WHAT SHOULD BE USED FOR KINU'ACH
Rav Huna (to his son Rabah): You should learn from Rav Chisda, his teachings are very sharp!
Rabah: When I go to him, he discusses secular matters, e.g. when one goes to the Beis ha'Kisei, he should not make too fast nor press too hard, for the rectum rests on three 'teeth', either of these could uproot the teeth and endanger him!
Rav Huna: This is essential for life, and you call it secular matters?! All the more so you should learn from him!
(Rav Huna): [On Shabbos] if one has a pebble and Cheres, he should Mekane'ach with the pebble, not with the Cheres [lest it uproot the teeth];
(Rav Chisda): He should Mekane'ach with the Cheres, not with the pebble [it is not a Kli].
Question (against Rav Huna - Beraisa): If one has a pebble and Cheres, he should Mekane'ach with the Cheres, not with the pebble.
Rav Huna is refuted.
Answer (for Rav Huna - Rafram bar Papa): The Beraisa discusses the brim of a Kli (it is smooth, it will not uproot the teeth).
(Rav Chisda or Rav Hamnuna): [On Shabbos] if one has a pebble and [attached] grass, he should Mekane'ach with the pebble, not with the grass [lest it cut him; alternatively, lest he detach the grass];
(The other of Rav Chisda and Rav Hamnuna): He should Mekane'ach with the grass (this is not considered moving Muktzeh, for it is attached), not with the pebble [it is not a Kli].
Question (against the latter opinion - Beraisa): Doing Kinu'ach with something that can burn causes the anal teeth to fall out.
Answer: The latter opinion discusses wet grass, it does not burn.
(Rav Chisda or Ravina): If one needs to eliminate but does not, he will get bad breath;
(The other of Rav Chisda and Ravina): He will be sweaty and smelly:
(Beraisa): One who eats when he needs to move his bowels is like an oven ignited with the old ashes inside - this will lead to a persistent odor of sweat;
(Rav Chisda): If one needs to eliminate but cannot, he should stand and sit and stand and sit.
(Rav Chanan of Neharda'a): He should move to the side.
(Rav Hamnuna): He should use a pebble in the anus.
(Rabanan): He should divert his mind.
Question (Rav Acha brei d'Rava): If so, all the more so, he will not eliminate!
Answer (Rav Ashi): They mean, he should divert his mind from other things.
(R. Yirmeyah mi'Difti): I saw a Yishmaeli stand and sit and stand and sit, until the waste flowed out like from a pot.
(Beraisa): Before beginning a proper meal, one should walk four Amos 10 times, or 10 Amos four times, and relieve himself. (It is a disgrace to have to leave in the middle for one's bowels.)
THE SHI'UR FOR HOTZA'AH FOR EARTHENWARE
(Mishnah - R. Yehudah): The Shi'ur for Cheres is to put between pillars [so they will not lean];
R. Meir says, it must be big enough to stoke coals;
R. Yosi says, it must hold a Revi'is.
R. Meir: There is a hint, not a proof for my opinion - "V'Lo Yimatzei vi'Mchitaso Cheres Lachtos Esh mi'Yakod".
R. Yosi: That is not a proof (the verse says that even my Shi'ur is important) - "V'Lachsof Mayim mi'Geve"!
(Gemara) Question: Whose Shi'ur is bigger, R. Meir's or R. Yosi's?
Reasoning dictates that R. Yosi's Shi'ur is bigger (even a tiny piece can be used to stoke) - but the verse suggests that R. Meir's Shi'ur is bigger!
It is unreasonable to curse that he will not find [even] a small Kli, and then to curse that he will not find a big Kli!
Answer (Abaye): R. Meir's Shi'ur is bigger - he discusses stoking a big fire (a big piece is needed).
(Mishnah - R. Yosi): That is not a proof...!
Question: How does R. Meir answer this?
Answer: He says, the Seifa increases the curse:
Not only will he not find something important to people, he will not even find something unimportant to people!
THE TUM'AH OF IDOLS
(Mishnah - R. Akiva) (The first Mishnayos of our Perek are unrelated to Shabbos, there were taught because they resemble the Mishnah (86A) which discusses the source to Mechalel Shabbos for a recently circumcised baby.) Question: What is the source that an idol has Tum'as Masa (one who moves it becomes Tamei)?
Answer: "Tizrem Kemo Davah Tzei Tomar Lo" - just like a Nidah has Tum'as Masa, also an idol.
(Gemara - Mishnah): If a wall of Reuven's house separated his house from a house of an idol, and the wall fell, he may not rebuild it (for this would benefit the idolatry);
Rather, he retreats four Amos into his own property, and rebuilds it. (He fills the vacated space with thorns, so the idolatry will not benefit from it.)
If he and the idolaters jointly owned the wall [and its place], half of its place counts towards four Amos;
Its stones and dirt are Teme'im like a Sheretz - "Shaketz Teshaktzenu".
R. Akiva says, they are Teme'im like a Nidah - "Tizrem Kemo Davah" - just like a Nidah has Tum'as Masa, also idols.
(Rabah): [Chachamim say,] "TiZRem" teaches one to make idols foreign to himself, like a Zar;
"Tzei Tomar Lo" - do not tell it to come.
(Rabah): All agree that it has Tum'as Masa, on account of the Hekesh; they argue about Even Misma. (If a Nidah sits on a rock she is Metamei garments underneath it, even if she does not weigh down on the garments [because the rock is very heavy or is supported on pegs]; alternatively, even though the rock is too big to be moved; alternatively, if her Mishkav is under a rock, it is Metamei a Tahor who sits on the rock.)
R. Akiva equates idols to Nidah - just like a Nidah has Tum'as Even Misma, also idols;
Chachamim equate idols to Sheretz - just like a Sheretz lacks Tum'as Even Misma, also idols.
Question: What does R. Akiva learn from the Hekesh to Sheretz?
Answer: This teaches about Meshamsheha (Kelim used for idol worship, they have only Tum'as Maga).
Question: What do Chachamim learn from the Hekesh to Nidah?
Answer: This teaches about Tum'as Masa.
Question: It should have equated it to Nevelah (then we would not need the Hekesh to Sheretz to teach that there is no Tum'ah Even Misma)!
Answer: It is equated to Nidah to teach that just like Tum'as Nidah does not apply to a limb [that separated from a Nidah], the Tum'ah of idols does not apply to a 'limb' (a component part of an idol).
Question: R. Chama bar Gurya asked whether or not [the Tum'ah] of idols applies to limbs - he should learn from here that it does not!
Answer: Rav Chama asks according to R. Akiva.
(R. Elazar): All agree that idols do not have Tum'as Even Misma;
R. Akiva equates idols to Nidah - just like a Nidah has Tum'as Masa, also idols;
Chachamim equate idols to Sheretz - just like a Sheretz lacks Tum'as Masa, also idols.
Question: What does R. Akiva learn from the Hekesh to Sheretz?
Answer: This teaches about Kelim used for idolatry (they have only Tum'as Maga).