THE ARGUMENT ABOUT KEEPING A PAID LOAN DOCUMENT
Answer #3 (Rava): All agree that a lender must validate the document even when the borrower agrees that he authorized it - they argue about whether or not we write a receipt [and force the borrower to pay when he admits that he owes and the lender claims that he lost the loan document]:
The first Tana holds that we write a receipt (and then the paid document is useless for the lender, since he may not keep it; presumably, the borrower does not want it for a cork, lest he lose the receipt and the loan document will end up in the hands of the lender);
R. Yehudah holds that we do not write a receipt [lest the borrower lose the receipt and the lender will collect again. If the borrower paid and temporarily accepted a receipt, the lender needs the loan document - if he will not return it, he must return the money.]
Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): R. Yehudah says that borrowers keep paid loan documents to show [potential lenders] that they pay their debts.
THE SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH FOR HIDE
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for hide is to make...
Question (Rava): What is the Shi'ur to be liable for Hotza'ah of hide?
Answer (Rav Nachman - Mishnah): The Shi'ur for hide is to make a Kemi'a.
Question (Rava): What is the Shi'ur to be liable for tanning hide?
Answer (Rav Nachman): It is the same Shi'ur.
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer (Mishnah): The Shi'ur for the following is a double Sit (as far as one can separate his thumb and index finger, this is twice as much as he can separate his middle and index fingers) - laundering, Menapetz, dying and spinning;
The Shi'ur for weaving two threads is a Sit.
Inference: Because laundering, Menapetz and dying are preparations for spinning, their Shi'ur is the same as for spinning - likewise, because hide will be tanned, the Shi'ur for Hotza'ah is the same as for tanning.
Question (Rava): What is the Shi'ur for hide that will not be tanned?
Answer (Rav Nachman): It is the same - also the Shi'ur for tanned hide is the same.
Question (Beraisa): If one was Motzi soaked ingredients [for dye], the Shi'ur is to dye a sample [to show potential buyers of dyed wool] the same size as an Ira (a ball that seals the shuttle holding the woof thread).
This is less than the Shi'ur for ingredients that were not soaked!
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for nutshells, pomegranate peels, Satis and Pu'ah (plants used to make dye) is enough to dye a small garment in the middle of the headdress.
Answer (Rav Nachman): This is because people do not bother to soak [less than this, e.g.] the amount needed for a sample.
Question: The Shi'ur for unplanted garden seeds is unlike the Shi'ur for planted seeds [used to determine the Shi'ur for other things for their sake]!
(Mishnah): One is liable for Hotza'ah of less than k'Grogeres of garden seeds;
R. Yehudah ben Beseira is Mechayev for five seeds.
(Mishnah - R. Akiva): The Shi'ur for manure or fine sand is enough to fertilize a stalk of cabbage;
Chachamim say, it is enough to fertilize a leek stalk.
Answer (Rav Papa): This is because people do not bother to take out a single seed to plant.
Question: The Shi'ur for mud before kneading is unlike the Shi'ur after kneading!
(Beraisa): Chachamim agree that the Shi'ur for Hotza'ah of waste water is a Revi'is.
Question: What use is there for waste water?
Answer (R. Yirmeyah): It can be used to knead mud.
(Beraisa): The Shi'ur for mud is to make an opening [for a bellows] in a furnace.
Answer: One is not liable for less than a Revi'is because people do not bother to knead [less than this, e.g.] the amount needed for a furnace opening.
Question: R. Chiya bar Asi taught that there are three hides - Matzah, Cheifah and Diftara;
Matzah is a hide that was not salted or treated with flour or gallnuts.
Question: What is the Shi'ur for [Hotza'ah of] Matzah?
Answer (Rav Shmuel bar Yehudah): It is enough to wrap a small weight.
Question: What is the size of this weight?
Answer (Abaye): It is a quarter Litra of Pumbadisa.
Cheifah is a hide that was salted but not treated with flour or gallnuts.
Question: What is its Shi'ur?
Answer (Mishnah): The Shi'ur for [Cheifah] hide is enough to write a Kemi'a.
Diftara is a hide that has been salted and treated with flour, but not with gallnuts; its Shi'ur is the size to write a Get.
Summation of question: We said that the Shi'ur for Matzah is enough to wrap a small weight; Abaye explained, this is the quarter Litra of Pumbadisa (this is larger than for tanned hide)!
Answer: The Matzah referred to is moist, freshly flayed hide (it is not ready to be tanned).
Question (Mishnah): The Shi'urim to receive Tum'as Medras for fabric is three by three [Tefachim]; the Shi'urim for sackcloth, leather and matting to receive Tum'as Medras or Tum'as Mes are, respectively, four by four, five by five and six by six.
(Beraisa): For cloth, Sak and hide, the Shi'urim for Tum'ah and Hotza'ah are the same (The Shi'ur for hide is five Tefachim - we must say because it was not tanned, the Shi'ur is bigger!)
Answer: That refers to cooked, hardened leather for a seat, bed or table.
