(Mishnah): We may not use pitch.
(Beraisa): Before pitch the Mishnah lists Pasul wicks, afterwards Pasul oils are listed.
Objection: This is obvious!
Version #1 (Rashi) Answer: Wax was not obvious - one might have thought that it is Pasul even if it is [like] a wick (surrounds a wick, like our candles) - the Beraisa teaches, it is Pasul only when used like oil.
Version #2 (Chachamim of Narvona, cited by Tosfos) Answer: Wax was not obvious - one might have thought that it is Pasul even for a wick - the Beraisa teaches, it is Pasul only for oil. (end of Version #2)
(Rami bar Avin): Itran (tar, mentioned in the next Mishnah) is the waste of pitch (when pitch is heated, tar exudes); wax is the waste of [cakes of] honey.
Question: What difference does it make?
Answer: This is relevant to commerce (if one sold tar or wax, this is what he must give).
(Beraisa): The oils that may not be left burning in a lamp over Shabbos may be used for a big fire, for heat or for light;
This is permitted whether it is on the ground or in a lamp.
They are forbidden only to be put in a lamp with a wick.
(Mishnah): Kik oil.
Question: What is this?
(Shmuel): Seafarers told me that there is a bird overseas called Kik.
Answer #2 (Rav Yitzchak brei d'Rav Yehudah): It is cottonseed oil.
Answer #3 (Reish Lakish): It comes from a Kikayon (the tree Hash-m made grow for Yonah).
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): I saw the Kikayon of Yonah - it was like the plant from which yields castor oil; it grows in swamps, storekeepers hang it over the openings of their shops for shade and a good smell;
Oil is made from its seeds, in Eretz Yisrael, all sick people rest in the shade of its branches.
FIXING BAD OILS
(Rabah): Chachamim forbade the wicks [in our Mishnah] because they flicker; they forbade the oils because they are not drawn up the wick.
Question (Abaye): May one put a drop of [good] oil into a Pasul oil and light with them?
(It will cause the oil to be drawn up the wick - but) do we decree lest one use the Pasul oil by itself, or not?
Answer (Rabah): We may not light with it.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer (Rabah): This is because we may not light with it (it is a decree).
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If one wound a good wick around something we may not light with, one may not light with it;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, in my father's house they would wind a wick around a nut and light with it.
Rabah: Why do you ask from R. Shimon, the first Tana supports me!
Abaye: We rely on R. Shimon' opinion, for it was followed in practice.
Summation of question - suggestion: They would light the wick and the nut!
Answer: No, the nut was merely to make the wick float [above the oil].
Question: Why does the first Tana forbid?
Answer: The entire Beraisa is R. Shimon, it is abbreviated, it means as follows:
If one wound a good wick around something we may not light with, one may not light with it;
This is if he lights both wicks - but if he does so to make the wick float, it is permitted;
R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, in my father's house they would wind a wick around a nut.
Question: Rav Beruna permits to put a drop of [good] oil into melted Chelev or fish innards and light with it!
Answer: Rabah forbids regarding oils that [by themselves] are not drawn up the wick;
Melted Chelev or dissolved fish innards themselves are drawn up the wick, it is only a decree not to use them by themselves, lest one will use solid Chelev or fish innards that are not dissolved.
Question: We should decree not to use melted Chelev or fish innards with a drop of oil, lest one use them without a drop of oil!
Answer: It is only a decree not to use them by themselves - we do not make a decree on account of a decree!
(Rami bar Chama - Beraisa): The oils and wicks forbidden to use on Shabbos may not be used in the Mikdash - "Leha'alos Ner Tamid". (Cheshek Shlomo deletes 'oils' from the text, for the Torah explicitly requires olive oil for the Menorah.)
(Implied question: How do we learn this from the verse? Answer) (Rami bar Chama): This teaches that the flame must go up by itself without anything to help it.
Question (Mishnah): Worn out Michnesayim (pants) and belts (Avnetim) of Kohanim were used to make wicks for lamps at the Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah (celebrations in the Mikdash on Sukos.) (The Avnet is mostly of wool!)
Answer: The Simchas Beis ha'Sho'evah is different ("Leha'alos Ner Tamid" applies only to the Menorah).
Question (Beraisa): Worn out Bigdei Kehunah were used to make wicks used in the Mikdash.
Suggestion: Even Bigdei Kehunah with Kil'ayim (wool and linen) were used (even though wool is Pasul)!
Answer: No, only linen Bigdei Kehunah were used.
WHAT MAY BE USED FOR NEROS CHANUKAH?
(Rav Huna): The oils and wicks forbidden to use on Shabbos may not be used for Ner Chanukah, not during the week nor on Shabbos.
