[54a - 48 lines; 54b - 45 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Gemara 54a [line 7]:

The words "Amar Rav Huna, she'Hayu Bah Bnei Adam" אמר רב הונא שהיו בה בני אדם

should be "Amar Rav Hamnuna, she'Hayu Bah Bnei Adam" אמר רב המנונה שהיו בה בני אדם

This is the Girsa of the Oxford manuscript and the manuscript of the Yalkut Shim'oni (Hagahos Dikdukei Sofrim). This Girsa is more plausible, since it was Rava who answered him.

[2] Mishnah 54a [line 30]:

"b'Metulteles" במטולטלת

In the Mishnayos and in the Rif the Girsa is "b'Metuteles" במטוטלת.

[3] Rashi 54a DH va'Yikra Lahem ד"ה ויקרא להם:

"b'Esrim u'Shtayim Ir" בעשרים ושתים עיר

The word "U'Shtayim" is unnecessary (Ya'avetz).


1)[line 2]מכבליןMECHABLIN- they tie

2)[line 2]אליהALYAH- tail

3)[line 5]"[ויאמר] מה הערים האלה אשר נתת לי אחי, ויקרא (להן) ארץ כבול עד היום הזה""[VA'YOMER] MAH HE'ARIM HA'ELEH ASHER NASATA LI ACHI, VA'YIKRA LAHEM ERETZ KAVUL AD HA'YOM HA'ZEH"- "[And Chiram said to Shlomo ha'Melech,] 'What are these cities that you have given me, my brother (as payment for my supplying the wood and gold for the Beis ha'Mikdash and the king's palace)?' And he called them the land of Kavul until this day." (Melachim I 9:13)

4)[line 8]מכובלין בכסף ובזהבMECHUBALIN B'CHESEF UVE'ZAHAV- were extremely rich, who did not work (lit. that were wrapped up in silver and gold)

5)[line 11]כיון דעתירי ומפנקיKEIVAN D'ATIREI U'MEFANKEI- since they were rich and spoiled

6)[line 11]לא עבדי עבידתאLO AVDEI AVIDTA- they do not do work

7)[line 13]חומטוןCHUMTON- a sandy soil containing salty substances

8)[line 13]משתרגא בה כרעאMISTARGA BAH KAR'A- the foot sinks in it

9)[line 14]עד כבלאAD KAVLA- until the ankle (O.F. chevile)

10)[line 14]ואמרי אינשי ארעא מכבלאV'AMREI INSHEI AR'A MECHABLA- That is, "It is a common expression to use the word 'Kavul' to refer to land which is unproductive." (This is cited in support of the Gemara's explanation of the Mishnah, and the second interpretation of the verse in Melachim.) (ME'IRI)

11)[line 16]שמכבנין אותו למילתSHE'MECHABNIN OSO L'MEILAS- they tie a cloth around its wool (to keep it clean) using clasps [(O.F. nosche) brooch (clasp)] in order to make with it garments of fine wool.

12)[line 16]שאת כצמר לבןSE'ES K'TZEMER LAVAN (NEGA'IM)

(a)When a person develops a mark that looks like Tzara'as, a Kohen must ascertain whether or not it is a Nega Tzara'as. If it is indeed a Nega Tzara'as, the Kohen pronounces him Tamei, puts him in quarantine (Hesger), and returns after a week to see what changes, if any, occurred to the mark.

(b)A person who is confirmed to be Tamei due to the appearance of Simanei Tum'ah in the mark is called a Metzora Muchlat. The color of the hair inside the mark of Tzara'as is one of the determining factors in the decision of the Kohen.

(c)The names and colors of the four marks that make a person a Metzora Muchlat are: (1) Baheres, which is the color of snow; (2) Se'es, which is the color of clean, white sheep's wool; (3) Sapachas of Baheres, which is the color of the plaster used to whitewash the Beis ha'Mikdash; (4) Sapachas of Se'es, which is the color of the white membrane found on the inside of an eggshell.

13)[line 26]מי מפיסMI MEFIS- who will be able to tell which is for drying purposes and which is for milking purposes? (lit. who will draw lots?)

14)[line 30]במטולטלתMETULTELES- (a) the harness that is placed under the tail of a camel; (b) the saddle pad of a camel; (c) a small pillow placed under the tail-harness to prevent chafing of the camel's legs by the harness straps (these three explanations are in RASHI); (d) a small cloth tied to the camel's tail as a badge or a charm (to prevent Ru'ach Ra'ah, which may explain the "Ru'ach" referred to in the Tosefta 5:3) (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos and ARUCH)

15)[line 30]עקודAKUD- (a) with each fore-leg loosely tied to each hind-leg; or (b) with its fore-legs loosely tied together and its hind-legs loosely tied together, to prevent the camel from running away

16)[line 31]רגולRAGUL- with one fore-leg folded up and tied to its thigh, to prevent the camel from running away

