PREPARING FOOD ON YOM KIPUR
(R. Yochanan): On Yom Kipur, one may break open nuts and pomegranates after Minchah, on account of Inuy.
The household of Rav Yehudah would cut (or rinse) cabbage; the household of Rabah would peel gourds.
Rabah saw that they were starting before Minchah - [to get them to cease,] he told them that a letter came from Eretz Yisrael saying that R. Yochanan forbids.
KISVEI HA'KODESH IN ANOTHER LANGUAGE
(Mishnah): One may save all Kisvei ha'Kodesh from a fire [on Shabbos], whether or not we read in them;
Even if they are written in another language, they require Genizah (one may not abandon them);
We may not read in them [on Shabbos] for this draws people away from [the lecture in] the Beis Medrash.
(Gemara - Rav Huna): If Kisvei ha'Kodesh were written in Targum [Arame'ic translation] or any other language [other than Lashon ha'Kodesh], we may not save them from a fire;
(Rav Chisda): We may save them from a fire.
They do not argue according to the opinion that permits to read in them - surely, he permits saving them;
They argue according to the opinion that forbids reading them:
Rav Huna forbids saving them, for we may not read them;
Rav Chisda permits, to avoid disgrace to Kisvei ha'Kodesh.
Question (Mishnah): One may save all Kisvei ha'Kodesh from a fire, whether or not we read in them, and even if they are written in another language.
Suggestion: Those we read are Nevi'im (i.e. Haftorah), those we do not read in are Kesuvim;
Even if they are written in another language and we may not read in them, nevertheless we may save them - this refutes Rav Huna!
Counter-question (Rav Huna - Seifa): They require Genizah.
If we save them on Shabbos, there is no need to say this (surely, we do not abandon them)!
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): Those we read in are Nevi'im, those we do not read in are Kesuvim;
This discusses Seforim in Lashon ha'Kodesh - if they are written in another language, we may not save them - nevertheless, they require Genizah.
Answer #2 (Rav Chisda): Those we read in are Nevi'im, those we do not read in are Kesuvim;
Even if they are written in another language, we save them;
Mekek (worm-eaten) Seforim require Genizah.
Question (against Rav Huna - Beraisa): If they are written in Targum or any other language, we may save them from a fire.
Answer (Rav Huna): This Tana holds that one may read in them.
Question (against Rav Huna - Beraisa #1): If they were written in Giftis, Midis, Ivris (Lashon ha'Kodesh, but the letters are not [Ashuris] like we write them today), Ilmis or Yevanis, even though one may not read them, we may save them from a fire.
Answer (Rav Huna): Tana'im argue [as I and Rav Chisda do]:
(Beraisa #2): If they are written in Targum or any other language, we may save them from a fire;
R. Yosi says, we may not save them.
R. Yosi: A case occurred, my father found R. Gamliel at the table of Yochanan ha'Nazuf reading Sefer Iyov in Targum.
My father: Your grandfather R. Gamliel [ha'Zaken] stood on a step in Har ha'Bayis; someone brought to him Sefer Iyov in Targum - he commanded to bury it under the rocks.
R. Gamliel himself [accepted this and] commanded to bury the Sefer.
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah says, they dumped a kneading trough full of mud over it.
Objection #1 (Rebbi): Where would they find mud in Har ha'Bayis? (Cement was used for building!)
Objection #2 (Rebbi): It is forbidden to overtly ruin Kisvei ha'Kodesh!
Rebbi: Rather, we leave them in an unguarded place, they perish by themselves.
Question: Which Tana'im argue like Rav Huna and Rav Chisda?
Suggestion: The first Tana is like Rav Chisda, R. Yosi is like Rav Huna.
Rejection: Perhaps the first Tana permits reading in them and R. Yosi forbids [but no one holds like Rav Chisda, who permits saving something that one may not read]!
Answer: R. Yosi is like Rav Huna, the Tana of Beraisa #1 is like Rav Chisda.
SAVING SOMETHING THAT IS NOT A PROPER SEFER
(Beraisa): [Written] Berachos and Kemi'im, even though they have letters [of Hash-m's name] and verses from many Parshiyos, may not be saved from a fire, one must let them burn;
This is why Chachamim said that one who writes Berachos is like one who burns Torah.
A case occurred, people told R. Yishmael about someone who was writing Berachos. When R. Yishmael was ascending a ladder [to inspect], the man sensed this, and stashed loads of them in a flask of water.
R. Yishmael: You will be punished more for this [putting them in water] than for writing them!
Question (Reish Galusa): If they were written in Lashon ha'Kodesh in yellow dye, red dye, sap or vitriol, do we save them?
We ask according to Rav Huna and Rav Chisda.
Perhaps Rav Huna forbids saving only when they are written in other languages, but he agrees here, for they are in Lashon ha'Kodesh;
Perhaps Rav Chisda permits saving only when they are written in ink, for they will last, but he agrees here, for they will not last!
Answer (Rabah bar Rav Huna): We may not save them.
Reish Galusa: But Rav Hamnuna taught a Beraisa that permits!
Rabah bar Rav Huna: If a Beraisa permits, I retract.
Question: Which Beraisa permits?
Answer (Rav Ashi - Beraisa): The only difference between Megilah [Esther] and [other] Seforim is that Seforim may be written in any language, but Megilah may be written only in Ashuris, in a Sefer, in ink.
Question (Rav Huna bar Chaluv): If a Sefer Torah [is worn] and does not have 85 intact letters, like the Parashah "Va'Yhi bi'Nso'a ha'Aron" may we save it from a fire? (Ran - he asks according to Rebbi (below), who considers this Parashah itself to be a Sefer. Rashba - Rav Huna bar Chaluv knew the Beraisa (o) which requires 85 - he asked because he thought that Beraisa (j) argues with it.)
Rav Nachman: Why don't you ask about saving Parashas "Va'Yhi bi'Nso'a ha'Aron", itself, if it is missing a letter?
Rav Huna: Since that Parashah has Hash-m's name, surely we save it even if less than 85 letters remain - I ask about when [less than 85] letters remain [without Hash-m's name].
Answer (Rav Nachman): One may not save it.
Question (Beraisa): If Targum (words in Aramaic) were written like Mikra (in Lashon ha'Kodesh), or vice-versa, or if it was written in Ivris, we may save it from a fire - there is no need to say that we may save Targum in Sefer Ezra, Daniel or the Torah (where the text itself is Aramaic)!
Question: Where do we find Targum in the Torah?
Answer: [Lavan called Gal Ed] "Yegar Sahadusa".
We save it, even though it is less than 85 letters!
Answer: The Beraisa teaches that Targum can complete the Shi'ur of 85 letters.
Question: Must the 85 letters be near each other, or may they be scattered?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): They must be near each other.
Answer #2 (Rav Chisda): They may be scattered.
Question (Beraisa): If 85 intact letters can be found in a deteriorated Sefer Torah, like Parashas "Va'Yhi bi'Nso'a ha'Aron", we may save it from a fire; if not, not.
['Can be found' connotes that they are scattered] - Rav Huna is refuted.
Answer (Rav Chisda, on behalf of Rav Huna): The letters are in words (the argument is about scattered letters that do not form words).