HOW MUCH MAY ONE BATHE ON SHABBOS?
Version #1 (Rav): If water was heated from before Shabbos, one may bathe his whole body in it on Shabbos;
(Shmuel): He may wash only his hands, feet and face. (The following questions are against Rav.)
Question (Beraisa #1): On Shabbos, one may wash his face, hands and feet in water heated from before Shabbos, but not his whole body.
Answer (for Rav): It means, he may not wash his whole body at once, only one limb at a time.
Question: But it says, one may wash [only] his face, hands and feet!
Answer (for Rav): It means, he may wash his whole body only like face, hands and feet [i.e., only one limb at a time].
Question (Beraisa #2): If water was heated from before Shabbos, on Shabbos one may wash only his face, hands and feet.
Answer (for Rav): Also this means, he may wash his whole body only like face, hands and feet.
Support (for Shmuel - Beraisa): If water was heated from before Shabbos, on Shabbos one may wash his face, hands and feet, but not his whole body one limb at a time - all the more so regarding water heated on Yom Tov.
Version #2 - Rabah - (Rav): If water was heated from before Shabbos, on Shabbos one may bathe his whole body in it, except for one limb.
The same questions were asked against Rav - he was refuted (the answer given above on his behalf does not apply).
Question (Rav Yosef of Abaye): Did Rabah conduct according to what he said in the name of Rav?
Abaye: I do not know.
Question: Surely, Rabah did not, for Rav was refuted!
Answer: Perhaps he (Rabah - alternatively, Rav Yosef) did not hear the Beraisa that refutes him.
Question: If he did not hear the Beraisa, surely he followed Rav's teaching!
(Abaye): Wherever Rav and Shmuel argue, Rabah always followed Rav, except for three Halachos in which he followed Shmuel:
One may remove Tzitzis from a garment to attach them to another garment, one may light a Ner Chanukah from another Ner Chanukah, the Halachah follows R. Shimon regarding dragging [a bed, chair or bench on a dirt floor, as long as he does not intend to make a furrow].
Rabah always followed the stringencies of Rav, he did not follow all of his leniencies.
DECREES AGAINST BATHING ON SHABBOS
(Beraisa): If the holes of a bathhouse were plugged up from before Shabbos [to store the heat; alternatively, so the fire will not heat the water on Shabbos], one may bathe in it on Motzei Shabbos immediately;
If the holes were plugged up from before Yom Tov, one may Mezi'a (take a steambath) in it on Yom Tov and shower in the outer room.
R. Yehudah: A case occurred in Benei Berak, the holes were plugged up from before Yom Tov, R. Elazar ben Azaryah and R. Akiva were Mezi'a in it on Yom Tov and showered in the outer room - however, the hot water was covered with boards (Rashi - ensuring that the water was not heated on Yom Tov; Tosfos- so people would not suspect that they bathed in hot water).
Chachamim: It is permitted even if the hot water was not covered.
After many people transgressed, Chachamim began to forbid [bathing] - but one may walk through a city bathhouse [without intent to sweat].
Question: What did the transgressors do?
Answer (R. Shimon ben Pazi): At first, people bathed on Shabbos in water heated from Erev Shabbos; bathhouse attendants started to heat water on Shabbos (Ran, based on Yerushalmi - they were Meshaheh water to get hot on Shabbos - Yisraelim are not suspected of transgressing Shabbos mid'Oraisa) and say that it was hot from before Shabbos.
Chachamim forbade [bathing], but still permitted Zei'ah. People would bathe in hot water and claim that they were Mezi'a - Chachamim decreed to forbid Zei'ah, but still allowed hot springs;
People would bathe in hot water and claim that they bathed in hot springs - Chachamim forbade hot springs, but still allowed bathing in cold water;
Chachamim saw that people could not abide by the decree against hot springs - they permitted hot springs, but Zei'ah remains forbidden.
(Rava): If one transgresses mid'Rabanan laws, others may call him a transgressor. (Me'iri - it is a Mitzvah to debase him, do deter others from transgressing.).
This is like this Tana (he calls people who violated the decrees 'transgressors').
(Beraisa): One may walk through a city bathhouse.
(Rava): Bathhouses of cities are permitted, those of villages are forbidden.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: Since they are small, they get very hot (he will Mezi'a).