17)[line 32]שלא יכרוךSHE'LO YICHROCH- that he should not tie [the ropes together]

18)[line 34]חוטרתוCHOTARTO- its hump

19)[line 35]שילייתהSHILYASAH- its birth sack or placenta

20)[line 37]שלא יכוף ידו על גבי זרועוSHE'LO YAKOF YADO AL GABEI ZERO'O- that he should not bend its fore-leg so that the foot is next to the thigh

21)[line 42]כמאן דאזיל לחינגאK'MAN D'AZIL L'CHINGA- like he is going to the marketplace [to sell them]

22)[line 43]כלאים דאדםKIL'AYIM D'ADAM (KIL'EI BEHEMAH)

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem, Kil'ei Zera'im and Harkavas ha'Ilan. Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah, and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor. One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez. (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.")

(b)CHARISHAH B'SHOR VA'CHAMOR refers to the prohibition of doing any type of Melachah (work) with two different types of animals, as the Torah states "Lo Sacharosh b'Shor uva'Chamor Yachdav" (Devarim 22:10). Doing an act of driving or riding two different types of animals together is included in the definition of Melachah. One who intentionally transgresses this prohibition is liable to Malkos.

1.Some rule that the Torah prohibition applies to doing work with any two types of animals together (see Mishnah Kil'ayim 8:2, and Rishonim). The RAMBAM (ibid., Kil'ayim 9:9), however, rules that the Torah only prohibits doing work with one kosher and one non-kosher animal together, such as an ox and a donkey (Shor v'Chamor). The Rabanan prohibited doing work with any two types of animals, even if they are both kosher or both non-kosher.

(c)The Mishnah (Kil'ayim 8:6) states that this prohibition does not apply to people. A person may plow, pull or lead along with a species of animal.

23)[line 44]כלאים דחבליםKIL'AYIM D'CHAVALIM - when the ropes (some of which are of wool and some are of linen) with which he holds the camels are tied together, a forbidden mixture of wool and linen is created (SHA'ATNEZ)

(a)The word Kil'ayim means "forbidden mixture," which refers to two items, each of which is permitted individually, which the Torah prohibits to combine. Many different types of forbidden mixtures can be referred to by the term "Kil'ayim." Three types of Kil'ayim apply to plants: Kil'ei ha'Kerem, Kil'ei Zera'im and Harkavas ha'Ilan. Two types of Kil'ayim apply to animals: Harba'ah, and Charishah b'Shor va'Chamor. One type of Kil'ayim applies to clothing: Sha'atnez. (It is also prohibited to cook meat and milk together, but this is not referred to as "Kil'ayim.") Our Gemara refers to Kil'ayim of clothing.

(b)Sha'atnez is a mixture of wool and linen which is prohibited, as the Torah states in Devarim 22:11. Chazal teach that the word "Sha'atnez" is made up of three smaller words — "Shu'a" (combed), "Tavi" (spun) and "Noz."

(c)The Rishonim disagree over the translation of the word "Noz":

1.RASHI (Nidah 61b and Horayos 11a DH Noz) and the RASH (Mishnayos Kil'ayim 9:8) learn that Noz means woven together (the wool and linen are woven together in a garment).

2.TOSFOS (Nidah 61b DH Shua Tavi v'Noz) disagrees with Rashi's explanation. We learn that the prohibition of Sha'atnez applies only when the wool and linen are woven together from the word "Yachdav" in the verse. If so, Noz does not mean "woven together." Rather, Noz means that the threads must be twisted or wound.

(d)The Rishonim disagree about how the wool and linen must be joined in order to transgress the Torah prohibition of Kil'ayim:

1.RASHI (ibid.) holds that the wool and linen must be combed, spun, and woven together. That is, the strands of wool must be combed together, spun together, and then woven together with the linen in order to transgress the prohibition of Sha'atnez. If the strands of wool are combed or spun separately from the strands of linen, even though they are later woven into a garment together, the Torah prohibition of Sha'atnez has not been transgressed.

2.TOSFOS (ibid.) learns that one transgresses the Torah prohibition if the wool and linen are combed, spun, and twisted separately, and are then joined together by two stitches. The RASH (ibid.) agrees with Tosfos, and rules that if the wool and linen are combed and spun separately and then joined, the prohibition of Sha'atnez has been transgressed. (However, the Rash does not require that the threads be twisted, see c:1.)


24)[line 4]זוגZOG- (O.F. eschelete) a little bell

25)[line 4]פקוקPAKUK- stopped up

26)[line 5]סולם שבצוארוSULAM SHEB'TZAVARO- a small ladder tied to its neck to prevent it from scratching a wound that has started to heal

27)[line 5]ברצועה שברגלוRETZU'AH SHEB'RAGLO- straps that are tied on each foot to prevent them from striking each other

28)[line 7]הזכריםHA'ZECHARIM- the rams

29)[line 7]עגלה שתחת האליה שלהןAGALAH SHE'TACHAS HA'ALYAH SHELAHEN- the little cart that is beneath its tail (to protect the tail from injury)

30)[line 8]חנונותCHANUNOS- a twig of wood from the Chanun tree is implanted in their noses so that they will sneeze, which dislodges parasites from their heads. The Gemara suggests some other explanations.

