COMBINING TO COMPLETE A SHI'UR FOR HOTZA'AH
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for ink is to write two letters.
(Beraisa): [He is liable for] Hotza'ah of ink to write two letters whether the ink was dry, or on a quill, or in an inkwell.
Question (Rava): If one was Motzi one letter's worth of dry ink and one letter's worth of ink on a quill, what is the law? (Rashi - he is not liable for the quill, it is Batul to ink less than a Shi'ur.)
This question is not resolved.
(Rava): If one was Motzi two letters [worth of ink] and wrote two letters while walking, he is liable [even if he did not stop walking] - writing them is considered Hanachah.
(Rava): If one was Motzi one letter, wrote it, then was Motzi another letter [in the same Helam] and wrote it, he is exempt.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: He never had a Shi'ur [of ink that can be used to write] outside.
(Rava): If one was Motzi a half-k'Grogeres [of food], did Hanachah, then was Motzi another half-k'Grogeres and did Hanachah, it is as if the first was eaten by a dog or burned, he is exempt.
Objection: This is unreasonable - the first piece is there!
Answer: He means, if he picked up the first piece before Hanachah of the second, it is as if the first was eaten or burned, he is exempt.
(Rava): If one was Motzi a half-k'Grogeres, did Hanachah, then was Motzi another half-k'Grogeres to the same place, he is liable.
Question: Why is he liable - the second piece was not Nach!
Answer: The case is, he brought it within three Tefachim of the ground (it is considered Nach).
Question: But Rava taught that Chachamim [who do not consider something in the air to be at rest] say that [even] if something within three Tefachim of the ground must be placed in something [to be considered Nach]!
Answer: Chachamim say this concerning something thrown - Rava discusses something a person carries.
(Beraisa): If Reuven was Motzi a half-k'Grogeres, and then was Motzi another half-k'Grogeres:
If both were in one Helam, he is liable; if they were in two Ha'alamos, he is exempt.
R. Yosi says, in one Helam, if he took both to the same Reshus [ha'Rabim] he is liable; if he took them to different Reshuyos, he is exempt.
(Rabah): This is only if the different Reshuyos [ha'Rabim] are separated by a Reshus [ha'Yachid] in which one is liable for transferring to them, but not if a Karmelis separates them.
(Abaye): This is even if they are separated by a Karmelis, not if a piece of wood separates them.
(Rava): This is even if a piece of wood separates them.
This is as Rava taught elsewhere:
(Rava): Reshuyos have the same law regarding [R. Yosi's law of] Shabbos as they do regarding Gitin. (If before Reuven threw a Get to his wife he lent her a place in his Chatzer to receive it, and it landed on a piece of wood, she is not divorced, for it is considered a Reshus unto itself - he only lent one place to her.)
OTHER SHI'URIM OF HOTZA'AH
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for mascara is to paint one eye.
Question: People do not paint only one eye!
Answer (Rav Huna): Tzenu'os (women who dress very modestly and leave only one eye exposed) paint only one eye.
Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Elazar): The Shi'ur for mascara for healing is to paint one eye; the Shi'ur for adornment is to paint two eyes.
Answer (Hilel brei d'Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani): That is for villagers (people are not so frivolous there, there is no need for such modesty - our Mishnah discusses city women).
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for wax is to put on a seal of a small hole.
(Beraisa): This refers to a seal for [a Kli of] wine (it is smaller than the hole for oil or honey, which are thicker).
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for glue is to put at the end of Shifshef.
(Beraisa): The glue is put on the little plank at the end of a bird hunter's stick (birds gets stuck to it).
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for pitch or sulfur is to seal a hole [in a Kli for mercury].
(Beraisa): This refers to a small hole.
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for a ground brick is to make an opening in a furnace...[R. Yehudah says, to make a leg of a tripod].
Observation: R. Yehudah's Shi'ur is bigger. (Ramban - this shows that R. Yehudah obligates only for a widespread usage, Chachamim Mechayev even for uses that are not so common.)
Question: Elsewhere, Chachamim's Shi'ur is bigger!
(Mishnah): [The Shi'ur for Gemi (a soft reed) is to make a handle for hanging a sieve;] R. Yehudah says, it is in order to measure a child's foot for the sake of making shoes.
Answer: R. Yehudah refers to a leg of a tripod for a small oven, it is less than Chachamim's Shi'ur.
(Beraisa): The Shi'ur for hair is enough to knead mud (the Shi'ur made with a Revi'is of water, the least a person bothers to knead at a time; alternatively, the coming Shi'ur for Hotza'ah of mud - it is no bother to add hair to kneaded mud);
The Shi'ur for mud is enough to make an opening for a furnace for refining gold.
THE SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH FOR PLASTER
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for plaster is to put [on the smallest of girls].
(Beraisa): It is to put on the smallest finger of a girl.
(Rav Yehudah): Benos Yisrael who bring hairs while they are still minors [and are embarrassed about this]:
Poor girls put on plaster to remove them, rich girls use fine flour, princesses use Mor oil - "Shishah Chodoshim b'Shemen ha'Mor".
Question: What is Mor oil?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna bar Chiya): It is scented oil.
Answer #2 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): It is oil of olives that did not reach a third of their [normal] growth.
