LAWS OF BATHING IN THE RIVER
(R. Zeira): I saw R. Avahu swim in a bath [on Shabbos] - I do not know whether or not he was Oker (Rashi - picked his feet off the ground; Me'iri - splashed water).
Question: Surely, he did not!
(Beraisa): One may not swim in a pool of water, even in a Chatzer (where we are not concerned for splashing water four Amos - the concern is that he will make a flotation barrel to support himself).
Answer: It is permitted when there are steep banks (Rashi - then it does not resemble a river, the decree does not apply; Me'iri - then, water does not splash to another Reshus), it is forbidden if the banks are not steep.
(R. Zeira): I saw R. Avahu put his hands over his Ever - I do not know whether or not he touched it.
Objection: Surely, he did not touch it!
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): One who holds his Ever while urinating causes [thoughts that can cause emissions of semen, like the sin of the generation punished by] a Mabul (flood)!
Answer (Abaye): Here there was no concern, like the case of soldiers:
(Mishnah): If soldiers entered a city in peacetime, open barrels of wine are forbidden [lest they were Menasech (poured) it to idolatry], closed barrels are permitted;
In wartime, all barrels are permitted because they do not have time to Menasech.
Inference: Because they are nervous, they do not Menasech.
Likewise, because R. Avahu was nervous, he would not have thoughts!
Question: Why was R. Avahu nervous?
Answer: He was afraid of the river.
Question: But R. Aba taught that putting one's hands over the Ever is like denying (showing that he is ashamed of) Bris Milah!
Answer: That applies to one who descends to the river (he does not face anyone) - but when he returns from the river [he faces people on the bank,] it is proper to cover it for modesty.
Rava use to bend over (Rashash - even when descending, this does not show shame like covering it), R. Zeira walked upright (he was concerned for R. Aba's law).
Rabanan of Rav Ashi's academy would descend upright, and bend over when returning.
R. Zeira wanted to go to Eretz Yisrael, therefore he was avoiding Rav Yehudah;
(Rav Yehudah): One who goes from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael transgresses an Ase - "Bavelah Yuva'u v'Shamah Yihyu Ad Yom Pokdi Osam" (Yisrael should remain there until Hash-m redeems them; R. Zeira held that the verse refers to Klei ha'Mikdash).
R. Zeira decided to hear another teaching of Rav Yehudah before leaving. He found him in the bathhouse, and heard him tell his servant [in Lashon ha'Kodesh] to bring soap and a comb; he also said 'Open your mouths and let the steam in, and drink hot water of the bathhouse (i.e. even if it was heated for bathing).'
R. Zeira: It was worth coming just to hear this!
Question: We understand what he learned from the command to bring soap and a comb, i.e. that one may speak secular matters in Lashon ha'Kodesh in a bathhouse;
'Open your mouths and let the steam in' teaches like Shmuel;
(Shmuel): Letting heat into the body causes one to emit heat (sweat, this is healthy).
But what do we learn from 'Drink hot water of the bathhouse'?
Answer (Beraisa): If one ate and did not walk four Amos before going to sleep (Rambam - if one did not walk four Amos [or exert himself in another way] before eating), the food [will not be digested properly, it] will rot [inside him] - this will lead to bad breath;
One who eats when he needs to move his bowels is like an oven ignited with the old ashes inside - this will lead to a persistent odor of sweat;
One who bathed in hot water and did not drink hot water is like an oven ignited externally but not internally;
One who bathed in hot water and did not rinse in cold water is like iron heated in the fire that was not put in cold water [to solidify it];
One who bathed and did not anoint [with oil (Tosfos - afterwards)] is like water on top of a barrel (it does not enter).
HOT WATER FROM A KETTLE
(Mishnah): (Mulyar and Antichi are kinds of kettles, the Gemara will describe them.) One may drink from a Garuf Mulyar on Shabbos (Rashi - the water is not heated [much] on Shabbos; Tosfos - one may mix the water with wine, it cannot cook the wine), but not from an Antichi, even if it was Garuf.
(Gemara) Question: What is a Garuf Mulyar?
Answer: [It has two receptacles;] the coals are on the outside (some say - on top), the water is inside.
Question: What is an Antichi?
Answer #1 (Rabah): It is Bei Kiri (an oven like a Mulyar, it has a receptacle for water next to that for the coals);
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): It is Bei Dudi (a big pot with two floors, coals are on the bottom, the water is on top).
Rav Nachman says that Antichi is Bei Dudi - all the more so he forbids drinking from Bei Kiri (it is hotter, for it is constantly heated for the sake of cooking);
Rabah says that Antichi is Bei Kiri - but he permits drinking from Bei Dudi (it is like Mulyar).
Support (for Rav Nachman - Beraisa): One may not drink from an Antichi, even if it was Garuf v'Katum, for the floor (some say - copper) radiates much heat.
PUTTING WATER INTO A HOT KETTLE
(Mishnah): If one cleared a [hot] kettle, one may not put water in it to get hot (this entire Mishnah will be explained), but one may put water in it or in a cup to become lukewarm.
(Gemara) Question: What does this mean?
Answer #1 (Rav Ada bar Masnah): If one cleared (emptied) the water out of a kettle, one may not put a small amount of water in it to get hot, but one may put much water in it to become lukewarm.
Question: This (putting cold water in hot metal) is Metzaref (solidifies the metal, this is forbidden on Shabbos!
Answer: He does not intend to Metzaref - the Mishnah is like R. Shimon, who permits Davar she'Eino Miskaven (something which may result in a transgression, if one does not intend for it).
Objection (Abaye): The Mishnah does not say that he cleared out of a kettle, rather, he cleared a kettle!
Answer #2 (Abaye): If one cleared a kettle [off a fire], one may not put a small amount of water in it to get hot, but one may put much water in it to become lukewarm;
If one emptied the water out of a kettle, one may not put any amount of water in it, for it is Metzaref;
The Mishnah is like R. Yehudah, who forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven.
(Rav): It is permitted to put water in it to become lukewarm, but not [in order] to Metzaref.
(Shmuel): It is permitted even to Metzaref.
Objection: Surely, one may not intend to Metzaref!
Correction: Rather, Rav permits only a Shi'ur [amount] of water which will become lukewarm, but not a Shi'ur to Metzaref;
Shmuel permits even a Shi'ur to Metzaref.