CHILUL SHABBOS FOR A YOLEDES (cont.)
Version #1 (Rav Ashi - Rav Yehudah): As long as the womb is open, we Mechalel Shabbos for her, whether or not she says that she needs;
After the womb is closed, we do not Mechalel Shabbos for her, even if (Rosh's text - unless) she says that she needs.
Version #2 (Mar Zutra - Rav Yehudah): As long as the womb is open, we Mechalel Shabbos for her, whether or not she says that she needs;
After the womb is closed, we Mechalel Shabbos for her if she says that she needs, not if she says that she does not need (Rosh's text - we Mechalel unless she says that she does not need).
Question (Ravina): Mar Zutra's version is more lenient than Rav Ashi's - whom does the Halachah follow?
Answer (Mereimar): We follow Mar Zutra's - we are lenient regarding Safek Piku'ach Nefesh.
Question: From when is the womb open?
Answer #1 (Abaye): It is open from when she sits on the birthing stool.
Answer #2 (Rav Huna brei d'Rav Yehoshua): It is from when blood exudes.
Answer #3: It is from when she [cannot walk and] needs to be carried.
Question: Until when is the womb open?
Answer #1 (Abaye): It is open for three days.
Answer #2 (Rava): It is open for seven days.
Answer #3: It is for 30 days.
(Chachamim of Neharda'a): The Halachos of a Yoledes depend on whether she is in the first three days, or seven days, or 30 days:
Within three days, we Mechalel Shabbos for her, whether or not she says that she needs;
Within seven days, we Mechalel if she says that she needs, but not if she says that she does not need;
Within 30 days, we do not Mechalel for her, but we get a Nochri to do her needs.
(Rav Ula brei d'Rav Ilai): All needs of a Choleh may be done through a Nochri on Shabbos.
(Rav Hamnuna): One may tell a Nochri to do something for a Choleh who is not in mortal danger.
(Rav Yehudah): For a Yoledes, 30 days (this will be explained).
Question: What does this mean?
Answer (Chachamim of Neharda'a): She should not immerse before this (the chill could harm her. Seemingly, she should be able to immerse in a heated Mikvah in a heated house, or in summer. A Beraisa (Nidah 29B) discusses a woman immersing many times within 30 days on account of Safek, before she is permitted to have relations - this is not a real proof, perhaps it merely teaches that it would be a Mitzvah to immerse, if not for the danger - PF.)
(Rava): This is only if her husband is not with her - if he is there, he will warm her.
Rav Chisda's daughter (Rava's wife) immersed before 30 days and got sick - they carried her in her bed to Rava in Pumbadisa.
RECOVERY AFTER BLOODLETTING
(Rav Yehudah): We may make a bonfire for a Yoledes on Shabbos.
Assumption: This is permitted for a Yoledes, not for a Choleh; it is permitted only in winter, not in summer.
Rejection: This is permitted for a Yoledes or Choleh; it is permitted in winter and summer.
(R. Chiya bar Avin): If someone let blood and got chilled, we may make a bonfire for him, even in summer [on Shabbos].
They burned a chair of precious wood for Shmuel [after he let blood, for they could not find other wood], a precious table for Rav Yehudah, and a bench for Rabah.
Abaye (to Rabah): Isn't this Bal Tashchis (being wasteful)? (Maharsha - if we make a fire on Shabbos for Piku'ach Nefesh, surely it is not Bal Tashchis! Rather, we discuss making a fire on a weekday - he deletes 'and got chilled' from the text of R. Chiya bar Avin's teaching.)
Rabah: It is preferable not to be wasteful with my health!
(Rav Yehudah): One should have shoes, even if he must sell the rafters of his house (Rashi - going barefoot is disgraceful; Maharsha - it is better to suffer heat of the sun than the cold of the ground);
If someone let blood and does not have what to eat, he should sell his shoes to buy the needs of the [post-bloodletting] meal.
Question: What are the needs of this meal?
Answer #1 (Rav): He must eat meat, to replace the lost blood - meat and blood are both [called] Nefesh;
Answer #2 (Shmuel): He must drink wine - redness replaces redness.
Shmuel would have a dish with a [whole] cooked spleen on the day he had a bloodletting;
R. Yochanan would drink until the scent of wine would come out of his ears; Rav Nachman would drink until his spleen floated in wine, Rav Yosef would drink until wine left the bloodletting wound.
Rava would seek to drink wine three years after the grapes were picked and the vine grew three new leaves.
Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak told his Talmidim, when you let blood, tell your wives that I am coming [so they will prepare a great meal].
All schemes are forbidden except for one - if someone let blood and cannot afford wine, take a bad coin (which people do not accept) and go to seven wine salesmen and taste the wine before buying it (the seller will cancel the deal when he sees the coin), until tasting a Revi'is in all;
If not, he should eat seven black dates, rub oil on his temples and sleep in the sun.
Avlet (to Shmuel, who was sleeping in the sun): Chacham of the Yehudim! Good will not come from bad (this harms the body)!