31)[line 9]גימוןGIMON- a small yoke

32)[line 9]עור הקופרOR HA'KUPAR- skin of a hedgehog (O.F. hericon)

33)[line 14]כמאן דאזיל לחינגאK'MAN D'AZIL L'CHINGA- like he is going to the marketplace [to sell them]

34)[line 16]בי לועאBEI LO'A- [it is tied at] the cheekbone

35)[line 17]חייך ביהCHAYICH BEI- to gnaw or scratch it

36)[line 18]גיזראGIZRA- (O.F. entretailier) a self-inflicted injury (caused by one foot striking against the other while walking)

37)[line 19]סימנאSIMANA- symbol

38)[line 20]דלא ליחלפוD'LO LICHLEFU- so that they not be mistaken for someone else's chickens

39)[line 21]דלא ליתברו מאניD'LO LISBERU MANEI- so that they should not break any utensils

40)[line 22]דלא לחמטן אלייתיהD'LO LICHAMTAN ALYASEI- in order that its fatty tail should not become bruised (O.F. blecier)

41)[line 25]טומנין לה עזק בשמןTOMNIN LAH EZEK B'SHEMEN- they dip a wad of cotton or any other soft material in oil, for the sheep

42)[line 26]פדחתהPADACHTAH- its forehead

43)[line 27]לא תצטנןLO TITZTANEN- it should not get cold

44)[line 27]עשיתה מר עוקבאASISAH MAR UKVA- then you are treating it like Mar Ukva

45)[line 30]כורעת לילדKORA'AS LEILEID- it kneels down to give birth

46)[line 32]עשיתה ילתאASISAH YALTA- you have treated it like Yalta (the wife of Rav Nachman)

47)[line 33]כרכי היםKERAKEI HA'YAM- fortified port cities

48)[line 35]יפלו דרני ראשהYIPLU DARNEI ROSHAH- the parasites of its head should be dislodged

49)[line 36]כיון דמנגחי זכרים בהדדיKEIVAN D'MENAGCHEI ZECHARIM BA'HADADI- since the rams butt one another

50)[line 37]ממילא נפלןMEMEILA NAFLAN- the parasites fall off on their own

51)[line 37]קיסמא דריתמאKISMA D'RISMA- a twig of broom wood

52)[line 40]דמרחמינן עלייהוD'MERACHAMINAN ALAIHU- whereby we have mercy on them

53)[line 41]בר ניראBAR NIRA- a small yoke

54)[line 43]"הלכוף כאגמון ראשו""HA'LACHOF K'AGMON ROSHO" - "is it to bow down his head like a bulrush" (Yeshayah 58:5) (THE NAVI REBUKES THE PEOPLE FOR THE WAY THEY FAST)

(a)Bulrushes are always bent, and therefore their name is used with the connotation of something that bends or causes to bend, as the yoke in our Gemara.

(b)The full verse reads, "Will I choose such a fast, a day when man afflicts himself? Where he bends his head like a reed and wears sack-cloth? Is this what you call a fast, a day of favor for HaSh-m?]"

(c)The people wanted to know why their fasts were not being accepted. Yeshayah, the Navi, responded to them with this verse.

(d)The verse continues, "The fast I will choose is one where you break open the shackles of wickedness, where you untie the bonds of injustice and let the oppressed go free. If you will give your bread to the hungry, and the wretched you will take home, when you see a naked person you will clothe him and from your own flesh and blood you will not hide — then, and only then, will HaSh-m be happy to answer your prayers and heed your cries."

(e)Interestingly, the Navi's reproofs concern only sins between man and man. He says nothing about the people's sins between man and HaSh-m (of which there were plenty, including the three cardinal sins, idolatry, adultery, and murder).

55)[line 44]דלא למציוה יאליD'LO L'MATZYUHA YA'ALEI- so that leeches (O.F. sansues) should not suck from it

56)[line 50]בכוליה דסדר מועד כל כי האי זוגא חלופי רבי יוחנן ומעייל רבי יונתןB'CHULEI D'SEDER MO'ED, KOL KI HAI ZUGA, CHALUFEI REBBI YOCHANAN U'ME'AYEIL REBBI YONASAN- (In all of Seder Mo'ed, when these four are mentioned together, some say that actually Rebbi Yonasan was in the group, and not Rebbi Yochanan.) This is a parenthetical statement.

57)[line 54]דבי ריש גלותאD'VEI REISH GALUSA- of the house of the Reish Galusa