WHEN DO WE MENTION CHANUKAH?
Question: Must one mention Chanukah (Al ha'Nisim) in Birkas ha'Mazon?
Since it is only mid'Rabanan, he need not;
Or, perhaps he must, to publicize the Nes!
Answer (Rava): He need not mention it; if he wants to, he mentions in Hoda'ah (the second Berachah, Birkas ha'Aretz).
Rav Huna bar Yehudah visited Rava; he intended to mention it in Bone Yerushalayim.
(Rav Sheshes): Just like in Tefilah, we mention it in Hoda'ah, the same applies to Birkas ha'Mazon.
Question: Must one mention Rosh Chodesh (Ya'aleh v'Yavo) in Birkas ha'Mazon?
Perhaps one need not mention Chanukah, since it is only mid'Rabanan, but Rosh Chodesh is mid'Oraisa, he must mention it;
Or, perhaps since it is permitted to do Melachah, he need not.
Answer #1 (Rav): He must mention it.
Answer #2 (R. Chanina): He need not mention it.
(Rav Zerika): One should follow Rav, for R. Oshaya holds like him.
(R. Oshaya - Beraisa): On days when there is Korban Musaf, such as Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Mo'ed, one says Shemonah Esre at Ma'ariv, Shacharis and Minchah, and mentions the day [in Ya'aleh v'Yavo] in Avodah (Retzei) - if he did not mention it, he must pray again;
One does not make Kidush on these days; one mentions them in Birkas ha'Mazon.
On days when there is no Korban Musaf, such as Mondays, Thursdays, fast days, Ma'amados (representatives of Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim that are present when Korbanos Tzibur are offered; they fast and say special Tefilos - Ta'anis 26A)...
Interjection: What is special about Mondays and Thursdays?!
Correction: Rather, on Mondays and Thursdays of fast days (they would decree fasts on Mondays and Thursdays on account of lack of rain) and Ma'amados, one says Shemonah Esre at Ma'ariv, Shacharis and Minchah, and mentions the fast (says Aneinu) in Shome'a Tefilah; if he did not do so, he does not pray again; he does not mention them in Birkas ha'Mazon (e.g. when eating the night before).
Question: Does one mention Chanukah in Musaf (on Rosh Chodesh or Shabbos)?
Since we do not say Musaf on account of Chanukah, he does not;
Or, since he must say four Tefilos today, he mentions Chanukah in all of them!
Answer #1 (Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah): He does not mention it.
Answer #2 (Rav Nachman and R. Yochanan): He mentions it.
(Abaye): Rav Huna and Rav Yehudah learned their law from Rav!
(Rav): If Rosh Chodesh is on Shabbos, the Maftir who reads from the Navi does not mention Rosh Chodesh in the Berachah afterwards, for we read from the Navi solely on account of Shabbos, not on account of Rosh Chodesh.
Rejection (Rav Yosef): There is different - when Rosh Chodesh is not on Shabbos, we do not read from the Navi at all;
Here, when there is no Musaf on Chanukah, we mention Chanukah in three Tefilos!
Rather, the law resembles the following:
(Rav): (They used to read from the Navi at Minchah on Shabbos, this ceased in the days of the Persians.) If Yom Tov is on Shabbos, the Maftir who reads from the Navi at Minchah does not mention Yom Tov, for we read from the Navi at Minchah solely on account of Shabbos.
The Halachah does not follow any of these teachings, rather, it is like the following:
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): If Yom Kipur is on Shabbos, in Ne'ilah (an additional Tefilah) one mentions Shabbos, for it is one of the four obligatory Tefilos of the day[time, i.e. excluding Ma'ariv].
Contradiction: But the Halachah follows Rava!
(Rava): If Yom Tov is on Shabbos, when the Shali'ach Tzibur says Birkas me'Ein Sheva (Kone Shamayim va'Aretz...Magen Avos...) after Ma'ariv, he does not mention Yom Tov, for this Berachah is solely on account of Shabbos.
Resolution: That is different! Letter of the law, Birkas me'Ein Sheva should not be said even on Shabbos - it was enacted on account of danger (latecomers might be left alone after the Tzibur finished - the synagogues were in unpopulated areas, Shedim could harm individuals, therefore it was decreed to prolong the Tefilah of the Tzibur); (From Tosfos (Ta'anis 2B, based on Yerushalmi) it seems that people did pray b'Tzibur on Yom Tov night - Sefas Emes suggests that the Berachah was not enacted on Yom Tov, for everyone came together, but on Shabbos most people accepted Shabbos early, a minority would come late.)
The four [daytime] Tefilos of Yom Kipur are intrinsic to the day.
WHICH OILS ARE PERMITTED FOR THE SHABBOS LIGHTS?
(Mishnah): One may not use the tail [or Chelev; Nachum ha'Midi permits cooked Chelev; Chachamim forbid it, whether or not it is cooked].
Question: The latter Chachamim do not argue with the first Tana!
Answer: They argue about Rav Beruna's law (that one may put a drop of good oil into melted Chelev or fish innards and light with it) - we cannot determine which holds like Rav Beruna and which argues.
(Mishnah): One may not burn Shemen Sereifah on Yom Tov;
R. Yishmael forbids lighting [Neros Shabbos] with Itran (tar) it is dishonorable to Shabbos (this will be explained);
Chachamim permit all oils - sesame, nut, radish, fish, wild gourd, tar and kerosene;
R. Tarfon says, only olive oil may be used.
ONE MAY NOT BURN SHEMEN SEREIFAH ON YOM TOV
(Gemara) Question: Why is it forbidden [to burn Shemen Sereifah on Yom Tov]?
Answer: This is because we do not burn [Pasul] Kodshim on Yom Tov (Ri - because we may not benefit from them; mid'Oraisa, one may burn Tamei Terumah for the sake of cooking on Yom Tov - Chachamim decreed on account of Kodshim. Riva - since even Terumah is burned primarily for the Mitzvah (just it is permitted to benefit from it at the time), it is forbidden mid'Oraisa.)
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer #1 (Chizkiyah) Question: "Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker (do not leave over meat of the Pesach until the morning of the 15th) veha'Nosar Mimenu Ad Boker ba'Esh Tisrofu" - why are these words repeated?
Answer: This teaches that Nosar is burned on another morning (which is not Yom Tov, the 16th).
Answer #2 (Abaye): "Olas Shabas b'Shabato" - but one may not burn on the Mizbe'ach [limbs of] an Olah of Chol (Erev Shabbos or Erev Yom Tov) on Shabbos or Yom Tov (all the more so, one may not burn Pasul Kodshim on Yom Tov).
Answer #3 (Rava): "Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem" - "Hu" (Melachah of food preparation is permitted on Yom Tov), not Machshirim (making things used to prepare food); "Levado" - but not circumcision after day eight, which [if not for the verse] would have permitted from a Kal va'Chomer. (All the more so, burning Kodshim, which does not have a fixed time, does not override Yom Tov.)
Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): "Shabaton" - there is a Mitzvas Ase to rest on Yom Tov [in addition to the Lav of Melachah], the Ase to burn Kodshim does not override a Lav and an Ase.