AMORA'IM THAT HOLD LIKE R. SHIMON
Also R. Yochanan said that the Halachah follows R. Shimon.
Questions: But R. Yochanan said that the Halachah follows a Stam Mishnah (and there are Stam Mishnayos like R. Yehudah)!
Question #1 (Mishnah): One may not chop wood [even for the sake of cooking] from beams (designated for building) or from a beam that broke on Yom Tov.
Answer: R. Yochanan says that that [is not Stam, rather, it] is the opinion of R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah.
Question #2 (Mishnah): One may begin [to burn] straw from a pile (it is unfit for animals (it is spoiled or mixed with thorns), it is destined to be burned), but not from wood in a storage area (it is saved for winter).
Answer: That refers to cedar wood - even R. Shimon forbids, for it is Muktzeh on account of Chisaron Kis (it is valuable [for building], people do not use it for anything else. Now that we establish the Mishnah like R. Shimon, the straw can even be fit for animals.)
Question #3 (Mishnah): One may not give to drink (to facilitate flaying, or to clear the lungs) and slaughter Midbariyos (wilderness animals); one may give to drink and slaughter Baisos (domestic animals):
Answer: R. Yochanan relies on another Stam Mishnah which is like R. Shimon:
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): We may remove bones and peels from the table;
Beis Hillel say, we take the entire tabletop, and shake it (casting them off).
(Rav Nachman): [The opinions in our Mishnah must be switched -] Beis Shamai forbid Muktzeh like R. Yehudah, Beis Hillel permit like R. Shimon. (The Halachah always follows Beis Hillel, this is like (Tosfos Bechoros 32B - better than) a Stam Mishnah.)
(Rav Acha or Ravina): Regarding all laws of Shabbos (Ramban - including Muktzeh, Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah, Davar she'Eino Miskaven, and destructively wounding), the Halachah follows R. Shimon, except for Muktzeh on account of Mi'us (something that disgusts a person), e.g. a used [earthenware] lamp (and all the more so the Halachah is not like him regarding Muktzeh on account of Isur);
(The other of Rav Acha and Ravina): The Halachah follows R. Shimon even regarding Muktzeh on account of Mi'us, but not regarding Muktzeh on account of Isur (if he showed that he will not use it on Shabbos), e.g. a lamp in which a fire was burning at the start of Shabbos;
Even R. Shimon agrees about Muktzeh on account of Chisaron Kis:
(Mishnah): Any Kli may be moved, except for a big saw or the blade of a plow. (Tosfos (Sanhedrin 85A) - it was understood that all agree with the Stam Mishnah, for we do not find anyone that argues. Our text of the Mishnah (123B) attributes it to R. Yosi - perhaps, since he permits everything else but forbids Chisaron Kis, it is reasonable that R. Shimon does also - PF.)
PERMITTING VOWS ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): Mefirim (a husband or father may annul) vows on Shabbos, and Nish'alim on vows (we request a Chacham or Beis Din to permit them), if they are for the need of Shabbos.
One may plug up a Ma'or (a hole in a wall for light);
One may measure a rag or Mikveh;
A case occurred in the days of R. Tzadok's father and Aba Sha'ul ben Bitnis, they plugged a Ma'or with a flask, and tied a jug with a reed to determine whether or not there was a Tefach in [a crack in] a basket - we learn from this that it is permitted to plug, measure and tie on Shabbos.
Version #1 (Gemara) Question: Is Mefirim whether or not it is a need of Shabbos (because the Tana holds that Hafarah is only [during the day he heard the vow] until nightfall, it cannot be done after Shabbos), but Nish'alim is only if needed for Shabbos?
If so, we understand why Mefirim and Nish'alim were taught separately;
Or, perhaps even Mefirim is only if needed for Shabbos - they were taught separately because Hafarah does not require [a Chacham or] Beis Din, but Hatarah does!
Answer (Zuti d'vei Rav Papa's Beraisa): Mefirim for the need of Shabbos.
Inference: If it is not for the need of Shabbos, it is forbidden.
Version #2 - Question: Does 'for the need of Shabbos' refer to both Mefirim and Nish'alim, because the Tana holds that one has 24 hours to Mefer, he can Mefer after Shabbos?
Or, perhaps it refers only to Nish'alim, but Mefirim even not for the need of Shabbos, for it is only until nightfall! (Ramban - even if one has 24 hours to Mefer, one can Mefer a vow heard Erev Shabbos even not for the sake of Shabbos, since he cannot Mefer after Shabbos; alternatively, it is forbidden, since most existing vows on Shabbos [were heard in Shabbos, hence] have Hafarah after Shabbos (normally a person is Mefer right away.)
Answer (Zuti d'vei Rav Papa - Beraisa): Mefirim for the need of Shabbos.
This teaches that one has 24 hours to Mefer.
Question (Rav Ashi - Mishnah): Hafarah is all day [until nightfall] - sometimes this is lenient, sometimes it is stringent:
If she vowed (really, it does not depend on when she vowed, only on when he heard the vow - perhaps the Tana discusses one who vows in front of her husband) on Shabbos night, he may annul it Shabbos night or Shabbos morning, until nightfall;
If she vowed on Shabbos shortly before dark, he may annul it until dark.
If he did not annul it before dark, he can never annul it.
Answer: Tana'im argue about this:
(Beraisa): Hafarah is all day [until nightfall];
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon say, it is for 24 hours. (end of Version #2)
(Mishnah): Nish'alim on vows.
Question: Is this only if he did not have a chance before Shabbos - or is it even if he had a chance before Shabbos?
Answer: Rabanan permitted a vow for Rav Zutra brei d'Rav Zeira even though he had time before Shabbos.
ONE MAY PLUG, MEASURE AND TIE ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): They plugged a Ma'or with a flask, and tied a jug...
Version #1 (Rashi) (Rav Yehudah): There was a Mes on a small path between two houses; overhead was a cracked basket. (If the crack is less than a Tefach, the Tum'ah spreads to the sides if there is an opening.).
Version #2 (R. Chananel) (Rav Yehudah): There was a Mes in a house; there was a mound between it and another house, with a cracked basket on it that reached up to the roof. It was not known whether or not the crack was a Tefach, which would allow Tum'ah to pass to the other house. (end of Version #2)
They plugged the Ma'or before they knew the size of the crack (lest the house become Tamei); they tied a jug [a Tefach wide] to see [if it fits in the crack, i.e.] whether or not the crack is a Tefach.
(Mishnah): We learn from this that it is permitted to plug, measure and tie on Shabbos.
Ula saw Rabah bar Rav Huna measuring a barrel of water.
(Ula): The Mishnah permits measuring only for the sake of a Mitzvah!
Rabah: I measure without intent.