places underneath the strap which is tied below the camel's tail. Its purpose is to alleviate the pain which the camel will otherwise feel when, as it goes downhill, the strap (which is holding the load on its back, stopping it from slipping on the camel's neck), cuts into its flesh. The pad now takes the strain.
(b)The reason for the prohibition is - because, it may fall off, in which case, we are afraid that the owner will pick it up and carry it.
(c)When it is tied to the placenta, we are not afraid that the camel will exert pressure, causing it to come loose and fall off, because any pressure on the placenta is painful.
(a)Under which circumstances may one allow one's camel to go out with a saddle-cloth on its back, and why is that?
(b)Nor may the camel go out when it is 'Akud' or 'Ragul'. What are the two meanings of 'Akud'?
(c)What does 'Ragul' mean?
(a)One may allow one's camel to go out with its saddle-cloth tied both to its tail and to its hump, because, in that case, it cannot fall off, and we do not need to worry that he may come to carry it.
(b)Nor may the camel go out when it is 'Akud' or 'Ragul'. 'Akud' means - either that the camel's forelegs are tied with its hind legs (like Yitzchak was tied at the Akeidah), or that its two forelegs are tied together, and so are its two hind legs (both are in order to prevent the camel from running away).
(c)'Ragul' means - that the foreleg is bent at the knee, and tied, also to prevent the animal from running away.
(a)Why may one not go out holding a rope leading a camel-train on Shabbos?
(b)Is there any way that one may go out leading a number of camels?
(c)One must nevertheless take care that one does not wind the ropes around one's hand - because of Kil'ayim. Does this mean that a person is forbidden to plow or pull a load together with an animal?
(d)Then what does the Mishnah mean?
(a)One may not not go out holding a rope leading a camel-train on Shabbos - because this conveys the impression that one is taking them to market, which is forbidden on Shabbos.
(b)There is a way that one may go out leading a number of camels - if one holds all the reins in one's hand, leading the camels like that.
(c)One must nevertheless take care that one does not wind the ropes around one's hand, because of Kil'ayim. This does not mean that a person is forbidden to plow or pull a load together with an animal - because 'Kil'ayim' refers, not to K'lai Beheimah, which does not incorporate a human being (who is permitted to pull a load together with any animal).
(d)The Mishnah is in fact - referring to K'lai Begadim, because it speaks when some of the ropes are made of wool, and some of linen. Even then, the prohibition only applies if he also ties the ropes into a double-knot; otherwise, that too is permitted.
(a)Three Shiurim are mentioned in connection with the excess rope: One Tefach, two Tefachim and not within one Tefach of the ground. How do we reconcile all three Shiurim?
(a)Three Shiurim are mentioned in connection with the excess rope: One Tefach, two Tefachim and not within one Tefach of the ground.If two Tefachim of reins which the person is holding, protrudes from his hand, it looks as if he is carrying the reins, and is therefore forbidden. Shmuel was strict and forbade even one Tefach (even though if someone would do this he would not transgress anything). The Beraisa which permits holding the ropes, provided the reins do not dangle to within one Tefach from the ground, is not speaking about the end of the reins, but the middle, which may not sag to within a Tefach from the ground.
(a)What does the Tana of our Mishnah mean when he writes that a donkey not go out with a saddle-cloth that is not tied to it?
(b)He also forbids it to go out with a bell. What sort of bell are we talking about? Why is this Isur?
(c)What is ...
1. ... a 'Sulam she'be'Tzavaro'?
2. ... a Retzu'ah she'be'Raglo'?
(d)What is the purpose of ...
1. ... the thread in the chicken's feet?
2. ... the strap tied to their feet?
3. ... the wagon under the ram's tail?
(a)When the Tana of our Mishnah forbids a donkey to go out with a saddle-cloth that is not tied to it - he means which was not tied to it before Shabbos (and it will not help to tie it on Shabbos), as we explained earlier.
(b)He also forbids it to go out with a bell - even with a bell whose striker has been blocked, because it nevertheless looks as if he is taking his donkey to market.
1. A 'Sul'am she'be'Tzav'aro' is - a splint that one ties by the donkey's cheek, to prevent it from turning its head, and rubbing a wound on its body with its teeth.
2. A 'Retzu'ah she'be'Raglo' is - a thick thread tied to its foot, which is used for an animal which tends to take short steps. The thick strap, tied at the point on its legs where they touch, prevents its legs from knocking together.
(d)The purpose of ...
1. ... the strap on the chicken's feet - is to enable the owner to identifify his chickens.
2. ... the strap tied to their feet - is to prevent it from jumping on fragile vessels and breaking them.
3. ... the wagon under the ram's very large tail - is to prevent from getting damaged on rocks and large stones.
