[81a - 48 lines; 81b - 44 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Tosfos 81a DH Chafei ד"ה חפי:
"k'Rebbi Nechemyah d'Lo Azil Basar Ma'amid" כרבי נחמיה דלא אזיל בתר מעמיד
Source: Daf 59b
 ibid. [at the end of the Dibur]:
The words "Ela Keivan she'Ein Lahem Posachas v'Chaf Kavu'a ba'Gal" אלא כיון שאין להם פותחת וחף קבוע בגל
should be "Ela Keivan she'Posachas v'Chaf Kavu'a ba'Gal" אלא כיון שפותחת וחף קבוע בגל
(This seems to be the correct Girsa. See also the emendation of the Bach. -M. KORNFELD)
 Tosfos 81a DH Asur ד"ה אסור:
The words "Asur Mishum Hasharas Nimin" אסור משום השרת נימין
should be "v'Asur Mishum Hasharas Nimin"ואסור משום השרת נימין
 Tosfos 81b DH Mahu l'Ha'alosam ד"ה מהו להעלותם:
The words "Karov Al ha'Gag" קרוב על הגג (with an Ayin)
should be "Karov El ha'Gag" קרוב אל הגג (with an Alef)
1)[line 1]תרוודTARVAD- (O.F. cuiller) a spoon
2)[line 2]חףCHAF- a) a lock (RASHI); b) a large key (ARUCH)
3)[line 3]לגרורLIGROR- to sand down
4)[line 3]ראש הכרכרROSH HA'KARKAR- the point of the Karkar, a wooden tool used by weavers for separating threads on the loom and for other purposes
5)[line 3]צרורTZEROR- a pebble
6)[line 7]חפי פותחתCHAFEI POSACHAS- teeth of a lock (RASHI); [alt. teeth of a key (ARUCH Erech Chaf, first explanation); a bolt of a door (CHASAM SOFER)]
7)[line 9]גלGAL- a gate
8a)[line 12]לפצוע בהLIFTZO'A BAH- to thin threads with it. This follows the explanation of Rashi with regard to the Melachah of Potze'a; see Background to 73:6:20 for other explanations of the Melachah.
b)[line 12]לפצוע בה שני נימין כאחתLIFTZO'A BAH SHNEI NIMIN K'ACHAS- to thin two threads at the same time with the piece of glass. (This is the same measure as that mentioned in the Mishnah.)
9)[line 15]מרגשת בהMARGESHES BAH- the animal feels it
10)[line 19]טורטניTURTANI- scales
11)[line 23]מקורזלותMEKURZALOS- (a) with a pointed end (RASHI); (b) fashioned such that they do not have any sharp points (ARUCH, first explanation); (c) soft (ARUCH, third explanation)
12)[line 26]כך מחלוקת באתרוגKACH MACHLOKES B'ESROG- Rebbi Meir rules that an Esrog as small as a walnut is still fit for the Mitzvah of Esrog. Rebbi Yehudah rules that it must be at least the size of a chicken egg (Mishnah Sukah 34b).
13)[line 29]פאייסPA'AYAS- (a) (O.F. gleste) a clod of earth (RASHI); (b) soft pebbles (ARUCH, second explanation); (c) dry clumps of mortar (ARUCH, third explanation)
14)[line 30]כרשיני בבלייתאKARSHINEI BAVLIYASA- Babylon is situated on a river delta, and therefore its earth is mostly clay-like and has very few stones. Rebbi Zeira explains that the clods of earth, pebbles or clumps of mortar found in Babylon may not be used on Shabbos, since they will crumble.
15)[line 31]למשמשL'MASHMESH- (a) to use a pebble or a stick to begin the process of defecation (RASHI); (b) check the area of the Pi ha'Taba'as to feel if there are any clumps of dirt there (ARUCH)
16)[line 32]ליסתכן?LISTAKEN?- should he endanger himself?
