HOW MAY GOATS AND SHEEP GO OUT ON SHABBOS?
(Mishnah): Females may go out Kevulos.
Question: What does this mean?
Answer: The tail is tied down to prevent mating.
Question: What is the source that Kevulos denotes something that does not bear fruit?
Answer: "Mah he'Arim?Eretz Kavul".
Question: What does this mean?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): It was full of people adorned with gold and silver.
Question (Rava): If so, why was Chiram unhappy with them - "V'Lo Yoshru b'Einav"!
Answer (Rav Huna): Because they were rich and delicate, they did not work.
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): The land was sandy (alternatively - salty and cleaved).
Question: Why was it called Kavul?
Answer: One who walks in it sinks in until the Kavla (Rashi - ankle; Tosfos - thigh); this is like people say, a Mekavla land that does not bear fruit.
(Mishnah): They may go out Kevunos.
Question: What does this mean?
Answer: The wool is guarded [from birth to be utterly clean] for Milas (quality wool).
(Mishnah): [The appearance of Tzara'as called] Ses is like white wool.
Question: What is white wool?
Answer (Rav Bivi bar Abaye): It is wool of a newborn lamb that is guarded for Milas.
(Mishnah): Goats may go out wrapped.
Version #1 (Rav): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah (he permits wrapped to be dry, not for milk);
(Shmuel): The Halachah follows R. Yosi (he forbids both of these).
Version #2 (Rav): Goats may go out wrapped to be dry, not for milk;
(Shmuel): Both of these are forbidden. (Tosfos - in this version, they did not cite the Halachah in the name of the Tana'im, because there was dispute about which Tana said what.)
(Beraisa): Goats may go out wrapped to be dry, not for milk;
R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, [letter of the law] this is the Halachah - however, onlookers cannot tell the intent! Therefore, both of these are forbidden. (Tosfos - in a place where they are wrapped only to be dry, this is permitted.)
(Shmuel): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah ben Beseira.
(Ravin): The Halachah follows the first Tana (Tosfos - of the Beraisa; Rashi of our Mishnah).
TAKING AN ANIMAL OUT WITH ITS LIMBS TIED TOGETHER
(Mishnah): It is forbidden for animals to go out in the following ways:
A camel may not go out with Metulteles (a strap or pillow under the tail to stop a load from slipping; alternatively, a Marda'as), nor Akud nor Ragul (with limbs tied - these will be explained);
The same applies to all animals.
One may not tie camels one to another and lead them;
One may lead several camels at once, holding the ropes in his hand, on condition that he does not wind the ropes (this will be explained).
(Gemara - Beraisa): A camel may not go out with a Metulteles tied to the tail, but it may go out with a Metulteles tied to the tail and hump.
(Rabah bar Rav Huna): A camel may go out with a Metulteles tied to its bottom.
(Mishnah): It may not go out Akud nor Ragul.
(Rav Yehudah): Akud is when the hand (foreleg) and [hind] leg are tied together, like Akeidas Yitzchak (Medrash Tanchuma);
Ragul is when the hand is bent and tied [so it cannot be extended].
Question (Beraisa #1): Akud is when both hands or both feet are tied together; Ragul is when the hand is bent and tied.
Answer #1: Rav Yehudah holds like the following Tana:
(Beraisa #2): Akud is when the hand and leg are tied together, or both hands or both feet; Ragul is when the hand is bent and tied.
Objection: The Tana agrees with what Rav Yehudah calls Akud and Ragul, but he says that both hands or both feet tied together is also Akud, unlike Rav Yehudah!
Answer #2: Rather, Rav Yehudah holds like the following Tana:
(Beraisa #3): Akud is when the hand and leg are tied together; Ragul is when the hand is bent and tied.
(Mishnah): One may not tie camels one to the other and lead them.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer (Rav Ashi): It looks like he takes them to sell them in the market.
HOLDING THE ROPES OF AN ANIMAL ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may hold the ropes in his hand [but may not wind them].
(Rav Ashi): It is forbidden to wrap them on account of Kil'ayim.
Question: Which Isur of Kil'ayim does he refer to?
Suggestion: He refers to different species working together (he and the camels pull the ropes; alternatively, he and the camels pull a wagon, e.g. on a weekday).
Rejection (Mishnah): A person may plow or pull with any animal.
Answer: He refers to Sha'atnez (some ropes are of wool, others are of linen).
Objection (Beraisa): If wool and linen were connected through one stitch or knot, they are not considered connected regarding Kilayim (all the more so, ropes wound in the hand that are not tied)!
Answer: Really, he refers to Sha'atnez - the Mishnah means, one may not wind them and tie them [twice].
(Shmuel): One may not leave a Tefach of the ropes sticking out of his hand [away from the animals, for it looks like he carries something other than the reins].
Contradiction (Tana d'vei Shmuel): Two Tefachim may not stick out.