Shmuel: I let blood today.
This was not true - rather, there is one day a year when it is good to be in the sun, i.e. the summer (some texts - winter) solstice - Shmuel did not want to reveal this.
GUIDELINES FOR BLOODLETTING
(Rav and Shmuel): If one is lenient about eating well after bloodletting, Hash-m will provide less food for him - he is not concerned for himself, why should Hash-m be concerned for him?!
(Rav and Shmuel): If one let blood, he should not sit in a windy room, lest the doctor left only a Revi'is of blood (the minimum with which one can survive), and a wind will draw some out of him, and he will be in danger!
Shmuel would let blood in a house with [thick] walls of seven and a half layers of bricks (no wind enters).
Once, he felt some wind - he found that the wall was a half-brick less thick than it should be.
(Rav and Shmuel): If one let blood, he should taste something before leaving [the house] - if not, if he encounters a Mes, his face will turn yellow; if he encounters a murderer, he will die; if he encounters a pig, he is prone to get Tzara'as.
(Rav and Shmuel): If one let blood, he should wait before getting up;
It was taught, if one does any of five things and immediately stands up, he is closer to death than life - eating, drinking, sleeping, letting blood, and relations.
(Shmuel): The proper interval for letting blood is once in 30 days;
One should cut down Bein ha'Perakim (after 40 years, only half as often), and cut down again Bein ha'Perakim (after 60 years, only once in three months).
(Shmuel): The proper days for bloodletting are Sunday, Wednesday and Friday;
Monday and Thursday are bad, unless he wants to rely on merits of his ancestors, for earthly and Heavenly Batei Din both judge then (Midas haDin is great in the world);
Question: Why is Tuesday bad?
Answer: (Damaging spiritual forces have more power at times or over things that are even numbers. The five closest planets, sun and moon are called Kochvei Lechet; every hour, one of them dominates (has a supernatural influence on earth), according to a fixed rotation.) On Tuesday, Mars (which is appointed over the sword) is dominant in [the eighth,] an even hour (Rashi - of the daytime, when people normally let blood; R. Chananel - it dominates in two even hours, eight and 22).
Question: Also on Friday it is dominant in the sixth (R. Chananel - and 20th) hour(s)! (Tosfos - even though it is dominant in the 12th hour on Wednesday, people do not let blood so close to night.)
Answer: Since many people regularly let blood then, "Shomer Pesa'im Hash-m" (He guards people who do not know to guard themselves).
(Shmuel): Wednesday is dangerous if it is the fourth, 14th or 24th of the month, or if it is the last Wednesday of the month.
If one lets blood on Rosh Chodesh or the next day, he is prone to get (extra) weak; on the third of the month, it is dangerous.
Chachamim decreed not to let blood on any Erev Yom Tov on account of Erev Shavu'os, for then blows a wind called Tavu'ach which would have slaughtered everyone had Yisrael not accepted the Torah (and it is dangerous for one who let blood).
(Shmuel): Bloodletting after eating wheat only removes the heaviness caused by eating wheat.
It is futile only if he lets blood then to be cured - but if he lets to lighten himself, it is fine.
It is good to drink immediately after bloodletting, and to eat after [the time to walk] half a Mil (nine or 11 minutes).
Question: If one drinks later, is this bad, or just ineffective?
This question is not resolved.
Question: If one eats more or less than the given time afterwards, is this bad, or just ineffective?
This question is not resolved.
(Rav): One should not spend more than one Zuz for 100 gourds or 100 heads of animals (they are not healthy); one should not pay anything for Shefam (the flesh between the mouth and nose) of an animal.
Rav Yosef: In Rav Huna's academy, if Rabanan did not come to learn they would call it 'a day of Shifmi' - I did not understand this [until now].
THINGS ALLOWED ON SHABBOS FOR A BIRTH
(Mishnah): We may tie the umbilical cord.
(Beraisa): We may tie the umbilical cord;
R. Yosi says, we may even cut and wrap the placenta - this warms the baby;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, princesses wrap it in flasks of oil; rich girls wrap it in [Menupatz] wool, poor girls wrap it in tufts.
(Rav Nachman): The Halachah follows R. Yosi.
(Rav Nachman): Chachamim agree that if twins are tied together by their umbilical cords, we cut them.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: The twins might separate, and it will be dangerous for them.
(Rav Nachman): Everything said in the Tochachah (Yechezkeil's rebuke of Yisrael, a recount of Hash-m's Chasadim for them) may be done for a birth on Shabbos:
"U'Moldosayich b'Yom Huledes" permits taking the fetus out;
"Lo Choras Sharech" permits cutting the umbilical cord;
"Uv'Mayim Lo Ruchatzt l'Mish'i" permits washing the baby (to smooth its skin);
"V'Hamle'ach Lo Humlachat" permits salting (to harden his skin);
"V'Hachtel Lo Chutalt" permits wrapping him.