(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Anfiknon is oil of olives that did not reach a third of their growth; one anoints with it to remove hair and soften skin.
Rav Bivi put plaster on his daughter, one limb at a time [beautifying her; many wanted to marry her,] Rav Bivi received 400 Zuz (about three years of a standard income) Kidushin money for her.
He had a Nochri neighbor who plastered his daughter all at once - she died [because she could not sweat], he complained that Rav Bivi caused her death.
Rav Nachman: Rav Bivi drinks beer, therefore his daughter [was dark and] needed plaster; we do not drink beer, our daughters do not need it.
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): It is to plaster Kilkul [R. Nechemyah says, it is to plaster Andifi].
Question: What are Kilkul and Andifi?
Answer #1 (Rav): They are the temple and the area underneath (or a strip to the side of) it, respectively.
Question: R. Yehudah's Shi'ur is bigger [than R. Nechemyah's] - elsewhere, Chachamim's Shi'ur is bigger (we assume that R. Nechemyah holds like Chachamim, who normally require a widespread use)!
Answer: R. Yehudah's Shi'ur is less than that of Chachamim, it is bigger than that of R. Nechemyah (he is concerned for uses even less common than R. Yehudah is concerned for).
Rejection (regarding Andifi - Beraisa - Rebbi): I agree with R. Yehudah's opinion regarding Chavot (plaster dissolved in much water), and with R. Nechemyah's opinion regarding clumps of kneaded plaster.
Chavot is used both for the temple and the area underneath it (but not clumps)!
Version #1 - Answer #2 (R. Yitzchak): Andifi is a Kli with one opening above and one below (they are sealed with plaster; the plaster is removed when one wants to put in or take out wine).
Rejection: This would be wasteful (the wine would dissolve the plaster, and leak out)!
Version #2 - Answer #2 (R. Yitzchak): Andifi is plaster put on other parts of the body to redden them.
Rejection: One does not spend money to kill his daughter [like the Nochri killed his daughter]! (end of Version #2)
Answer #3 (Rav Kahana): Andifi are notches:
(Mishnah): There were notches in the [Kli Shares that held a] Hin, to show how much [oil or wine] is needed for [Nesachim of a] bull, of a ram, and of a lamb (a half, third or quarter Hin, respectively).
Answer #4: Andifi is plaster put on the forehead:
A Galilean came to Bavel; he was asked to expound about [Yechezkeil's vision of] the Merkavah (Hash-m's chariot). He repeated what R. Nechemyah taught to his colleague - a wasp emerged from the wall and stung him on the Andifi (forehead), killing him.
People said that he caused his own death (Chagigah 11B - one may expound about the Merkavah only to one Chacham [at a time who need not hear details, i.e. one] who understands [mostly] by himself).
THE SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH FOR SAND
(Mishnah - R. Akiva): The Shi'ur for clay is to make a signet on a big merchandise sack;
Chachamim say, it is to make a signet on a letter.
R. Akiva says, the Shi'ur for manure or fine sand is enough to fertilize a stalk of cabbage;
Chachamim say, it is enough to fertilize a leek stalk.
The Shi'ur for coarse sand is to put on a spoon of plaster (this will be explained);
The Shi'ur for a reed is to make a quill;
If it was thick or cracked [and not fit for a quill], the Shi'ur is [to be fuel] to cook a light egg, mixed in a frying pan (this will be explained).
(Gemara): ...On a spoon of plaster.
(Beraisa): This means, on a plasterer's trowel.
Question: Who is our Tana, who says that sand is good for plaster?
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): It is R. Yehudah:
(Beraisa): [On account of mourning over the Churban] one may not plaster his house unless he mixed in sand or straw.
R. Yehudah says, if he mixed in straw, it is permitted; if he mixed in sand, this is Trachsid (cement, it is better than regular plaster), it is forbidden.
Answer #2 (Rava): It is even like Chachamim - because they hold that it is bad for (darkens) plaster, this permits [one to plaster his house with it].
THE SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH FOR A REED
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for a reed is to make a quill.
(Beraisa): It must reach to the knuckles [to be suitable for writing].
Question (Rav Ashi): Does this refer to the top knuckles or the knuckles below them?
This question is not resolved.
(Mishnah): If it was thick...[the Shi'ur is to cook a light egg, mixed in a frying pan].
(Beraisa): It is mixed with oil (this speeds cooking) in a frying pan.
Question (Mar brei d'Rav Ashi): Did you hear what is 'a light egg'?
Answer #1 (His son): It is the egg of Tziltzalta (a small bird, in the Tor (pigeon) family).
Objection (Mar brei d'Rav Ashi): Presumably, this is because it is small - if so, you should say a hummingbird (it is even smaller)!
His son could not answer; he asked his father if he had heard an answer.
Answer #2 (Mar brei d'Rav Ashi citing Rav Sheshes): It is a hen's egg.
Question: Why is it called a light egg?
Answer: It cooks the fastest of all eggs.
Question (his son): Every other Shi'ur for food for Shabbos is k'Grogeres - why is this different?
Answer (Mar brei d'Rav Ashi citing Rav Nachman): Also here, the Shi'ur is k'Grogeres of a light egg.