FOODS PEOPLE DO NOT NORMALLY EAT
(Mishnah): We may not clear out Tevel.
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: The Mishnah teaches that even Tevel mid'Rabanan may not be moved, e.g. it grew in a flowerpot without a hole (it does not nurture from the ground).
(Mishnah): Nor Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was not taken.
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: The case is, a Levi received Ma'aser Rishon from a Kri; Terumas Ma'aser was taken but Terumah Gedolah was not;
One might have thought [that it is exempt from Terumah Gedolah] like Rav Papa's question - the Mishnah teaches, this is not so, like Abaye's answer.
(Mishnah): Nor Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh that was not redeemed.
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: The case is, they were redeemed, but improperly;
Ma'aser Sheni was redeemed on an Asimon (a slug), the Torah requires "V'Tzarta ha'Kesef b'Yadecha", a [minted] coin with a Tzurah (form).
Hekdesh was redeemed onto land, not money;
It says that one will give the money "V'Kam Lo" (then the Hekdesh will be [redeemed, and hence] his).
(Mishnah): And not Luf.
(Beraisa): One may move Chatzav (squill) because deer eat it, and mustard because doves eat it;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, one may even move broken glass, because ostriches eat it.
Objection (R. Noson): If so, you should also permit moving bundles of twigs, because elephants eat them!
Answer (R. Shimon ben Gamliel): Ostriches are common, elephants are rare.
(Ameimar): R. Shimon ben Gamliel permits broken glass only if he has an ostrich.
Objection (Rav Ashi): If so, why did R. Noson ask about bundles of twigs - if he has an elephant, indeed he may move them!
Rather, R. Shimon ben Gamliel permits broken glass to everyone, for it is fitting to have an ostrich - R. Noson asks the same should apply to bundles of twigs, it is fitting to have an elephant!
(Abaye): The following Tana'im hold that all of Benei Yisrael are princes - R. Shimon ben Gamliel, R. Shimon, R. Yishmael and R. Akiva:
We already discussed R. Shimon ben Gamliel (he permits Luf and broken glass, since it is fitting for princes to have ravens and ostriches).
R. Shimon - (Mishnah): Princes may rub rose oil on their wounds on Shabbos, for they anoint themselves with it even when they have no wound;
R. Shimon says all Benei Yisrael are princes.
R. Yishmael and R. Akiva - (Beraisa): If Shimon owed 1000 Zuz, and was wearing a garment worth 10,000, we make him sell it and buy something fitting for himself;
(Beraisa - R. Yishmael and R. Akiva): Any Yisrael is fitting for such a garment (he need not sell it).
(Mishnah): Bundles of straw, wood...
(Beraisa): If bundles of straw, wood and soft pruned reeds were prepared for animals to eat, one may move them; if not, not.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, if a bundle can be moved with one hand, he may move it; if it requires two hands, he may not.
Bundles of Se'ah, Ezov and Koranis (these will be explained):
If one gathered them for fuel, he may not eat them on Shabbos;
If he gathered them for (animal - Gra deletes this from the text) food, he may eat them on Shabbos, but he must cut them by hand, not with a Kli.
He rolls them between his fingertips [to crush them], but he may not roll a lot, as he does on a weekday.
The same applies to mint, rue and all spices.
(Rav Yehudah): Se'ah is pennyroyal (a kind of mint);
Ezov is hyssop, and Koranis is thyme.
Objection: But a man announced that he was selling Koranis, and he was found to be selling savory!
Correction: Rather, Se'ah is pennyroyal, Ezov is hyssop, and Koranis is savory.
MOVING FOODS WE DO NOT EAT ON SHABBOS
One may move salted meat;
(Rav Huna): One may move unsalted meat;
(Rav Chisda): One may not move it.
Question: But Rav Huna was a Talmid of Rav, and Rav holds like R. Yehudah, who forbids Muktzeh!
Answer: Rav forbids eating Muktzeh like R. Yehudah, but he permits moving it like R. Shimon.
Question: Rav Chisda forbids moving unsalted meat - but Rav Yitzchak bar Ami visited Rav Chisda's house, and Rav Chisda commanded to move a [slaughtered] goose from the sun to the shade, lest it spoil!
Answer: An unsalted goose is different, for it is fitting to eat it raw.
(Beraisa): One may move salted fish, but not unsalted fish (people cannot eat it at all, and one would not feed it to an animal);
One may move meat whether or not it is salted.
The Beraisa is R. Shimon, who permits Muktzeh.