THE SHI'UR OF HOTZA'AH FOR PARCHMENT
(Mishnah): The Shi'ur for Klaf (parchment) is to write the smallest Parshah [in Tefilin, i.e. Shma]. (Hide has two layers, they are peeled apart; the outer layer is Klaf, the inner layer is Duchsustus.)
Contradiction (Beraisa): The Shi'ur for Klaf and Duchsustus is to write a Mezuzah (Parshas. Shma and "V'Hayah Im Shamo'a").
Resolution: The Beraisa means, to write a Mezuzah (parchment) of Tefilin (each of the four Parshiyos in head Tefilin is on its own parchment).
Question #1: Would the Tana call Tefilin 'Mezuzah'?!
(Beraisa): Tefilin straps on Tefilin Metamei hands, the straps by themselves do not Metamei hands;
R. Shimon ben Yehudah says, R. Shimon is Metaher hands that touch the straps, unless they touched the boxes;
R. Zakai says, R. Shimon is Metaher, unless they touched the Mezuzah itself.
Question #2 (Seifa [of the Beraisa]): The Shi'ur for Klaf is to write the smallest Parshah in Tefilin, i.e. Shma.
This implies that the Reisha truly discusses a Mezuzah! (Tosfos - the Beraisa contradicts itself regarding Klaf - the Gemara prefers to ask the contradiction between the Mishnah and Beraisa.)
Resolution #2: The Beraisa means, what is the Shi'ur for Klaf and Duchsustus? The Shi'ur for Duchsustus is to write a Mezuzah; the Shi'ur for Klaf is to write the smallest Parshah in Tefilin, i.e. Shma.
MAY DUCHSUSTUS BE USED FOR WRITING TEFILIN?
(Rav): Duchsustus is like Klaf - one may write Tefilin on it, just like on Klaf.
Question (Mishnah): The Shi'ur for Klaf is to write the smallest Parshah in Tefilin, i.e. Shma.
Inference: This is the Shi'ur for Klaf, but not for Duchsustus!
Answer: L'Chatchilah, one should write Tefilin on Klaf (therefore, Duchsustus is not normally used for Tefilin).
(Beraisa): A tradition from Moshe from Sinai teaches that Tefilin are written on Klaf, Mezuzos are written on Duchsustus.
On Klaf, we write on the inner side (that faced the animal's flesh), on Duchsustus, we write on the outer side (that faced the hair).
Answer: That is l'Chatchilah (b'Diavad, Tefilin on Duchsustus is Kosher).
Question (Beraisa): If one deviated, it is Pasul.
Answer: That refers only to writing Mezuzah on Klaf (but Tefilin on Duchsustus is Kosher).
Question (Beraisa): If one deviated in either of these, it is Pasul.
Answer #1: This refers to writing Mezuzah on the wrong side of either parchment, i.e. on the outer side of Klaf or on the inner side of Duchsustus.
Answer #2: Tana'im argue about this (Rav holds like R. Acha):
(Beraisa): If one deviated in either of these, it is Pasul;
R. Acha is Machshir.
Answer #3 (Rav Papa): Rav holds like Tana d'vei Menasheh:
(Tana d'vei Menasheh): If one wrote on paper or a rag, it is Pasul; on Klaf, Gevil (the full double layer of hide) or Duchsustus, it is Kosher.
Question: What did he write?
Answer #1: He wrote a Mezuzah.
Rejection: Mezuzah may not be on Klaf!
(Implied answer #2: Rather, he wrote Tefilin.)
Rejection (of Answer #3 and implied Answer #2): Tefilin may not be on Gevil!
Answer #3 (to Question r:2): He wrote a Sefer Torah.
Support (for Rav - Beraisa #1): (The Reisha taught that hand Tefilin may be used for head Tefilin, but not vice-versa, because [head Tefilin are more Kodesh -] we ascend in Kedushah, we do not descend.) Similarly, if (parchments of) a Sefer Torah or Tefilin became worn, they may not be used for a Mezuzah, for we do not descend in Kedushah.
Inference: If it was permitted to descend in Kedushah, they could be used for a Mezuzah!
Suggestion: They [are Kosher for Mezuzah because they] were written on Duchsustus (this shows that Duchsustus is Kosher for Tefilin)!
Rejection: No, they were written on Klaf.
Question: May one write a Mezuzah on Klaf?!
Answer: Yes (according to R. Shimon ben Elazar, Beraisa #1 is like him)!
(Beraisa): If one wrote [a Mezuzah] on Klaf, paper or a rag, it is Pasul;
R. Shimon ben Elazar says, R. Meir used to write on Klaf, because it lasts.
Retraction: Rav did not say that Duchsustus is like Klaf, rather, that Klaf is like Duchsustus - one may write Mezuzah on Klaf, just like on Duchsustus. (Tosfos - Rav merely said that Klaf and Duchsustus are the same - the Gemara thought that he meant that Duchsustus is like Klaf, to Machshir Tefilin on it.)