WHEN DO WE OVERTURN CAPITAL VERDICTS? (Yerushalmi Halachah 3 Daf 21b)

משנה דיני ממונות מחזירין בין לזכות בין לחובה ודיני נפשות מחזירין לזכות ואין מחזירין לחובה:


(Mishnah): In monetary cases, we can overturn [a verdict], for Zechus or Chiyuv. In capital cases, we can overturn for Zechus, but not for Chiyuv.

גמרא הרי שיצא מב"ד זכאי ומצאו לו חובה שומע אני שיחזירוהו ת"ל צדיק אל תהרוג.


(Gemara): If one left Beis Din Zakai (in a capital case), and they found a reason for Chiyuv, one might have thought that we return [to judge] him! It says "Tzadik Al Taharog";

הרי שיצא מבית דין חייב ומצאו לו זכות שומע אני שלא יחזירוהו ת"ל ונקי אל תהרוג.


If one left Beis Din Chayav, and they found a reason for Zechus, one might have thought that we do not return him! It says "v'Naki Al Taharog";

יכול אם צדק בדינך יצדק בדיני ת"ל כי לא אצדיק רשע.


Perhaps if he is Tzadik in your Din (Beis Din acquitted him), he will be acquitted in My (Hash-m's) Din (even if really, he is guilty)! It says "Ki Lo Atzdik Rasha" [to teach that this is not so].

א"ר יצחק אמר לי ר' יוסי לא שנייא אלא אפילו נזדכה בטעות מחזירין אותו.


(R. Yitzchak): R. Yosi told me that [sometimes] there is no difference! If he was vindicated through a [blatant] mistake, we return him.

ר' אמי בעא קומי ר' יוחנן אפי' נואף ונואפת


Question (R. Ami, to R. Yochanan): Is this even for a male adulterer and an adulteress? (If they exempted the man, is it as if they exempted also her? Or, is her Din separate, and we can judge and convict her?)

א"ל איתקלף מרקועך:


R. Yochanan: What you flattened [and stuck together] was peeled apart! (Her Din is separate. It is not as if she was acquitted. We explained the question and answer like Chidushei R. MEIR SIMCHAH, Sanhedrin 33b.)