(Rava): Rav Huna holds that if the Ner extinguished, one must relight it (he forbids Pesulim on weekdays, perhaps the Ner will go out and he will neglect to relight it);
He permits using the light (he forbids Pesulim on Shabbos, perhaps he will use the light and come to fix the flame).
(Rav Chisda): They may be used during the week, but not on Shabbos.
He holds that if it extinguished, one need not relight it; he permits using the light.
(Rav): They may be used during the week and on Shabbos.
(R. Yirmeyah): He holds that if it extinguished, one need not relight it; he forbids using the light.
Abaye heard this in the name of R. Yirmeyah, but did not accept it; he later heard that R. Yochanan said so, and accepted it.
Abaye: Had I merited, I would have accepted it the first time!
Question: Why was Abaye upset - he accepted the teaching in the end!
Answer: One remembers better what he learns in his youth.
(Said in the name of Rav Chisda and Rav): If it extinguished, one need not relight it.
Question (Beraisa): The Mitzvah is for Ner Chanukah to burn from sunset until the last people cease from the market.
Suggestion: If it was extinguished, one must relight it!
Answer #1: No, this teaches that if one did not light at sunset, he may still light until this time.
Answer #2: No, this teaches that one must put enough oil to burn until then.
(Beraisa): ...Until the last people cease from the market.
Question: Who are these people?
Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): They are Tarmudim (a nation, they gather twigs from the market after everyone else leaves).
HOW TO LIGHT NEROS CHANUKAH
(Beraisa): The Mitzvah is for Ner Chanukah is for a man to burn one Ner for his household [on each night];
Mehadrin (people who beautify Mitzvos) light a Ner for every member of the household;
Beis Shamai say, Mehadrin Min ha'Mehadrin (who exceedingly beautify Mitzvos) light eight Neros the first night (Tosfos - on behalf of the entire household; Rama (671:2) - every member of the household does so), and one less every succeeding night.
Beis Hillel say, they light one Ner the first night, and add one every night.
(R. Yosi bar Avin or R. Yosi bar Zevida): Beis Shamai light according to the number of days remaining, Beis Hillel light according to the number of days that have passed;
(The other of R. Yosi bar Avin and R. Yosi bar Zevida): Beis Shamai learn from the bulls offered on Sukos (13 the first day, and one less every succeeding day), Beis Hillel apply the principal 'We ascend in Kedushah, we do not descend.'
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): There were two elders in Tzidon; one did like Beis Shamai, the other like Beis Hillel - their reasoning was like the latter explanation.
(Beraisa): The Mitzvah is to leave Ner Chanukah outside the door of one's house; one who lives in an upper story should leave it near a window near Reshus ha'Rabim.
At a time of danger (from Nochrim), it suffices to leave it on one's table (people outside will not see it).
(Rava): One must light an extra Ner to use its light (so he will not benefit from Neros Chanukah).
If there is a big fire [in the house], he does not need an extra Ner;
A distinguished person [normally does not use a bonfire, he] must light an extra Ner even if there is a big fire.
Question: Why was Chanukah enacted?
Answer (Beraisa): The eight nights of Chanukah begin on the 25th of Kislev;
It is forbidden to eulogize or fast on these days, for the Yevanim entered the Heichal and were Metamei all the oil there; when Malchus Beis Chashmonai overpowered them, they checked and found only one flask of oil with the seal of the Kohen Gadol. (Tosfos - if Chachamim had already decreed Tum'ah on Nochri Zavim, we must say that the flask was in the ground, the seal showed that it had not been moved.)
The flask had the amount of oil needed for one night - miraculously, it lasted for eight nights. (Beis Yosef 670 (veha'Ta'am) discusses how they apportioned the oil.)
The following year, they fixed these days to be Yomim Tovim, to say Hallel and Hoda'ah (Al ha'Nisim in Shemoneh Esre).
(Mishnah): If a spark flew out from a man's hammer and damaged, he is liable;
If Reuven's camel, laden with flax, was walking in Reshus ha'Rabim, and the flax entered Shimon's store, caught fire from Shimon's lamp, and burned the building - Reuven is liable;
If the lamp was outside, Shimon is liable.
R. Yehudah says, if it was Ner Chanukah, he is exempt.
(Ravina): From R. Yehudah, we learn that Neros Chanukah must be placed within 10 Tefachim of the ground.
If it was permitted to place them higher, Shimon should be liable, he should have put it higher than a camel and its rider, to avoid damage!
Rejection: (Really, one may put them above 10;) Chachamim did not obligate one to place it so high, lest he refrain from the Mitzvah.
(Rav Kahana): If the lights of Chanukah were placed above 20 Amos, this does not fulfill the Mitzvah, just as a Sukah or Korah (a beam to permit carrying in an alleyway) more than 20 Amos high is invalid.