17)[line 32]כלאחר ידKEL'ACHAR YAD- he should do it in an unusual manner (lit. using the back of the hand)
18)[line 34]הכרעHECHRA- the median [of the sizes, i.e. the size of a walnut]
19)[line 34]מדוכהMEDUCHAH- a mortar
20)[line 35]עדED- testimony that it was used for wiping, i.e., remnants of fecal matter
21)[line 36]תחתוניותTACHTONIYOS- hemorrhoids
22)[line 37]עלי קניםALEI KANIM- leaves of bulrushes; alt. leaves of the sugar cane
23)[line 37]לולבי גפניםLULEVEI GEFANIM- (O.F. vedile) tendrils; thin branches of the grapevine
24)[line 38]מוריגי בהמהMORIGEI VEHEMAH- any part of an animal that has a rough surface, e.g. the cheeks, tongue, etc.
25)[line 49]שמרי ייןSHEMAREI YAYIN- wine sediment
26a)[line 50]סידSID- lime; plaster
b)[line 50]חרסיתCHARSIS- a clay shard
27)[line 50]סיד ובחרסיתSID V'CHARSIS- (these are counted as two separate materials)
28)[line 51]התולהHA'TOLEH ATZMO- one who squats down on his knees
29)[line 56]נשטשטשוNISHTASHTESHU- were dissolved or washed away
30)[line 56]רישומן ניכרRISHUMAN NIKAR- their traces are noticeable
31)[line 5]קיסםKISAM- a small, thin stick
32)[line 5]לחצות בו שיניוLACHTZOS BO SHINAV- to clean out between his teeth
33)[line 7]האבוסHA'EIVUS- a feeding stall or trough
34)[line 10]שדה נירSEDEI NIR- a field which has been plowed in preparation for planting
35)[line 11]דוושאDAVSHA- trampling
36)[line 11]ואלא משום עשביםV'ELA MISHUM ASAVIM- That is, the prohibition is not because he is defecating in the field; rather, it is forbidden because he will probably wipe himself with grasses.
37)[line 16]טממהTAMEMAH- and he filled it with loose earth
38)[line 20]פרפיסאPARFISA- a potted plant with a drainage hole (where the plant receives sustenance from the ground underneath)
39)[line 29]השרת נימיןHASHARAS NIMIN- causing hairs to fall off
40)[line 30]דבר שאין מתכויןDAVAR SHE'EIN MISKAVEN
(a) An act which is done for a certain purpose (which will be accomplished without transgressing a Melachah), but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed, is called a Davar she'Eino Miskaven. The example brought in our Gemara is wiping with a clay shard, which may possibly pull out hairs in the process. (Tolesh, or plucking, is a Toldah of the Av Melachah of Kotzer, reaping.) Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees, claiming that even though a Melachah may result from this action, since the Melachah will come about without intent the action is permitted.
(b)Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah disagree only if it is not clear that the hairs will be pulled out (i.e., that a Melachah will be done). If it is inevitable that the hairs will be pulled out, the act is prohibited even according to Rebbi Shimon — even though the person wiping with the clay shard is not the least bit interested in pulling out hairs. Such a situation, in which a Melachah will inevitably be accomplished, is referred to as "Pesik Reishei v'Lo Yamus."
(c)A person must have specific intent to do a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, if a person wiped with a clay shard and hairs were pulled out, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that the person is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the plucking was done accidentally. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue only as to whether it is permitted in the first place to perform an action that may result in a Melachah. (See Insights to Shabbos 41:2.)
41)[line 33]ואיכא תורת כלי עליוV'IKA TORAS KLI ALAV- That is, the piece of clay has the status of a Kli. Therefore, we would think that it is preferable to use it on Shabbos rather than to use a Tzeror (stone) which does not have the status of a Kli.
42)[line 38]חופףCHOFEF- he may scrub his hair with natron and sand
43)[line 38]מפספסMEFASPES- (O.F. charpir) he may part or untangle his hair
44)[line 38]לא סורקLO SOREK- he may not comb it
45)[line 40]הוו קא אזלי בארבאHAVU KA AZLEI B'ARBA- were traveling on a boat
46)[line 41]מטרוניתאMATRONISA- a Roman aristocratic woman
47)[line 42]אותבן בהדייכוOSVAN BAHADAICHU- let me sit with you
48)[line 42]אמרה איהי מילתאAMRAH IHI MILSA- she said a word of sorcery
49)[line 43]אסרתה לארבאASARTAH LA'ARBA- and she thereby stopped the boat in its place
50)[last line]שריוהאSHARYUHA- they released [the boat from her spell]
51)[last line]מאי איעביד לכו?MAI I'AVID LECHU?- what can I do to you?