(a)Why may a donkey go out with a splint which is made for a fracture, but not with one that is made to prevent the donkey from scratching itself?
(a)A donkey go out with a splint which is made for a fracture, because it is cheap and easily replaceable - but not with one that is made to prevent the donkey from scratching itself, because it is more valuable, so we are afraid that, should it fall off, he may come to carry it home.
(a)What purpose does the 'Chanun-stick' that they placed in the nose of the ewe serve?
(b)Why did they not also place it in the nose of rams?
(c)We initially think that it was a. a wad of cotton-wool placed on the ewe's forehead after it had been shorn, in order to keep it warm, or b. a similar device to keep it warm during child-birth. On what grounds do we reject ...
1. ... the first conrtention?
2. ... the second contention?
(d)According to those two contentions, why does the Tana refer to them as 'Chanunos'?
(a)The 'Chanun-stick' which they placed in the ewe's nose - was meant to stimulate sneezing, to eject the worms in its nose.
(b)They not place it in the nose of rams - because they did not need it, due to their constant fighting-sessions, during which they tend to knock their heads together, causing the worms to fall out.
(c)We initially think that it was a. a wad of cotton-wool placed on the ewe's forehead after it had been shorn, in order to keep it warm, or b. a similar device to keep it warm during child-birth. We reject ...
1. ... the first contention - on the grounds that such a device was reserved for the aristocracy, for people like Mar Ukva (who was the Av Beis-Din) - but not for a sheep!
2. ... the second contention - on the grounds that that is the sort of thing a person might do for his wife, whom he loves (like Rav Nachman did for his wife Yalsa), but for a sheep!
(d)According to those two contentions - 'Chanunos' means merciful, from the word 'Chanun'.
(a)One may not allow a calf to go out with a 'Gimon'. What is a 'Gimon'? What is the connection with the Pasuk in Yeshayah "ha'Lachof ke'Agmon Rosho"?
(b)Neither may one allow one's cow to go out with a hedgehog-skin tied over its breasts. What purpose did that serve?
(c)Nor may one allow a cow to go out with a colored strap tied between its horns, according to Rav, irrespective of whether it is meant as an ornament, or to guard the cow. What does Shmuel say?
(a)One may not allow a calf to go out with a 'Gimon' - a small yoke that was attached to a calf's neck, to break it in (to get it used to the idea of wearing a yoke). "ha'Lachof ke'Agmon Rosho" was a sharp rebuke of Yisrael by Yeshayah ha'Navi. He was asking them what the point was of bending their heads like reeds, when their hearts were not subdued. In any event, we see that an 'Agmon' is a reed which bends, with similar connotations to the Gimon in our Mishnah.
(b)Neither may one allow one's cow to go out with a hedgehog-skin tied over its breasts - to prevent leeches from feeding on its milk.
(c)Nor may one allow a cow to go out with a colored strap tied between its horns, according to Rav, irrespective of whether it is meant as an ornament, or to guard the cow. According to Shmuel however - the Tana only forbids it if is meant as an ornament, but not if it is to guard the cow.
(a)How many calves did Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya Ma'aser from his herd annually?
(b)Then why does the Tana refer to Rebbi Elazar's cow, as if that was the only cow that he owned?
(a)Each year - Rebbi Elazar would Ma'aser twelve thousand calves from his herd.
(b)It was not really Rebbi Elazar's cow at all, which used to go out with a strap, but his neighbor's. The Mishnah calls it his cow - because he failed to rebuke her, and was therefore blamed for the transgression as if he had transgresses himself.
(a)What do Rav, Rav Chanina, Rebbi Yochanan and Rav Chaviva go on to say about rebuking one's family, one's city and the whole world? What does 'the whole world' mean?
(b)Who replaces Rebbi Yochanan whenever this list appears in Seder Mo'eid?
(c)How do we derive from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Hash-m ba'Mishpat Yavo Im Ziknei Amo ve'Sarav"?
(a)Rav, Rav Chanina, Rebbi Yochanan and Rav Chaviva go on to say - that someone who is able to rebuke his family, and fails to do so, is blamed for all their sins, and the same goes for someone who has the power to rebuke his whole city and even (someone like a prince or a king, who has the authority to rebuke) the whole world - meaning Yisrael.
(b)Whenever this list of Amora'im appears in Seder Mo'eid - Rebbi Yonasan replaces Rebbi Yochanan.
(c)We derive from the Pasuk "Hash-m ba'Mishpat Yavo Im Ziknei Amo ve'Sarav" - because otherwise, whereas it is understandable that Hash-m takes the Jewish princes to task, since they are the ones who sinned; but why the elders (the Sanhedrin - who are guiltless)? Unless the Pasuk is telling us that He takes the elders to task for not rebuking the princes.