WHAT IS THE MITZVAH? (cont.)
Answer #3: R. Yehoshua ben Levi taught that if a big lantern [was lit for Ner Chanukah on Erev Shabbos] burned the entire day, one may extinguish it on Motzei Shabbos and relight it (for the Mitzvah on Motzei Shabbos).
If the Mitzvah is Hadlakah, we understand why it suffices to extinguish it and relight it;
But if the Mitzvah is Hanachah, he should also have to pick it up and put it down! (Tosfos - he also must relight it, since it was not lit at the time of the Mitzvah. This answer is accepted; the Gemara further supports it.)
Answer #4: We bless '...Asher Kidshanu...Lehadlik...' - this shows that the Mitzvah is Hadlakah.
Corollary: Since the Mitzvah is Hadlakah, if a child, lunatic or deaf person lit, the Ner may not be used for the Mitzvah [unless someone obligated to keep Mitzvos will extinguish it and relight it].
Surely, a woman may light;
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Ner Chanukah is obligatory upon women, because they were party to the Nes (they were saved from Yevani decrees; also, a woman had a share in the Nes of the war).
(Rav Sheshes): Ner Chanukah is obligatory upon someone lodging outside his house.
(R. Zeira): When I was single and learning by my Rebbi, I would contribute a Perutah towards the cost of the Neros [of my host];
After I married, I need not - my wife lights on my behalf in my house.
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): All oils are good for Ner Chanukah (he holds like Rav (21B) - olive oil is the best.
(Abaye): At first, Rabah would seek to use sesame oil, for it burns longest - after he heard R. Yehoshua ben Levi's teaching, he would seek olive oil, for its light is clearest.
(R. Yehoshua ben Levi): All oils are good for ink - olive oil is the best.
Question: (In making ink, one smokes glass in steam of oil (blackening it), then scrapes off the black and kneads it with a bit of oil; when it dries, it is smeared into the ink.) Is olive oil best for smoking, or for kneading?
Version #1 - Answer (Rav Shmuel bar Zutri - Beraisa): All oils are good for ink - olive oil is best, both for smoking and for kneading.
Version #2 (Rav Shmuel bar Zutra - Beraisa): All smokes are good for ink - the best is of olive oil.
(Rav Huna): All saps are good for ink - the best is sap of Ketaf (balsam).
THE BERACHOS MADE ON NEROS CHANUKAH
(R. Chiya bar Aba): One who lights Ner Chanukah must bless.
(R. Yirmeyah): One who sees Ner Chanukah (Rashi - before he lit; Ran - and he himself will not light tonight) must bless.
(Rav Yehudah): The first night, one who sees Ner Chanukah makes two Berachos (he omits 'Lehadlik'), one who lights makes three Berachos; on other nights, one who sees makes one Berachah, one who lights makes two Berachos.
Question: Which Berachah is omitted on other nights?
Answer: Shehecheyanu is omitted.
Question: He should omit Nes (she'Asa Nisim la'Avoseinu)!
Answer: The Nes applied every day (so we bless for it every day).
Question: What is the text of [the other] Berachah?
Answer: It is '...Asher Kidshanu b'Mitzvosav v'Tzivanu Lehadlik Ner Shel Chanukah'.
Question: Where did Hash-m command us about Ner Chanukah?
Answer #1 (Rav Avya): He commanded "Lo Sasur" (do not deviate from what Chachamim say).
Answer #2 (Rav Nechemyah): It says "She'al Avicha v'Yagedcha Zekenecha va'Yomru Lach".
Question (Rav Amram - Mishnah): One may use Demai (doubtfully tithed produce) for an Eiruv or Shituf (an Eiruv of an alleyway); we bless on it make a Zimun on it; one may tithe it when naked or Bein ha'Shemashos.
If we must bless on all Mitzvos mid'Rabanan, why may one tithe it when naked - "V'Hayah Machanecha Kadosh" (one may not say Divrei Kedushah where Ervah is visible)!
Answer #1 (Abaye): We bless on all Vadai Mitzvos mid'Rabanan, but not on tithing Demai, for it is a Safek (perhaps it was already tithed).
Question: In Chutz la'Aretz, people observe a second day of Yom Tov on account of Safek, yet they bless on it (e.g. Kidush)!
Answer: [Letter of the law they should not bless -] Chachamim were concerned that if they will not bless, they will be treat it lightly.
Answer #2 (Rava): [We bless even on Safek Mitzvos mid'Rabanan -] Demai is not even considered a Safek, for most Amei ha'Aretz tithe (it is a mere stringency mid'Rabanan to tithe it).
CONCERN FOR THAT ONE MIGHT AROUSE SUSPICION
(Rav Huna): If a house has two openings to a Chatzer, Ner Chanukah must be placed in both.
(Rava): This is only if the openings are on different sides of the house, not if they are on the same side.
Question: What is the reason?
Suggestion: Two Neros are required on account of suspicion (people will think that the Ba'al ha'Bayis did not light):
Question: Whose suspicion are we concerned for?
If we are concerned for people from other cities, even if both openings are on the same side they will suspect (that the house is split, and the resident of one side did not light)!
If we are concerned for people of this city (they know that the house is not split), even if both openings are on opposite sides they will not suspect (they will see that the Ba'al ha'Bayis lit on the other side)!