Resolution (Abaye): Letter of the law, up to two Tefachim may stick out - however, we tell people that only one Tefach may stick out.
Question (Beraisa): One may not let the rope hang within a Tefach of the ground [but we are not concerned if much sticks out of his hand]!
Answer: That refers to the rope between him and the camel.
THINGS ANIMALS MAY NOT GO OUT WITH
(Mishnah): A donkey may not go out with the following (most of them will be explained):
A Marda'as if it is not tied; a bell, even if the clapper is plugged; a 'ladder' on its neck; a strap between its legs.
A chicken may not go out with strings or ribbons on its legs;
A ram may not go out with a wagon under its tail; female sheep may not go out Chanunos;
A calf may not go out with Gimon; a cow may not go out with porcupine skin, nor with a strap between its horns;
The cow of R. Elazar ben Azaryah used to go out with a strap between its horns - Chachamim disapproved.
(Gemara) Question: Why is Marda'as forbidden?
Version #1 (our text, Rashi) Answer: This is like we explained (since it was not tied from before Shabbos, it is not considered clothing).
Version #2 (Tosfos): We are concerned lest it fall, and the owner will carry it in Reshus ha'Rabim. (end of Version #2)
(Mishnah): Nor with a bell, even if the clapper is plugged.
This is because it looks like he takes it to sell it in the market.
(Mishnah): Nor with a 'ladder' on its neck. (Rashi - from now on, everything is forbidden lest it fall, and the owner will carry it; Me'iri - some say that they are considered loads.)
(Rav Huna): This is tied to the jaw, to stop a donkey with a wound from scratching it with its teeth.
(Mishnah): Nor with a strap between its legs.
This is to prevent it from knocking its knees while it walks.
(Mishnah): A chicken may not go out with strings [on its legs].
The string shows who owns the chicken.
(Mishnah): ?Nor with straps on its legs.
This is to prevent it from breaking vessels.
(Mishnah): A ram may not go out with a wagon under its tail.
This is to prevent the tail from getting wounded on the ground.
THINGS ANIMALS MAY NOT GO OUT WITH (cont.)
(Mishnah): Female sheep may not go out Chanunos.
Explanation #1 (Rav Acha bar Ula): When they shear a sheep, they soak a tuft in oil and put it on the forehead so it will not be cold [until it grows more wool].
Objection (Rav Chisda): It is proper to show such concern for Mar Ukva (the Av Beis Din), but not for a sheep!
Explanation #2 (Rav Papa bar Shmuel): When a sheep gives birth, they put tufts soaked in oil on its forehead and womb to warm it.
Objection (Rav Nachman): It is proper to show such concern for Yalsa (my wife, the Nasi's daughter), but not for a sheep!
Explanation #3 (Rav Huna): This is a wood called Chanun found on islands - one puts a chip in its nostril to make it sneeze and expel worms from its head.
Question: If so, this should also be done for males!
Answer: Males batter each other, this causes worms to fall out.
Shimon Nezira: A chip of Risma (Rosem, a wood that makes hot coals - 37B) is used.
Question: According to Rav Huna, we understand why this is called Chanunos - how do the other opinions explain this?
Answer: This is a merciful thing to do (like Chanun).
(Mishnah): A calf may not go out with Gimon.
(Rav Huna): This is Bar Nira (a small yoke to accustom the calf to bend its head, so it will be prepared to bear a proper yoke when it matures).
(R. Elazar): He learns that Gimon connotes bending from "Ha'Lachof k'Agmon Rosho".
(Mishnah): A cow may not go out with porcupine skin.
This is put [over the udder] so that porcupines (Tosfos; Rashi - leeches) will not suckle.
(Mishnah): Nor with a strap between its horns.
Rav forbids this whether it is for Noy or for Shemirah; Shmuel forbids if it is for Noy, and permits if it is for Shemirah.
PROTESTING AGAINST TRANSGRESSORS
(Mishnah): R. Elazar ben Azaryah's cow
Question: R. Elazar ben Azaryah had more than one cow!
(Rav): R. Elazar ben Azaryah used to designate 12,000 calves to be Ma'aser every year (120,000 calves were born in his herds).
Answer (Beraisa): It was his neighbor's cow - since he did not protest, it was attributed to him.
(Rav, R. Chanina, R. Yochanan, and R. Chaviva (whenever these four taught in Seder Mo'ed, some versions replace R. Yochanan by R. Yonason)): If one could protest against the evil deeds of his household [and it would help] but he does not, he is punished for their sins;
If one could protest against the evil deeds of his city, or of the entire world, but he does not, he is punished for their sins.
(Rav Papa): The Reish Galusa is accountable for the sins of the world.
Question (R. Chanina): "Hash-m ba'Mishpat Yavo Im Ziknei Amo v'Sarav" - if the Sarim (officers) sinned, why are the Chachamim punished?
Answer: They are punished because they did not protest against the Sarim.