SHI'URIM FOR HOTZA'AH OF GLASS AND STONES
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for a bone is to make a spoon;
R. Yehudah says, it is to make a lock.
The Shi'ur for glass is to scrape the end of the spindle;
The Shi'ur for a pebble or stone is to throw at a bird [to chase it away];
R. Eliezer ben Yakov says, it is to throw at an animal.
(Gemara) Question: R. Yehudah's Shi'ur is bigger than Chachamim's - elsewhere, Chachamim's Shi'ur is bigger!
Answer (Ula): R. Yehudah means, to make teeth of a lock (big protrusions corresponding to small protrusions on the key, and vice-versa. It is less than Chachamim's Shi'ur).
(Beraisa): Teeth (Rashi - of bone; Tosfos - of metal) of a lock are Tehorim; if they were fixed in a lock, they are Mekabel Tum'ah;
Teeth of a door lock are Tehorim even if they were nailed in, for anything attached to the ground is like the ground.
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for glass is to scrape...
(Beraisa): The Shi'ur for glass is to cut two threads at once (this is the same as to scrape the end of the weaving rod).
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for a pebble or stone is to throw at a bird; R. Eliezer ben Yakov [says, to throw at an animal].
(R. Yochanan): It must be big enough so that the bird or animal will feel it.
Question: How much is this?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Eliezer ben Yakov): This is 10 Zuz (about 10 ounces).
STONES THAT MAY BE USED FOR KINU'ACH ON SHABBOS
Question (Zunin): How big are rocks used for (Kinu'ach, i.e. cleaning oneself after using) the Beis ha'Kisei? (Such rocks are not Muktzeh; also, they are useful, one who is Motzi them is liable.)
Answer (Rabanan): One is the size of an olive, one is the size of a nut, one is the size of an egg.
Objection (Zunin): Must one take in a scale [to ensure that the rocks are the right sizes}?! (Presumably, Rabanan held that one prepares the rocks beforehand; Zunin objects, for sometimes one does not have rocks prepared.)
Retraction (Rabanan): Rather, one takes in a handful [even if there are four or five].
(Beraisa - R. Yosi): One may take in three rocks, the sizes are that of an olive, a nut, and an egg;
R. Shimon b'Rebbi Yosi says in the name of R. Yosi, one takes in a handful.
(Beraisa): One may take three pointy rocks into a Beis ha'Kisei;
Question: What size rocks are permitted?
Answer #1 (R. Meir): Each is a k'Zayis;
Answer #2 (R. Yehudah): Each is a k'Beitzah.
(Rafram bar Papa): They argue about the size of an Esrog just like they argue about Kinu'ach.
Question: The argument about Esrog is a Mishnah, the argument about Kinu'ach is only a Beraisa! (Rafram's teaching is useless - anyone who knows the argument about Kinu'ach surely knows the argument about Esrog!)
Correction: Rather, Rafram teaches that they argue about Kinu'ach just like they argue about the size of an Esrog.
(Rav Yehudah): Payis is forbidden.
Question: What is Payis?
Answer (R. Zeira): It is vetch of Bavel (clods of earth, they are not good for Kinu'ach.
(Rava): On Shabbos it is forbidden to use a rock [to help oneself move his bowels] the way he does on a weekday (it may detach hairs)..
Objection (Mar Zutra): If so, he will be in danger [if he needs to excrete but cannot]!
Answer: He uses it awkwardly (e.g. he holds it with only two fingers).
STONES THAT MAY BE USED FOR KINU'ACH ON SHABBOS (cont.)
(R. Yanai): If there is a fixed place for the Beis ha'Kisei, he may take a handful of rocks;
Version #1 (Rashi): If not, he may take [a rock] k'Hechra (the amount in the middle, a nut - it is between k'Zayis and k'Beitzah).
Version #2: If not, he may take k'Hechra (Tosfos - like a leg; Rif - like the head) of a spice pounder. (end of Version #2)
(Rav Sheshes): If there is an Ed (sign that it had been used for Kinu'ach) on it (Rashi - on a spice pounder - otherwise, it is Muktzeh; Tosfos - on rocks of any size and quantity), it is permitted.
Question (Beraisa): Ten things lead to hemorrhoids - eating leaves of reeds or of vines, or vine tendrils (the part that clings to supporting poles), meat that is not smooth, the spine of a fish, salted fish that was not cooked enough, drinking dregs of wine, cleaning oneself with one of three things that someone else used to clean himself, i.e. plaster, a shard of Cheres (earthenware), or a rock. (This shows that one should not clean with something that was already used!)
Some say, even suspending oneself [on his knees] too much in the Beis ha'Kisei causes hemorrhoids.
Answer #1: It is no good if it is wet, it is fine if it is dry.
Answer #2: It is no good if it was used from both sides, it is fine if it was used from only one side (one will use the other side).
