(a)(Mishnah): A blasphemer is liable only if he explicitly says Hash-m's name.

(b)R. Yehoshua ben Korchah says, during the trial, the witnesses use a euphemism (e.g. Yosi) for Hash-m's name. They say (that the blasphemer said) 'Yosi should strike Yosi';

1.After reaching a verdict of guilty, before killing him we tell everyone else to leave, and we ask the greatest witness to say the exact words that he heard;

2.He does so. The judges stand, tear their clothing and may never sew it back;

3.The second witness says 'I heard like he did.' If there are more witnesses, each says (one after the other) 'I heard like he did.'

(c)(Gemara - Beraisa): He is liable only if he curses Hash-m with Hash-m's name.

(d)Question: What is the source of this?

(e)Answer (Shmuel): "V'Nokev Shem... b'Nokvo Shem Yumas" (there must be two mentions of Hash-m's name).

(f)Question: What is the source that "Nokev" refers to cursing?

(g)Answer #1: "Mah Ekov Lo Kabo E-l";

1.We are warned not to do so from "Elokim Lo Sekalel."

(h)Question: Perhaps 'Nokev' means making a hole in Hash-m's name, like it says "va'Yikov Chor b'Dalto";

1.The warning not to do so would be "v'Ibadtem Es Shemam... Lo Sa'asun Ken la'Shem Elokeichem."

(i)Answer #1: The Isur is 'Nokev Shem' with Hash-m's name.

(j)Question: Perhaps he puts two names of Hash-m one on top of the other, and cuts both!

(k)Answer #1: That is 'Nokev Shem' twice. It is not 'Nokev Shem ba'Shem' (using Hash-m's name).

(l)Question: Perhaps he carves Hash-m's name on the end of a knife, and cuts Hash-m's name with it!

(m)Answer #1: The blade makes the hole. Hash-m's name does not.

(n)Question: Perhaps it means to explicitly say Hash-m's name - "Asher Nikvu b'Shemos";

1.The warning not to do so would be "Es Hash-m Elokecha Tira."

(o)Answer #1: That is not 'Nokev Shem' with Hash-m's name.

(p)Answer #2: "Es Hash-m Elokecha Tira" is an Aseh. It is not a warning.

(q)Answer #3 (and Answer #2 to all the other questions): (It says about the man killed for Nokev Shem) "va'Yikov... va'Ykalel," i.e. he cursed Hash-m.

(r)Question: Perhaps one is not liable until he does both (Nokev and blasphemy)!

(s)Answer: It says "Hotzei Es ha'Mekalel." It does not say that he was taken to be stoned for Nokev and blasphemy. This teaches that Nokev is blasphemy.


(a)(Beraisa): "Ish Ish (Ki Yekalel Elokav)" includes Nochrim. They are warned against blasphemy like Yisraelim;

1.They are killed by the sword. This is the punishment for any of their transgressions.

(b)Question: A different verse teaches this!

1."(Va'Ytzav) Hash-m (Elokim Al ha'Adam)" teaches about blasphemy.

(c)Answer (R. Yitzchak Nafcha): "Ish Ish..." teaches that Nochrim are liable for blasphemy with Kinuyim (other names of Hash-m). The Beraisa is like R. Meir.

1.(Beraisa - R. Meir) Question: What do we learn from "Ish Ish Ki Yekalel Elokav v'Nasa Chet'o"? It already says "v'Nokev Shem Hash-m Mos Yumas"!

2.Answer: One might have thought that "v'Nokev Shem" obligates only for the special (four letter) name of Hash-m. "Ish Ki Yekalel Elokav" (this is not Hash-m's special name) obligates for Kinuyim.

3.Chachamim say, one is killed for Hash-m's special name. One who curses a Kinuy transgresses a Lav. (Presumably, if a Yisrael is not killed for Kinuyim, Nochrim are not commanded about this.)

(d)R. Yitzchak Nafcha argues with R. Meisha.