Answer (to both questions): We are concerned for people of this city - perhaps some will pass by only on this side, they will suspect, just like the Ba'al ha'Bayis did not light on this side, he did not light on the other side!
Question: What is the source that we are concerned for suspicion?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Shimon): There are four reasons why the Torah commands to leave Pe'ah at the end of the harvest (they will be explained) - to protect the poor from theft, to spare them time, on account of suspicion, and on account of "Lo Sechaleh";
To protect the poor from theft - lest the Ba'al ha'Bayis will find an opportune time to tell one of his poor relatives 'This is the Pe'ah [go take it]!"
To spare Aniyim time - so they will not wait around, anticipating that the Ba'al ha'Bayis is about to declare the Pe'ah;
On account of suspicion - so passersby will not [see the entire perimeter harvested and] curse the Ba'al ha'Bayis for not leaving Pe'ah;
On account of "Lo Sechaleh" (this connotes the end).
Question: The first three reasons explain why the Torah commands to leave at the end!
Answer (Rava): It means, on account of swindlers [who would claim that they already left Pe'ah and Aniyim took it].
(R. Yitzchak bar Redifah): If a Ner has two openings (for wicks), two people can fulfill the Mitzvah through it.
(Rava): If one filled a bowl with oil, surrounded it with wicks and covered it with a Kli, many people may be Yotzei with it;
If it is not covered, [the flames merge,] it is like a bonfire, no one may be Yotzei (it does not resemble a Ner).
HOW TO MERIT CHILDREN THAT ARE CHACHAMIM
(Rava): The following is obvious to me - if one does not have enough money for Ner Shabbos and Ner Chanukah, Ner Shabbos has precedence, so there will be Shalom Bayis (people are pained to dwell in darkness).
If he does not have enough money for Ner Shabbos and [wine for] Kidush ha'Yom [at the start of Shabbos, it is mid'Oraisa], Ner Shabbos has precedence, on account of Shalom Bayis;
Question (Rava): If he does not have enough money for Ner Chanukah and Kidush ha'Yom, which has precedence?
Kidush ha'Yom has precedence, for it is Tadir (comes more frequently);
Or, perhaps Ner Chanukah has precedence, to publicize the Nes!
Conclusion (Rava): Ner Chanukah has precedence, to publicize the Nes.
(Rav Huna): One who regularly fulfills Ner Shabbos and Ner Chanukah will have children who are Chachamim ("Ki Ner Mitzvah v'Sorah Or";)
One who is careful to fulfill Mezuzah properly will merit to have a nice dwelling; one who is careful about Tzitzis will merit to have a nice garment;
One who is careful about Kidush ha'Yom will merit to have much wine;
Rav Huna used to pass by the door of R. Avin Nagra; he saw that he used to burn much oil. Rav Huna said that great Chachamim will descend from him; this was fulfilled through Rav Idi bar Avin and Rav Chiya bar Avin.
Rav Chisda saw that the father (or father-in-law) of Rav Shizbi used to burn much oil; he said that a great Chacham will descend from him - this was fulfilled through Rav Shizbi.
Rav Yosef's wife used to light Ner Shabbos late [close to dark].
Rav Yosef: A Beraisa teaches "Lo Yamish Amud he'Anan Yomam v'Amud ha'Esh Laylah Lifnei ha'Am" - the fire came before the cloud left (towards evening - this teaches that it is proper to light before dark); the fire would not leave until the cloud came (in the morning).
His wife: If so, I will light early in the day!
(An elder - Beraisa): One may not light too early [for then it is not evident that the light is for the sake of Shabbos] nor too late.
(Rava): One who loves Chachamim will have children who are Chachamim; one who honors Chachamim will have son-in-laws who are Chachamim;
One who fears Chachamim will himself become a Chacham;
If this is not feasible [for he does not learn regularly], his words will be heeded like those of a Chacham.
(Mishnah): One may not use Shemen Sereifah.
Question: What is Shemen Sereifah?
Answer (Rabah): It is Tamei Terumah oil - it is called Shemen Sereifah because it must be burned.
Question: Why is it forbidden to use for Shabbos?
Answer #1: Because it is a Mitzvah to burn it [lest someone will come to eat it], we decree lest he will tilt the Ner [to ensure that all of it burns].
Question (Abaye - Mishnah): One may not light Shemen Sereifah on Yom Tov.
This cannot be a decree lest he tilt! (Burning is permitted on Yom Tov.)
Answer (Rabah): This is a decree, lest one will burn it on Shabbos.
Answer #2 (Rav Chisda): [One may use Shemen Sereifah on a regular Shabbos,] we are not concerned lest he tilt the Ner;
The Mishnah forbids it only when Erev Shabbos is Yom Tov, for we may not burn Kodshim on Yom Tov.
Question: The Seifa (the next Mishnah) forbids lighting Shemen Sereifah on Yom Tov - this implies that the Reisha does not discuss Yom Tov!
Answer (R. Chanina of Sura): The Seifa gives the reason for the Reisha - we may not burn Shemen Sereifah on Erev Shabbos that is Yom Tov, for we may not burn [Pasul] Kodshim on Yom Tov.
Support (for Rav Chisda - Beraisa): All the oils forbidden for Shabbos are permitted on Yom Tov, except for Shemen Sereifah, for we may not burn Kodshim on Yom Tov.