(a)Why should one not place one's hand in front of the Mekom ha'Milah when Toveling?
(b)Why did Rebbi Avahu then do so?
(c)What did other Rabbanan used to do when going down to the river to Tovel, and when returning?
(a)One should not place one's hand in front of the Mekom ha'Milah when Toveling - because, by doing so, it looks as though he is denying the covenant that Hash-m made with Avraham.
(b)Rebbi Avahu did it after the Tevilah - as he was coming up from the river, when it is considered Tzeni'us to do so.
(c)Other Amora'im coming up from the river after they had Toveled, used to bend over in order to cover the Makom ha'Milah.
(a)Why is it forbidden to touch the Mekom ha'Milah?
(b)Why might it possibly be permitted to do so when going to Tovel in a river?
(c)The Gemara proves this from the Mishnah of 'Baleshes ha'Nichnas la'Ir'. What does the Mishnah say there, and what is the proof from there for our case?
(a)It is forbidden to touch the Mekom ha'Milah - because the heat is likely to cause an emission - which Chazal consider as if one had brought another flood upon the world.
(b)It is possibly permitted to touch the Mekom ha'Milah when going to Tovel in a river, because the fear of the river will prevent him from having the sort of thoughts that lead to an emission.
(c)The Mishnah writes that if a group of armed Nochri soldiers enter a city, then all open barrels of wine are forbidden, because we suspect that they helped themselves to their contents. But that is only if they enter in time of peace; in time of war, all the barrels (even the open ones) are permitted, because we presume that they are afraid of being court-marshaled for laxness. So we see that fear has the power to constrain a person from doing what he would otherwise do naturally; likewise, in our case, it will prevent him from having bad thoughts and causing an emission.
(a)Which useful tips (concerning Tevilah) did Rebbi Zeira learn from Rav Yehudah before leaving Bavel for Eretz Yisrael?
(b)How did Rebbi Zeira interpret the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Bavelah Yavo'u, ve'Sham Yih'yu"?
(a)Rebbi Zeira learnt from Rav Yehudah (who ordered his servant in Lashon ha'Kodesh, to bring him 'soap' and a comb) - that it is permitted to speak Divrei Chol in Lashon ha'Kodesh, in a bathhouse; and that one should make a point of drinking some of the Mikveh water.
(b)Rebbi Zeira interpreted the Pasuk "Bavelah Yavo'u, ve'Sham Yihyu" to refer, not to the Jewish people - but to the holy vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(a)About what does the Beraisa say ...
1. ... 'Achilaso Dam, ve'Zehu Techilas Choli Me'ayim?
2. ... 'Achilaso Merakeves, ve'Zehu Techilas Rei'ach Ra?
(b)Which three things does the Tana advise someone who bathes in hot water to do?
(a)The Beraisa says ...
1. ... 'Achilaso Dam, ve'Zehu Techilas Choli Me'ayim' - about someone who eats, but does not drink.
2. ... 'Achilaso Merakeves, ve'Zehu Techilas Rei'ach Ra' - about someone who eats when he needs to relieve himself.
(b)The Tana advises someone who bathes in hot water - to drink some of the water, to douse himself with cold water and to anoint himself with oil.
(a)The Mishnah permits one to drink from a 'Muliar' which has been cleared of coals, but not from an 'Antichi'. The Beraisa explains a 'Muliar' to be a hot-water urn, with its own built-in coal section at the side. According to Rabah, an Antichi is a Bei Kiri, according to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, it is a Bei Dudi.What is a ...
1. ... 'Bei Kiri'? Why is its Din stricter than a Muliar?
2. ... 'Bei Dudi'? Why is its Din stricter than a Muliar?
(b)The Gemara corroborates the opinion of Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak from a Beraisa, which gives the reason for the prohibition to drink from it 'Mipnei she'Nechushtah Mechamemasah'. What does 'Nechushtah' mean?
(c)According to Rashi's Rebbes a Muliar is an urn with the coal section underneath. Then what generally makes an Antichi more stringent than a Muliar?
(d)On what grounds does Rashi disagree with his Rebbes?
(a)The Mishnah permits one to drink from a 'Muliar' which has been cleared of coals, but not from an 'Antichi'. The Beraisa explains a 'Muliar' to be a hot-water urn, with its own built-in coal section at the side. According to Rabah, an Antichi is a Bei Kiri; according to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, it is a Bei Dudi.
1. A 'Bei Kiri' is - an oven with a hole near the area where the coals are placed, into which one places the water to be heated. Its Din is stricter than a Muliar because for two reasons causes the heat of the water to increase, whereas the Muliar does not: a. because the walls of the 'Bei Kiri' are thick, and b. because it is used all week.