Answer #3: One may use something he used before to clean himself, one should not use something that someone else used.
Question (Abaye): If rain washed away the Ed, what is the law?
Answer (Rav Yosef): If a trace of the Ed remains, it is permitted.
Question (Rabah bar Rav Shila): May one take Kinu'ach rocks up to the roof (Rashi - is it forbidden on account of exertion; Tosfos - is it forbidden because he should have prepared them before Shabbos)?
Answer (Rav Chisda): Kavod ha'Briyos (avoiding disgrace) overrides a Lav (a Chacham may ignore a lost object if it is below his dignity to carry it around - likewise, it overrides [Muktzeh and] all mid'Rabanan laws, which are based on "Lo Sasur" (do not veer from Chachamim's words)).
Question (Ravina - Beraisa - R. Eliezer): One may take a chip of wood to remove food between his teeth;
Chachamim permit only chips (Tosfos - fitting to go) in the feeding trough (animals can eat them - but one may not use Muktzeh, even if pieces of meat can be seen between his teeth)!
Answer: A person plans where he will eat (he should prepare chips before Shabbos) - but he cannot always plan where he will eliminate (perhaps his intended place will be occupied)!
(Rav Huna): On Shabbos, one may not eliminate in a plowed field (that is ready to be planted).
Question: What is the reason?
Suggestion: He may not eliminate in [another's] plowed field because he tramples on the dirt (hardening it).
Rejection: If so, it should be forbidden even during the week!
Answer #1: This is because grass grows on the rocks (for Kinu'ach, he will detach it when he uses them).
Rejection: Reish Lakish taught that one may Mekane'ach with rocks with grass on them (the Halachah follows R. Shimon, who permits Davar she'Eino Miskaven); one who intentionally detaches the grass is Chayav Chatas.
Answer #2: We are concerned lest he take from a high place and return it to a depression - Rabah taught that one is liable for this!
(Rabah): If someone filled a small pit in a house with dirt, he is liable for building; if he did so in a field, he is liable for [a Toladah of] plowing.
DETACHING FROM THE GROUND ON SHABBOS
(Reish Lakish): One may Mekane'ach with rocks with grass on them; one who intentionally detaches is Chayav Chatas.
(Rav Papi): [This is not considered detaching -] therefore, one may likewise move Parfisa (a flowerpot with a hole (or basket filled with dirt) with something growing inside).
Objection (Rav Kahana): It is permitted for a need (Kavod ha'Briyos, i.e. Kinu'ach) - perhaps it is forbidden without a need!
(Abaye): If Parfisa was on the ground and one put it on pegs, he is liable for detaching (Rashi, Tosfos - he is lashed mid'Rabanan - mid'Oraisa, it is still attached and nurtures from the ground through the air; Rambam - he is Chayav mid'Oraisa; R. Chayim - the Rambam holds that even though it still nurtures [and is considered to be growing] from the ground, it is not considered attached).
If it was on pegs and one put it on the ground, he is liable (Rashi, Tosfos -mid'Rabanan) for planting.
(R. Yochanan): It is forbidden to use Cheres for Kinu'ach on Shabbos.
Question: What is the reason?
If it is dangerous [lest it uproot the anal 'teeth'], it would be forbidden even during the week!
Answer #1: It is forbidden on account of witchcraft (this will be explained).
Rejection: If so, it would be forbidden even during the week!
Answer #2: It is forbidden because it may detach hairs.
Objection: This is Davar she'Eino Miskaven (we know that R. Yochanan permits this)!
Answer #3 (Rav Noson bar Oshaya): R. Yochanan teaches, not only it is forbidden during the week [on account of danger or witchcraft] - rather, even on Shabbos, when one might have thought that [in spite of this] it is permitted because it has Toras Kli (it is better than rocks, which are Muktzeh) - he teaches, this is not so.
Rava learned like Answer #3.
Contradiction (Rava): Here, R. Yochanan forbids Davar she'Eino Miskaven - elsewhere, he permits!
(R. Yochanan): The Halachah follows a Stam (anonymous) Mishnah.
(Mishnah): A Nazir may smooth his hair and separate the hairs [even though he might pull out hairs], but he may not comb his hair (Rashi - this surely pulls out hairs; Rashba - one who combs intends to remove dangling hairs).
Conclusion: We must answer like Rav Noson bar Oshaya.
Question: What is the concern for witchcraft?
Answer: Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna were going in a boat; a woman wanted to sit near them - they refused.
She said something, causing the boat to stop; they said something which allowed it to move.
The woman: I cannot overcome you [through witchcraft], for you do not use Cheres for Kinu'ach, you do not kill lice on your clothing, and you do not eat vegetables from the bundle [without untying it - this shows that all of these make people vulnerable to witchcraft].