(Beraisa): One may move bones, for dogs eat them;
One may move rotten meat, for Chayos eat it;
One may move water that was left exposed (perhaps a snake drank from it and inserted poison), for one can give it to cats (it does not harm them);
R. Shimon ben Gamliel forbids leaving around exposed water, lest a person drink it.
MOVING ANIMALS ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may tilt a basket on its side in front of chicks to enable them to climb or descend on it;
If a hen fled, one may push it [with his hands] until it enters [the coop];
One may Medadeh calves and colts (hold them and make them to walk);
A woman may Medadeh her son;
R. Yehudah says, this is if he picks up his feet and steps - but if he drags his feet, it is forbidden.
(Gemara - Rav Yehudah): If an animal fell into an irrigation ditch, one puts pillows and blankets under it - if it climbs out, fine (but one may not take it out).
Question (Beraisa): If an animal fell into an irrigation ditch, one brings food to it so it will not die.
Inference: One brings food to it, not pillows and blankets!
Answer: One may put pillows and blankets only if it is impossible to bring food to it.
Question: This will make the pillows and blankets Muktzeh (they may not be moved when the animal is on them - one may not make a Kli Muktzeh, for this is like breaking it or plastering it in place)!
Answer: He holds that the Isur to make a Kli Muktzeh is only mid'Rabanan, and mid'Oraisa we are concerned for pain to animals - the mid'Oraisa concern overrides the mid'Rabanan.
(Mishnah): If a hen fled [one may push it].
Inference: One may push it, one may not Medadeh it.
Our Mishnah teaches like the following Beraisa:
(Beraisa): One may Medadeh Chayos, Behemos and birds in a Chatzer, but not in Reshus ha'Rabim, but not a hen.
Question: Why is a hen forbidden?
Answer (Abaye): It lifts itself off the ground (then, the person is really carrying it).
(Beraisa #1): One may Medadeh Chayos, Behemos and birds in a Chatzer, but not in Reshus ha'Rabim; a woman may Medadeh her son in Reshus ha'Rabim, there is no need to say it is permitted in a Chatzer.
(Beraisa #2): One may not Oker (lift off the ground) Chayos, Behemos or birds in a Chatzer, but one may push them, until they enter.
Question: It says one may not Oker - implying that one may Medadeh; then it says one may push them - implying that one may not Medadeh!
Answer (Abaye): The Seifa applies to a hen.
(Abaye): If one slaughters a hen, he should bend its feet against the ground or lift it totally off the ground (lest it dig its feet into the ground, and the Simanim will be uprooted).
HELPING ANIMALS GIVE BIRTH ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may not pull the fetus from an animal on Yom Tov, but he may help it give birth (this will be explained);
One may pull the fetus from a woman on Shabbos, call a midwife from another place, Mechalel Shabbos for her (the mother), and tie the umbilical cord;
R. Yosi says, one may even cut it.
One may do all needs of Milah (circumcision) on Shabbos.
(Gemara) Question: How may one help an animal give birth?
Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): One holds the baby so it does not fall to the ground.
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman): One presses on the mother to help push the fetus out.
Support (for Rav Yehudah - Beraisa): To help an animal give birth, one holds the baby so it does not fall to the ground, and blows into its nose (it is clogged with mucus), and puts the udder into its mouth so it will nurse.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, on Yom Tov we would make a Tahor mother love her calf.
Question: What would they do?
Answer (Abaye): They put a handful of salt in the womb, so it will remember its pain of birth, and sprinkle on the calf water in which the placenta was soaked, so it will smell it and love it.
Inference: We do this for Tehorim, not for Teme'im.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: A Teme'ah does not normally distance her child - if she does, she will not love it afterwards.
CHILUL SHABBOS FOR A YOLEDES
(Mishnah): One may pull the fetus from a woman... on Shabbos, call a midwife from another place, Mechalel Shabbos for the mother, and tie the umbilical cord;
Question: The Mishnah permits to extract the fetus and call a midwife from another place - what is added by saying 'We may Mechalel Shabbos for her'?
Answer (Beraisa): If she needs a lamp, others may light a lamp for her; if she needs oil, they may bring oil for her in the palm (a Shinuy (deviation) from the normal way (in a Kli));
If they cannot bring enough oil in the palm, they bring in their hair (they anoint their hair with oil, the Yoledes will wipe herself on their hair); if this will not suffice, they may bring in a Kli.
Question: The Beraisa permits lighting a lamp for her if she needs it - this is obvious!
Answer: The case is she is blind;
One might have thought, since she cannot see it is forbidden - the Mishnah teaches that this is not so, it calms her to know that it is light and others can see her needs.
(Beraisa): If she needs oil [...if not, they bring in their hair].
Question: [Why is this better than bringing in a Kli -] this is also Chilul Shabbos, i.e. squeezing!
Answer #1 (Rabah and Rav Yosef): Squeezing does not apply to hair.
Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Even if squeezing applies to hair, she brings a Kli in her hair - whenever possible, we use a Shinuy.