(a)What does the Gemara mean, when it writes in connection with the Machlokes between Rabbah and Rav Yosef regarding the duration of Bein ha'Shemashos - 've'Chilufa be'Chalsa'?
(b)What did Rabbah rule when Abaye asked him about carrying a beehive of two Kurim, and how come that he contradicted himself?
(c)A 'Bor Sefinah Alexanderis' has the equivalent Din to a beehive in this regard. What is a 'Bor Sefinah Alexanderis'?
(a)In the Din of dusk, Rabbah's Shiur is the larger, and Rav Yosef's, the smaller; but with regard to the Din of a beehive, which (like all large vessels above a certain size) does not have the Din of a vessel on Shabbos, and is Muktzah. Rabbah gives the smaller Shiur by which a beehive is no longer considered a vessel, and Rav Yosef the larger - according to Rabbah, a beehive of two Kur (sixty Sa'ah) is still considered a vessel, but one of three is not; whereas according to Rav Yosef, one of three Kurim is still considered a vessel, one of four is not.
(b)When Abaye asked Rabbah about carrying a beehive on Shabbos, he would not even permit him to carry one of two Kur, because when it came to the crunch, Rabbah ruled like the Tana in Keilim, who rules that beehives are not subject to Tum'ah if they hold forty Sa'ah of liquid, which is the equivalent of two Kur of solid content, because then, they are not considered vessels.
(c)A 'Bor Sefinah Alexanderis' is the water-tank of an Alexandrian boat.
(a)What is the significance of the words 'she'Yesh Lahen Shulayim', mentioned by the Mishnah in Keilim?
(b)What category of vessels is that Mishnah talking about, and what is its shape?
(c)What do we learn from the statement 've'Hen Machzikos Arba'im Sa'ah be'Lach, she'Hen Kurayim beYavesh'?
(a)The significance of the words 'she'Yesh Lahen Shulayim', mentioned by the Mishnah in Keilim - is that if the above vessels did not have a base, they would not receive Tum'ah anyway, since wood etc., is compared to a sack, which only receives Tum'ah when it is a receptacle (but remains Tahor when it is flat). The Chidush of the Mishnah in Keilim is that nevertheless (in spite of the fact that it is a receptacle), it is not Mekabel Tum'ah above a certain size.
(b)The Mishnah is dealing with the category of wooden vessel, as we have just explained, which is round like the Yam shel Shlomoh (in which the Kohanim Toveled in the Beis Hamikdash),
(c)We learn from the statement 've'Hem Machzikos Arba'im Sa'ah be'Lach, she'Hen Kurayim be'Yavesh' - that the 'Godesh' (the excess overflow - the heap that one piles on top of the produce that one is selling, is one third) - see Tosfos Eruvin quoted in the Mesores ha'Shas, who explains the ramifications of this statement.
(a)Why was Rava looking towards the West, when the Beraisa writes 'Kol Zeman she'Penei Mizrach Ma'adimin'?
(b)What is the window a sign for?
(a)In spite of the Beraisa 'Kol Zeman she'Penei Mizrach Ma'adimin' - Rava was looking towards the West.`because, in his opinion, 'Kol Zeman she'Penei Mizrach Ma'adimin', does not mean 'as long as the East is red', but as long as the 'face' which makes the East red, is red' - i.e. the West.
(b)Like a window, explains the Gemara, which lets in the sun's rays, to light up the opposite wall.
(a)Rebbi Nechemyah gives the time of dusk as half a Mil. What other sign does the Gemara give to determine Rebbi Nechemya'hs time-period?
(b)What is one likely to see if one looks down into the Sea from the top of Mount Karmel, and what will he be looking at?
(c)What was unique about Miriam's well?
(d)Was it Tahor or Tamei?
(a)One can also determine Rebbi Nechemya's dusk period by leaving the sun at the top of Mount Karmel, and then going down to Tovel - as one comes up from the water, night will fall.
(b)Someone who looks down from the top of Mount Karmel into the Sea, is likely to see - a round rock in the shape of a sieve; he will be looking at the Well of Miriam. Rashi (in Bamidbar 21:19) quotes a Medrash Tanchuma, who, using almost the same wording as our Gemara, writes that Miriam's well can be seen in the Sea of Teverya - the Kineres - [see also Rabeinu Chananel, here]. The 'Tabur ha'Aretz' explains that they used to call the Mountain known as the Yeshimon - 'the Karmel', and that that is the Mount Karmel referred to in our Gemara. It makes far more sense, for a number of reasons, to learn both this Gemara and that of Rebbi Nechemya in the previous question, that way.)
(c)Miriam's well was unique - in that it was the only roving well in the world.
(d)Nevertheless, it was not considered a vessel - and was therefore Tahor.
(a)Rav Yehudah quoting Shmuel, says that the Kohanim can Tovel in the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah. Why can this not be understood literally?
(b)What does Shmuel really mean, and what is his Chidush?
(a)When Shmuel said that the Kohanim Tovel during the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah, he cannot have meant according to Rebbi Yehudah - because the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah according to Rebbi Yehudah, is a Safek night (and the Kohanim are obligated to Tovel by day)?
(b)Shmuel must be referring to the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah, but according to Rebbi Yossi. The Chidush is that Rebbi Yossi's Bein ha'Shemashos begins only after Rebbi Yehudah's ends, and that someone who therefore Tovels during Rebbi Yehudah's dusk, has, in the eyes of Rebbi Yossi, Toveled by day.