(Beraisa): [On Shabbos] one may heat himself in front of a fire and shower in cold water, one may not shower in cold water and then heat himself in front of a fire, for this makes the water lukewarm (and it is forbidden to wash [Rosh - even part of; Rambam - all of] the body in water heated on Shabbos; Tosfos ha'Rosh - the Yerushalmi forbids on account of cooking the water).
One may heat a towel and put it on an aching stomach;
One may not put a kettle of hot water on the [Tosfos - towel on the] stomach [lest water drip out, causing him to wash in water heated on Shabbos (or he may come to squeeze water from the towel); Tosfos - this looks like a cure, which is forbidden on Shabbos);
This is forbidden even on a weekday on account of danger (lest he burn the stomach).
HEATING OIL ON SHABBOS
(Beraisa): [On Shabbos] one may leave a kettle of water in front of a fire, not long enough to (Rashi; Rif - not in a place where it could) get hot, only to blunt its chill.
R. Yehudah says, a woman may leave a flask of oil in front of a fire, not to get cooked, only to get warm;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, she may anoint her hand with oil, heat it in front of a fire and anoint her son (a minor) without any concern.
Question: What is the first Tana's opinion about oil?
Answer #1 (Rabah and Rav Yosef): He permits [Rashi - heating it to Yad Soledes Bo (so hot that it makes one withdraw his hand); Rashba - to put it where it could become Yad Soledes Bo];
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): He forbids this.
Rabah and Rav Yosef say that he permits even Yad Soledes Bo - he holds that cooking does not apply to oil;
R. Yehudah says that cooking applies to oil, but warming it is not cooking it.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says that cooking applies to oil, and warming it is cooking it (therefore it may be warmed only through a Shinuy, e.g. on the hand)
Rav Nachman says that the first Tana forbids even below Yad Soledes Bo - he holds that cooking applies to oil, and warming it is cooking it;
R. Yehudah says that cooking applies to oil, but warming it is not cooking it.
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says that cooking applies to oil, and warming it is cooking it.
Question: R. Shimon does not argue with the first Tana!
Answer: R. Shimon permits through a Shinuy, the first Tana does not.
(Rav Yehudah): The law is the same for water and oil - Yad Soledes Bo is forbidden, less than this is permitted.
Question: How hot is Yad Soledes Bo? (Rashi - it is different for different people; Me'iri - when she puts her anointed hand near the fire, how can she gauge if the oil would make her hand recoil?)
Answer (Rachbah): It is hot enough to scald a baby's stomach.
(R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): I once went to bathe in back of Rebbi; I wanted to warm oil in the water and anoint him with it.
Rebbi: Put the [flask of] oil in water in a Kli Sheni (do not heat it in the bath, it is like a Kli Rishon).
We learn three things from this:
Cooking applies to oil;
A Kli Sheni does not cook;
Warming oil is (our text, Rashi; Rashba - is not) cooking it. (Rashi - this is why he did not allow in a Kli Rishon; Rashba's text - this is why he allowed warming it.)
Question: How could Rebbi say this in the bath - Rabah bar bar Chanah taught that one may think about Torah anywhere (Me'iri - even if is he is unsure if the place is clean) except for a bathhouse or bathroom [even if it is clean]!
Suggestion: Perhaps it is forbidden only in Lashon ha'Kodesh (and he said this in another language).
Rejection: Abaye taught that secular matters may be said even in Lashon ha'Kodesh, Torah is forbidden in any language!
Answer: One may stop someone from transgressing [even if this implicitly teaches Halachos].
Support: Rav Yehudah taught that a Talmid followed R. Meir into a bathhouse and wanted to wash the floor and apply scented water to it - R. Meir said that these are forbidden [lest one even out holes in a dirt floor].
This shows that the Isur does not apply to preventing transgression. (Ritva - this is a clearer proof than the case of Rebbi, for R. Meir explicitly said that they are forbidden; Maharshal - one might have thought that Rebbi requested a Kli Sheni because he did not want the oil to be so hot.)
(Ravina): We learn that one who cooks in hot spring water on Shabbos is liable - the episode with Rebbi was after the decree (against bathing in hot water, we must say that it was in hot spring water), and he told R. Yitzchak to put the oil in a Kli Sheni!
Question: But Rav Chisda taught that one who cooks in hot spring water on Shabbos is exempt!
Answer: Ravina meant, he is lashed mid'Rabanan.