LIABILITY FOR KNEADING (cont.)
(Beraisa #2): All agree that one may mix Shasis (Kali and vinegar) on Shabbos, and one may drink Zeisum ha'Mitzri (a drink which overcomes constipation or diarrhea).
Question: The first Tana of Beraisa #1 forbids!
Answer: He forbids a thick mixture, all permit a thin mixture.
It is permitted only using a Shinuy.
Question: What Shinuy does he do?
Answer (Rav Yosef): He puts vinegar into Kali, whereas on a weekday he puts Kali into vinegar.
Levi brei d'Rav Huna found the caretaker of his father's animals kneading [bran with a Shinuy] and feeding the cattle (the Mishnah forbids this) - he kicked him.
Rav Huna: Your grandfather (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba) said in the name of Rav that we may knead [with a Shinuy], but we may not force feed;
If a calf does not take with its tongue (it is not used to eating), we may Mehalket with a Shinuy.
Question: What Shinuy does he do?
Answer #1 (Rav Yemar bar Shalmiya): He mixes [once] north-south, and [once] east-west.
Objection: This will not mix it enough!
Answer #2 (Rav Yehudah): He pours it into another Kli.
On Ze'iri's ledger it was written 'I asked my Rebbi (R. Chiya) whether or not one may knead - he forbade; I asked whether or not one may Mefarek (Rashi - take food from in front of animal and put it in front of another animal; RI - pour it into another Kli, to mix it well) - he permitted.
(Rav Menasiya): One may put one [normal portion of food] in front of one animal, and two in front of two; three in front of two is forbidden (it is extra Tirchah);
(Rav Yosef): One may put a Kav (about two liters), even two Kavim (even though this is more than usual);
(Ula): One may put a Kor (over 300 liters), even two Korim.
On Levi's ledger it was written 'I asked Rebbi about people that knead Shasis - he vehemently wanted to forbid, but people do not heed him; he lacked power to forbid against R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah [who permits with a Shinuy].
MAZAL OF DAYS
On R. Yehoshua ben Levi's ledger it was written 'If one was born on Sunday, he will be complete in one [Midah], and he will not have another [trait]'. (Ha'Kosev in Ein Yakov - the prohibitions of Nichush (saying that certain times are good or bad for certain things) and astrology only apply to senseless things - everything our Gemara will discuss has a basis in Chachmah or nature, it is permitted.)
Question: What does it mean 'He will not have another'?
Suggestion: It means, he will not have a good Midah.
Rejection: Rav Ashi was born on Sunday!
Answer #1: He will not have a bad Midah.
Rejection: Rav Ashi said, I and Dimi bar Kakuzta were born on Sunday - I became Rosh Yeshivah, he became head of the thieves! (It is the first day, the Mazal is conducive to becoming a leader.)
Answer #2: He will be completely good or totally bad.
This is because light and dark were created on this day.
(Continuation of the ledger): If one was born on Monday, he will be irritable.
This is because the upper and lower waters were divided on day two (likewise, the Mazal causes one to be isolated from people).
If one was born on Tuesday, he will be rich and adulterous.
This is because grass was created on day three (it multiplies greatly and mixes with other species).
If one was born on Wednesday, he will be Chacham and Nahir (have a good memory).
This is because the Me'oros (sun and moon) were created on day four.
If one was born on Thursday, he will bestow Chesed.
This is because fish and birds were created on day five (Rashi - people do not feed them, only Hash-m; Maharsha - they are hunted, so Hash-m bestowed a special Berachah on them lest they be diminished).
If one was born on Friday, he will pursue.
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): He will pursue Mitzvos (Rashi - this is when people are busy preparing for Shabbos; Maharsha - on Erev Shabbos, Hash-m gave Mitzvos to Adam).
If one was born on Shabbos, he will die on Shabbos.
This is because his birth caused Chilul Shabbos.
(Rava bar Rav Shila): He will be called 'a great Kadosh person' (because Hash-m was Mekadesh Shabbos; Maharsha - we see that many people born on Shabbos do not die on Shabbos - it is only for great Tzadikim, just like Hash-m completes their years (they die on their birthday), He completes their days of the week).
MAZAL OF HOURS
R. Chanina: Tell R. Yehoshua ben Levi that a person's Mazal (dispositions) do not depend on which day he was born, rather, on which hour he was born (the five closest planets, sun and moon alternate being 'dominant' for one hour, according to a fixed rotation).
If one was born when the sun is dominant, he will illuminate like the sun;
He will eat and drink his own food and drink (Rashi - like the sun, which does not overstep its boundary to rule at night, which was given to the moon; Etz Yosef - it radiates light, it does not receive light from another luminary);
His affairs will be exposed (like daylight) - he cannot succeed to be a thief.
If one was born under Mazal Venus, he will be rich and adulterous;
This is because fire [the Yetzer ha'Ra for Arayos] hangs from Venus.
If one was born under Mazal Mercury, he will be radiant and a Chacham;
This is because it is the scribe of the sun.
If one was born under the moon, he will bear afflictions; he will constantly build and destroy (like the moon, which periodically wanes and gets bigger);
He will eat and drink from others (like the moon, which tries to overstep its boundary and rule by day; alternatively - all its light is from the sun. Even though the planets' light is also from the sun, they do not give us much light, they themselves do not appear to be luminaries - PF)
His affairs will be covered - if he will be a thief, he will succeed.
If one was born under Shavtai (Saturn), his thoughts will be Shovsim (annulled; Maharsha - it is first to dominate on Shabbos);
Some say, other's thoughts about him will be annulled.