(a)Rabbah bar bar Chanah, quoting Rebbi Yochanan, says that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah as regards Shabbos. What does that mean?
(b)He also rules like Rebbi Yossi with regard to Terumah. Why can this not refer to Tevilah?
(c)What then does it refer to?
(a)When Rabbah bar bar Chanah quoting Rebbi Yochanan, says that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yehudah as regards Shabbos he means - that although he is not sure whether to follow the opinion of Rebbi Yossi or of Rebbi Yehudah, he takes the strict view like Rebbi Yehudah regarding Erev Shabbos. Consequently, someone who does Melachah after sunset (according to Rabbah) or from the time that the Eastern horizon becomes dark (according to Rav Yosef), is Chayav to bring an Asham Taluy (like one brings for any other Safek Kares).
(b)When Shmuel rules like Rebbi Yossi regarding Terumah, he cannot be referring to Tevilah, to say that we have to be strict and forbid the Kohanim to Tovel during Rebbi Yossi's dusk period - because that would imply that they have to Tovel during Rebbi Yehudah's dusk period. But that is impossible, because, as we have already explained, the Kohanim must Tovel during the day, not at dusk?
(c)What he must therefore have meant is that the Kohanim are not permitted to eat immediately after the dusk period of Rebbi Yehudah, but have to contend with that of Rebbi Yossi; and it is only after the dusk period of Rebbi Yossi that they are permitted to eat Terumah.
(a)How is it possible to determine dusk and nightfall by the stars? What kind of stars are we talking about?
(b)For breaking Shabbos during dusk, one is normally obligated to bring an Asham Taluy, because it is only a Safek Shabbos. When would one be Chayav a Korban Chatas for doing so?
(c)Rava's Shamash was not conversant with the various Shiurim of dusk given by the Gemara. What did Rava tell him to do with regard to Hadlakas Neros
(d)What two signs does one have on a cloudy day?
(a)It is possible to determine dusk and nightfall by the stars like this: When only one star can be seen, it is still day; two stars are a sign of dusk, and three, of nightfall. We are talking of medium size stars, not the large ones that can be seen by day, and not the small ones that can only be seen at night.
(b)For breaking Shabbos during dusk, one is normally obligated to bring an Asham Taluy, because it is only a Safek Shabbos. One would be Chayav a Chatas dor doing so - if performed a Melachah during both the dusk periods of Erev Shabbos and Motza'ei Shabbos, since, one way or the other, he will have broken Shabbos.
(c)Rava's Shamash was not conversant with the various Shiurim of dusk given by the Gemara. Rava therefore instructed him - to light the Shabbos lights when the sun reached the top of the date-palms.
(d)On a cloudy day, one lights when the roosters are sitting on the beams and the ravens in the field, or when 'Adani-grass', which always lean towards the sun, bends towards the West.
(a)They used to blow six Teki'os before Shabbos came in: the first as a sign for people to stop work in the fields, the second for towns-people to stop work. The third is a Machlokes between Rebbi Nasan and Rebbi. What is the Machlokes?
(b)What does six Teki'os mean? What notes did they really blow?
(c)How long did they wait before blowing the final three blasts?
(d)Why did they begin blowing so early?
(a)They used to blow six Teki'os before Shabbos came in: the first as a sign for people to stop work in the fields, the second for towns-people to stop work. The third is a Machlokes between Rebbi Nasan and Rebbi - according to Rebbi Nasan, the third Teki'ah was a signal to kindle the Shabbos -lights, according to Rebbi, it was to remove one's Tefilin.
(b)Six Teki'os means: Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah; Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah.
(c)After the third Teki'ah, they would wait long enough to fry a small fish or to stick bread in the oven, before blowing the second set of three blasts. (The Rosh in Si'man 24, proves from here that bringing in Shabbos does not depend on lighting the Shabbos -lights, since, after kindling the Shabbos-lights, they would still roast a fish. The Ran however, rejects this proof).
(d)They began blowing so early - in order to bring in Shabbos slightly before the Sh'ki'ah, because of the MItzvah of Tosefes Shabbos (to add a little to the Shabbos day).
(a)What pattern of blowing did the Babylonians follow, according to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel's testimony?
(b)Why were those working in the fields closest to the town not permitted to come into town immediately? Why did they have to wait?
(a)According to Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel's testimony - the Babylonians would blow the second set of three in the form of Teki'ah, Teki'ah, Teru'ah.
(b)Those working closer to town were not permitted to enter straightway - to prevent the townspeople from suspecting those who worked further away, and who came in a little later, of not having stopped work immediately. So Chazal instituted that they should all come into town together.
(a)According to the second Beraisa, the second Teki'ah was a signal to do two things. Which two things?
(b)Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina maintains that they still had time to kindle the Shabbos lights after the sixth blast. What is the proof for that?
(c)What objection do we raise to Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina's proof?
(d)What then, did the Tokei'a do with his Shofar?
(a)According to the second Beraisa, the second Teki'ah was a signal to put up the shutters and close the shops.
(b)Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina proves that there must have been some leeway after the sixth blast - from the fact that the blower must have had time to take his Shofar (which is Muktzah once Shabbos enter) home.
(c)If one has to contend with the Tokei'a taking his Shofar home, we ask - then one would have to give different time allowances for different people, since it will depend on where each particular Tokei'a lives ('Im Ken, Nasata Devarecha le'Shiurin'!), and Chazal's decrees are standard (not a different Shiur to suit each individual).
(d)So we have to say that, after he had finished with the Teki'os - the Ba'al Tokei'a would hide his Shofar in a convenient spot in the location where he had blown.