2. A 'Bei Dudi' is - a similar to a Muliar, only the coal section is underneath rather than at the side.
(b)We corroborate the opinion of Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak from a Beraisa, which gives the reason for the prohibition to drink from it 'Mipnei she'Nechushtah Mechamemasah' - and 'Nechushtah' means 'its base'.
(c)According to Rashi's Rebbes a Muliar is an urn with the coal section underneath. What generally makes an Antichi more stringent than a Muliar is the fact - that it is made of earthenware, whereas the latter is made of copper (a better conductor of heat).
(d)Rashi disagrees with his Rebbes - because, according to them, the Beraisa, which is describing a 'Muliar', should have written 'Mayim mi'Lema'alah, ve'Gechalim mi'Lematah' rather than 'Mayim mi'Bifnim, ve'Gechalim mi'Bachutz'.
(a)The Mishnah writes 'ha'Meicham she'Pinehu, Lo Yiten le'Tocho Tzonan Bishvil she'Yechamu'. How does Rav Ada bar Masna explain this?
(a)Rav Ada bar Masna explains the Mishnah 'ha'Meicham she'Pinehu', Lo Yiten le'Tocho Tzonan Bishvil she'Yechamu' to mean - if one emptied a boiling kettle of all its water, it is forbidden to pour into it a small amount of water( which will boil), only a lot of water (which will only become warm).
(a)What is 'Metzaref', and why is it Asur on Shabbos?
(b)Why, according to Rav Ada bar Masna, if someone pours a little cold water into a boiling hot pot on Shabbos, has one not transgressed the Melachah of Metzaref?
(a)'Metzaref' is - the process of strengthening metal vessels, pouring cold water into them after they have been intensely heated. This is forbidden on Shabbos because it is a branch of 'Makeh ba'Patish' - e.g. putting the finishing touches to a vessel.
(b)According to Rav Ada bar Masna, someone who pours a little cold water into a boiling pot on Shabbos has not performed Metzaref - because he neither intends to strengthen the vessel, nor is it 'P'sik Reisha' (inevitable, in which case Rebbi Shimon would agrees that 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven' is forbidden. See Tosfos D.H. 'Meicham').
(a)What is Abaye's objection to Rav Ada bar Masna's explanation of the Mishnah - 'ha'Meicham she'Pinehu?
(b)So how does Abaye interpret the Mishnah?
(c)Who will now be the author of our Mishnah, which forbids one to pour cold water into a boiling pot that has been emptied?
(a)Abaye disagrees with Rav Ada bar Masna's explanation - because the Tana does not write 'ha'Meicham she'Pinah Mimenu Mayim' etc., but 'ha'Meicham she'Pineihu' ... .
(b)He therefore interprets the Mishnah to mean that - if one removed the full pot from the stove, one may pour a lot of water into the boiling water that is in the pot, but not a little. (In his opinion, had he first emptied the pot, it would have been forbidden to fill it with cold water [see Tosfos Yeshanim]).
(c)The author of our Mishnah, who forbids pouring cold water into the empty pot - even though he did not intend to make Tziruf, must be Rebbi Yehudah, who holds 'Davar she'Ein Miskaven' Chayav.
(a)When Rav said 'Lo Shanu Ela Lehafshir, Aval Letzaref, Asur' (bearing in mind that Shmuel argues with him) he cannot have meant it literally. Why not?
(b)What then, did he mean?
(c)What does Shmuel say?
(d)What is now the basis of their Machlokes?
(a)When Rav said 'Lo Shanu Ela Lehafshir, Aval Letzaref, Asur', he cannot have meant this literally - because then, how would we explain the opinion of Shmuel, who says 'Afilu Letzaref Nami Mutar'? How can Shmuel permit Tziruf, which is a Melachah, as we explained earlier?
(b)What Rav must therefore have meant is that 'Shiur Lehafshir' is permitted. In other words, he learns like Rav Ada bar Masna, who (as we saw earlier) explains the Mishnah to mean that he emptied the water from the pot. He too, permits pouring a lot of water which will only warm it up, but unlike Rav Ada, he does not permit filling the pot with cold water, which is the Shiur Letzaref, but only to pour in a large amount of water which does not make Tziruf - i.e. not to the top.
(c)Whereas Shmuel permits even Shiur Tziruf (filling the pot to the top), provided he does not have the intention of making Tziruf.
(d)Rav holds like Rebbi Yehudah ('Davar she'Eino Miskaven Asur') - whereas Shmuel holds like Rebbi Shimon ('Davar she'Eino Miskaven Mutar'), as we have already learned a number of times (see 40a).