HOW MUCH MUST FOOD COOK BEFORE SHABBOS?
(Gemara) Question: How much must the food roast before Shabbos?
Answer (R. Elazar): It must be roasted k'Ma'achal Ben Drusai (like a certain thief used to eat, a third or half cooked).
(Rav Asi): The decree against Bishul Akum (food cooked by Nochrim) does not apply to anything cooked [by a Yisrael] k'Ma'achal Ben Drusai (a Nochri may finish cooking it).
(Beraisa - Chananya): Anything cooked k'Ma'achal Ben Drusai may be left on a stovetop on Shabbos, even if the stove was not Garuf or Katum (the coals were not swept out, ashes were not put on them - since it is edible, we are not concerned lest he stoke the coals).
(Mishnah): One may not put bread...[R. Eliezer requires time for the bottom face to form a crust].
Question: Does 'the bottom face' mean the one stuck to the oven (but Chachamim permit once any face crusts), or the one facing the fire (in the bottom of the oven - but Chachamim require all the faces to crust)?
Answer (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): There must be time for the bottom face stuck to the oven to form a crust.
(Mishnah): We may lower the Korban Pesach...
Question: Why is this permitted?
Answer: The group that will eat it are zealous.
Inference: If they would not be zealous, it would be forbidden.
Question: But we learned (18B) that one may leave kid meat even in an unsealed oven (according to everyone (Version #2), or at least according to Rav Ashi in Version #1)!
Answer: It is permitted there when the kid is cut into pieces (wind is bad for it) - Korban Pesach is roasted whole (wind does not harm it).
HOW MUCH MUST FIRE BURN BEFORE SHABBOS?
(Mishnah): It suffices for the bonfire [in the Beis ha'Mokad to catch a little].
Question: What is the source of this?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): "Lo Seva'aru Esh b'Chol Moshvoseichem" - you may not kindle in your dwellings, it is permitted in Beis ha'Mokad (a chamber in the Mikdash in which a fire burned).
Objection (Rav Chisda): If so, it should be permitted even on Shabbos! Rather, the verse permits burning limbs [of Olos] and Chelev on the Mizbe'ach [on Shabbos].
Answer #2 (Rav Chisda): It is permitted because Kohanim are zealous.
(Mishnah): Outside the Mikdash, [most of the wood must catch].
Question: What majority is required?
Answer #1 (Rav): The majority of each stick must catch fire.
Answer #2 (Shmuel): [The majority of the wood must catch fire,] in order that people will not say 'Bring twigs to put under the logs [to help them catch]'.
Support (for Shmuel - Rav Chiya - Beraisa): [When lighting a bonfire before Shabbos (alternatively - the Menorah in the Mikdash),] the flame must go up by itself without anything to help it.
Version #1 (Rav): If one burns a single log, the majority of its thickness must catch before Shabbos;
Version #2 (Rav): The majority of its circumference must catch.
(Rav Papa): Since we are unsure which Rav said, both majorities are required.
Tana'im argue like the two versions of Rav:
(Beraisa - R. Chiya): The log must be so burnt that a craftsman cannot use it (most of its thickness);
R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, the fire must catch on both sides (most of its circumference).
There is a hint to this, not a proof - "Es Shnei Ketzosav Ochlah ha'Esh v'Socho Nochar ha'Yitzlach li'Mlachah".
Question: "V'Es ha'Ach Lefanav Mevo'ares" - what is this?
Answer #1 (Rav): It is a willow branch.
Answer #2 (Shmuel): They are logs that caught fire from the willow.
A certain man was saying 'Who wants Achvana' - he was found to be selling willow.
THINGS THAT DO NOT REQUIRE A MAJORITY
(Rav Huna): In a bonfire of reeds, one need not ignite the majority before Shabbos (for they do not extinguish);
If he bound them, the majority is required.
In a fire of pits, the majority is not required; if they are in a Kli made from Lulavim, the majority is required (for the flame does not get inside).
Objection (Rav Chisda): Just the contrary! Loose reeds or seeds will come apart (they will not ignite each other, so the majority is needed); bound reeds or seeds in a Kli will not come apart (the majority is not needed).
Rav Kahana taught like Rav Chisda.
(Rav Yosef - Beraisa): Four kinds of bonfire do not require the majority - of pitch, sulfur, wax, and Revav (anything that melts, e.g. wax or fat).
(Beraisa): Also fires of straw or stubble do not require the majority.
(R. Yochanan): Trees of Bavel do not require the majority.
Question (Rav Yosef): What does R. Yochanan refer to?
Answer #1: He refers to finely cut wood.
Rejection: Ula taught that even a wick (made from worn clothing and dipped in oil, it catches easily) requires the majority, all the more so finely cut wood!
Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): He refers to cedar branches.
Answer #2 (Rami bar Aba): He refers to moss.
FORBIDDEN WICKS AND OILS
(Mishnah) Question: What may be used to light [a lamp that will burn on Shabbos], which are forbidden [because they do not burn nicely, one may come to help it burn]?
Answer: We may not use the following - Leches, Chosen, Chalach, Idan wick, wilderness wick or 'yellow on the water';
We may not use pitch, wax, Kik oil, oil that must be burned (e.g. Tamei Terumah), the fat tail (of a sheep), or Chelev;
Nachum ha'Midi permits cooked Chelev;
Chachamim forbid it, whether or not it is cooked.
(Gemara): Leches is a cedar branch.
Objection: Obviously, this is not fit for a wick!
Answer: The Mishnah forbids a material like wool between the bark and the wood.
(Mishnah): Not with Chosen.
(Rav Yosef): This is Ne'ores (chaff) of flax.
Objection (Abaye): "V'Hayah he'Chason li'N'ores" (this implies that Chosen is not Ne'ores)!
(Abaye): Rather, it is flax that was beaten but not unraveled.
(Mishnah): Not with Chalach.
(Shmuel): Seafarers told me that it is called Chulcha.
(Rav Yitzchak bar Ze'ira): This is waste silk.
Ravin and Abaye were sitting in front of Ravna Nechemyah, the brother of the Reish Galusa; they saw that he was wearing a silk garment.
(Ravin): That is Chalach of the Mishnah!
Version #1 - Ri - (Abaye): We (in Bavel) call this Pranda silk (but Chalach is inferior silk).
Question (against Ravin - Beraisa): Tzitzis must be put on garments of the following materials - silk, Chalach and Serikin (frayed silk). (This shows that Chalach is not silk!)
Ravin is refuted.
Version #2 - R. Tam - (Abaye): We call it (Chalach) Pranda silk (Ravna is wearing inferior silk).
Question (against Abaye - Beraisa): Tzitzis must be put on garments of the following materials - silk, Chalach and Serikin.
Abaye is refuted. (end of Version #2)
Answer: Alternatively, Pranda silk is not regular silk.
OTHER FORBIDDEN WICKS
(Mishnah): Not with Idan wick.
This is [a wick made from] a material like wool between the bark and the wood of willow.
Ravin and Abaye were walking in a certain valley and saw willow.
Ravin: This is Idan of the Mishnah!
Abaye: It is a mere tree (it cannot be used for a wick)!
Ravin peeled it and showed him the 'wool' under the bark.
(Mishnah): Wilderness wick.
This is nettles.
(Mishnah): Yellow on the water.
Question: What is this?
Suggestion: It is seaweed.
Rejection: Seaweed crumbles, one could not make a wick from it!
Answer (Rav Papa): It is moss that grows on boats.
(Beraisa): They also forbade wicks of wool and hair.
Our Tana did not bother to list these, for they do not work at all - wool shrivels up, hair gets burned.