If one was born under Tzedek (Jupiter), he will be a Tzadik
(Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): He will be a Tzadik in Mitzvos (giving Tzedakah. PF - in addition to its name, perhaps this is hinted at by the many moons that surround this (the largest) planet, like Aniyim that accompany a generous Ashir. (Saturn also has many moons, but powerful telescopes are needed to see them).)
If one was born under Mazal Mars, he will spill blood;
(Rav Ashi): He will be a bloodletter, bandit, slaughterer or Mohel. (He can channel his disposition for something neutral, for Aveiros, or for Mitzvos.)
Rabah: I was born under Mars.
Abaye: Indeed, you punish and kill [people who transgress your words! Perhaps this means, they die for transgressing Divrei Chachamim - PF. Etz Yosef - Rabah ruled over and properly channeled his disposition to spill blood - but when he got drunk on Purim, his disposition was released, and he slaughtered R. Zeira (Megilah 7B).)
(R. Chanina): Mazal causes people to be Chacham or wealthy - Mazal applies to Yisrael;
(R. Yochanan): Mazal does not apply to Yisrael. (Maharsha - they only argue about individuals - all agree that Klal Yisrael is not governed by Mazal.)
This is like R. Yochanan taught elsewhere:
(R. Yochanan): We learn that Mazal does not apply to Yisrael from "...El Derech ha'Goyim Al Tilmadu ume'Osos ha'Shomayim Al Tachotu Ki Yechatu ha'Goyim me'Hemah";
(Rav): We learn that Mazal does not apply to Yisrael from "Va'Yotze Oso ha'Chutzah";
Avraham had told Hash-m "Ven Beisi Yoresh Osi" (I have no children, Eliezer will inherit me); Hash-m answered "[Lo Yirashcha Zeh] Ki Im Asher Yetzei mi'Me'echa".
Avraham: I see in my Itztagninus (the Chachmah of reading the stars) that I am not fitting to father a son!
Hash-m: Leave your Itztagninus - Mazal does not apply to Yisrael! You are concerned because Tzedek (your Mazal) is in the west (which is too cold to beget) - I will put it in the east!
This explains "Mi He'ir mi'Mizrach Tzedek Yikra'ehu l'Raglo".
Shmuel also holds that Mazal does not apply to Yisrael:
Some people heading to a swamp passed in front of Shmuel and Avlet (a Nochri astrologer); Avlet said that one of them will not return, he will be bitten by a snake and die.
Shmuel: If he is a Yisrael, he will return (I will pray that he overcome his Mazal).
The man returned; Avlet threw down the man's load and found a snake cut in two (the man unknowingly killed it while cutting reeds).
Shmuel: What happened?
The man: Every day we pool our bread and eat together - today, one of them did not have bread, he was embarrassed; I told them, I will collect - when I reached him, I put in my bread as if it was his, to spare him shame.
Shmuel: You did a [great] Mitzvah!
(Shmuel): "U'Tzdakah Tatzil mi'Maves" - not only does it save from a harsh death [and cause one to die in a nicer way], it literally adds life! (Maharsha - the snake brought death to [and was empowered to kill] man by causing him to eat b'Isur - he gave up his food to do a Mitzvah, therefore he was saved from this death.)
R. Akiva also holds that Mazal does not apply to Yisrael:
Astrologers told R. Akiva him that the day his daughter gets married, she will be bitten by a snake and die - he was very worried.
The day of her Chupah she inserted a decorative pin in the wall - it struck a snake in its eye. In the morning, she took it - the dead snake came out after it.
R. Akiva: What had you done?
His daughter: In the morning, an Oni came to the door - everyone else was busy with the meal, no one heard him - I took the portion you gave me, and gave it to him.
R. Akiva: You did a Mitzvah!
(R. Akiva): "U'Tzdakah Tatzil mi'Maves" - not only does it save from a harsh death, it literally adds life!
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak also holds that Mazal does not apply to Yisrael:
Astrologers had told his mother that her son will be a thief; she told him to always cover his head [well, the way Chachamim do - Maharsha], in order that fear of Shomayim will be upon him, and to request mercy [to be saved from the Yetzer ha'Ra] - he did not understand why.
One day he was learning under a date tree; his garment fell from his head. He looked up and saw the date tree - his Yetzer ha'Ra overpowered him, he cut a cluster of dates with his teeth (the tree was not his. This was his 'normal' disposition, his mother's advice enabled him to overcome it, except for this occasion.)
THE HALACHAH REGARDING MUKTZEH
(Mishnah): We may cut gourds in front of animals, and a carcass in front of dogs [on Shabbos];
R. Yehudah says, if it was not dead when Shabbos began, we may not cut it, since it was not prepared.
(Gemara - Ula): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah.
The following shows that also Rav holds like R. Yehudah:
(Rav): Double-mats used to cover merchandise are forbidden [on Shabbos];
(Shmuel): They are permitted.
Also Levi holds like R. Yehudah:
Levi would not look at a Safek Treifah on Yom Tov until they brought it to the wasteheap - he said that if it will be found to be Treifah, they must leave it there, one may not even give it to dogs.
(Shmuel): The Halachah follows R. Shimon.
Also Ze'iri holds like R. Shimon:
(Mishnah): If an animal died [on Yom Tov], one may not move it;
(Ze'iri): This refers to a Korban (one must wait to bury or redeem it after Yom Tov), but one may move a Chulin Nevelah [to feed it to dogs].