THE MAXIMUM SIZE OF KELIM
They argue oppositely regarding a chest (Rav Yosef gives a bigger Shi'ur).
(Rabah): If a chest holds two Kor (a Kor is 30 Sa'im), one may move it [on Shabbos, it is considered a Kli]; if it holds three Kor, one may not move it;
(Rav Yosef): Even if it holds three Kor, one may move it; if it holds four Kor, one may not move it.
Abaye: A case occurred, I asked Rabah - he forbade to move even a two Kor chest.
This ruling is like the following Tana:
(Mishnah): The following are Tehorim (they are too big to be considered Kelim), even if they have bottoms, if they hold 40 Sa'im of wet measure, which is like two Kor of dry measure (it can be piled above the top) - a chest of straw or reeds, and a water pit in a big ship.
(Abaye): We learn from this that the Godesh (the amount that can be piled above the top) is [20 Sa'im,] a third of the [total dry] volume (60. This is for a chests of a standard shape.- the Godesh depends only on the length and width, but not on the height.)
WHEN IS BEIN HA'SHEMASHOS?
Version #1: Abaye saw Rava looking west [at the beginning of Shabbos, to see if it was still light].
Question (Abaye - Beraisa - R. Yehudah): As long as Penei Mizrach Ma'adimin (the eastern sky is reddish - you should look eastward! Surely he holds like Rav Yosef, that as long as it is red, it is still day.)
Answer (Rava): No, Penei Mizrach Ma'adimin means, the direction whose rays redden the east [at sunset], i.e. the west.
Version #2: Rava saw Abaye looking east; he told him, Penei Mizrach Ma'adimin means, the direction whose rays redden the east, i.e. the west. (end of Version #2)
A way to remember this is a window (light from it illuminates the opposite wall).
(Beraisa - R. Nechemyah): It lasts the amount of time needed to walk half a Mil after sunset.
(R. Chanina): To know the Shi'ur of R. Nechemyah, when the sun is at the peak of Mount Karmel, he should descend to immerse in the sea and ascend (Rashi - when he returns, it is night; Tosfos - he immerses while it is day, afterwards is Bein ha'Shemashos).
(R. Chiya): To see Miryam's well (that accompanied Benei Yisrael in the Midbar), he should ascend Mount Karmel and look - he will see [a round rock shaped like] a sifter in the sea.
(Rav): A moving well is Tahor.
The only such well is Miryam's.
(Rav Yehudah): Kohanim may immerse during Bein ha'Shemashos of R. Yehudah [and eat Terumah at night, i.e. it is day].
Question: According to which opinion is this?
Surely, it is not according to R. Yehudah - he considers it Safek!
Answer: It is according to R. Yosi.
Objection: This is obvious! (Since R. Yosi's opinion is brought at the end, surely it is after R. Yehudah's Bein ha'Shemashos.)
Answer: One might have thought that R. Yosi's Shi'ur is during R. Yehudah's, towards the end - Rav Yehudah teaches, this is not so, it begins after R. Yehudah's Shi'ur ends.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah regarding [doing Melachah on] Shabbos, the Halachah follows R. Yosi regarding Terumah (this will be explained).
Question: We understand, the Halachah follows R. Yehudah regarding Shabbos - this is a stringency [to cease Melachah at the start of Shabbos once R. Yehudah's Shi'ur begins];
In what respect does the Halachah follow R. Yosi regarding Terumah?
Suggestion: One may immerse during R. Yehudah's Bein ha'Shemashos [and eat Terumah at night].
Rejection: Since R. Yochanan forbids Melachah then, he considers it Safek!
Answer: Kohanim may not eat Terumah until after Bein ha'Shemashos of R. Yosi.
(Rav Yehudah): When [it begins to get dark and] one may see [only] one star it is still day; when two stars are visible, it is Bein ha'Shemashos; when three stars are visible, it is night.
Support (Beraisa): When one star is visible, it is still day; when two stars are visible, it is Bein ha'Shemashos; when three stars are visible, it is night.
R. Yosi says, this does not refer to big stars that are visible even during the day, nor small stars that are visible only [later] at night [when it is very dark], rather, it refers to medium stars.
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Zevida): One who did Melachos [all of] Bein ha'Shemashos of Erev Shabbos and [all of] Bein ha'Shemashos of Motzei Shabbos is Chayav Chatas - whether it is day or night, he did Melachah on Shabbos! (We must say that he did Melachos each Bein ha'Shemashos - if it was one prolonged Melachah, e.g. carrying in Reshus ha'Rabim, perhaps only half the Melachah was done on Shabbos!)
Rava (to his servant): You do not know the Shi'urim of Bein ha'Shemashos - light Ner Shabbos when [it is Vadai day, i.e. when] the sun is seen at the top of date trees.
Question: What should one do on a cloudy day?
Answer: If he is in a city, light when roosters sit on beams; if he is in a field, light when ravens sit or when mallow (a flower) leans all the way to the west.
THE SHOFAR BLASTS
(Beraisa - R. Noson): We blow six shofar blasts on Erev Shabbos to stop people from doing Melachah:
The first tells people in the field to cease Melachah (they need extra time to return home), the second tells people in cities and stores to cease Melachah,
The third tells people to light Ner Shabbos;
Rebbi says, the third tells people to remove Tefilin.
After the time needed to roast a fish or stick a dough to [a wall of] the oven, we blow Teki'ah (a long sound) - Teru'ah (broken sounds)- Teki'ah, then everyone stops all Melachah.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel: People in Bavel blow Teki'ah - Teru'ah, and cease Melachah after the Teru'ah (it would be better if they did like us)!
Objection: If so, they have only five blasts!
Correction: Rather, they blow Teki'ah - Teki'ah - Teru'ah, then cease Melachah!
We cannot change them, they follow the custom of their ancestors.
(Rav Yehudah): The second tells people to light Ner Shabbos.
Question: This is not like R. Noson, nor like Rebbi!
Correction: Rather, the third tells people to light Ner Shabbos - this is like R. Noson.
(Beraisa #1 - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): We blow six shofar blasts on Erev Shabbos:
The first tells people in the field to cease digging, plowing and all Melachah in the field;
Workers closer to the city must wait for those further away [to reach them] and they return together (lest people who do not know where everyone works will suspect that the latter return later because they continued to work after the first blast);
Stores may remain open with [merchandise on removable] doors outside [until the second blast];
After the second blast, the doors are removed and the stores are closed - pots and hot water may be left on ovens;
After the third blast, pots and hot water for the evening meal are taken off the oven and we are Matmin food for the morning meal;
After the time needed to roast a fish or stick a dough to the oven, we blow Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah, then everyone stops all Melachah.
(R. Yosi): I heard that one may light Ner Shabbos [right] after the final blasts - (they are somewhat before Shabbos, for the shofar was blown on the highest roof, and) Chachamim gave the Chazan (the overseer of the synagogue, who blows) enough time to return the shofar to his house before Shabbos.
(Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): If so, the time between the last blasts and Shabbos would vary (depending on how far away the Chazan's house is)! Rather, he has a hiding place for it on the roof;
One may not move a shofar or trumpet on Shabbos. (Chachamim forbade musical instruments, lest one will fix it.)
Contradiction (Beraisa #2): One may move a shofar on Shabbos, but not a trumpet.
Answer #1 (Rav Yosef): An individual may move his shofar, one may not move the shofar of the Tzibur.