1.(R. Meisha): If a Nochri cursed a Kinuy, Chachamim say that he is liable.

2.Question: What is the reason?

3.Answer: "Ka'Ger ka'Ezrach" - a Ger (convert) or Ezrach (Ben Yisrael) is liable only for "b'Nokvo Shem" (Hash-m's special name), but a Nochri is liable for Kinuyim.

4.Question: What does R. Meir learn from "ka'Ger ka'Ezrach"?

5.Answer: A Ger or Ezrach is stoned, but a Nochri is beheaded;

i.One might have thought that since the verse includes Nochrim, they receive the same Misah. "Ka'Ger ka'Ezrach" teaches that this is not so.

(e)Question: According to R. Yitzchak Nafcha, what do Chachamim learn from "ka'Ger ka'Ezrach"?

(f)Answer: A Ger or Ezrach is liable only for cursing 'Shem ba'Shem.' A Nochri is liable for any blasphemy.

(g)Question: What does he learn from "Ish Ish"?

(h)Answer: The Torah speaks like people do. (We need not expound a doubled word.)


(a)(Beraisa): Nochrim must observe seven Mitzvos: Dinim (to set up courts to enforce civil laws), and Isurim against blasphemy, idolatry, Arayos, murder, theft, and Ever Min ha'Chai (eating a limb of a living animal).


(b)R. Chananyah ben Gamliel says, they are also forbidden to eat blood of a living animal;

(c)R. Chidka says, they are also forbidden to castrate;

(d)R. Shimon says, also Kishuf (witchcraft) is forbidden to them;

1.R. Yehudah says, everything in the Parshah of Kishuf is forbidden to them - "Ma'avir Beno u'Vito ba'Esh Kosem Kesamim Me'onen u'Menachesh u'Mechashef v'Chover Chaver v'Sho'el Ov v'Yid'oni v'Doresh El ha'Mesim... u'Viglal ha'To'evos ha'Eleh Hash-m Elokecha Morish Osam Mipanecha."

2.The Torah does not punish without warning.

3.R. Eliezer says, they are commanded about Kilayim (crossbreeding) animals and grafting diverse trees onto each other;

i.They are permitted to wear Kilayim (Sha'atnez) and to plant Kilayim (mixed seeds).

(e)Question: What is the source of this?

(f)Answer #1 (R. Yochanan): "Va'Ytzav" refers to Dinim, like it says "Asher Yetzaveh Es Banav (...La'asos Tzedakah u'Mishpat)";

1."Hash-m" refers to blasphemy - "v'Nokev Shem Hash-m...";

2."Elokim" refers to idolatry - "Lo Yihyeh Lecha Elohim Acherim";

3."Al ha'Adam" refers to murder - "Shofech Dam ha'Adam";

4."Leimor" refers to Arayos - "Leimor Hen Yeshalach Ish Es Ishto... v'Haysah l'Ish Acher";

5.You may eat "mi'Kol Etz ha'Gan," but not from theft;

6."Achol Tochal" (from the trees),but not a limb of a living animal.

(g)Answer #2 (R. Yitzchak): "Va'Ytzav" refers to idolatry. "Elokim" refers to Dinim (the others are like R. Yochanan taught).

(h)Question: Granted, "Elokim" refers to Dinim - "v'Nikrav Ba'al ha'Bayis El ha'Elohim";

1.However, how does "va'Ytzav" refer to idolatry?

(i)Answer #1 (Rav Chisda or R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): "Saru Maher Min ha'Derech Asher Tzivisim Asu Lahem Masechah."

(j)Answer #2 (The other of Rav Chisda and R. Yitzchak bar Avdimi): "... Holach Acharei Tzav (commandments of the Nevi'im of idolatry)."

(k)Question: What is the difference between these answers?

(l)Answer: They argue about a Nochri who made an idol but did not serve it yet;

1.If we learn from "Asu Lahem Masechah" , he is liable once he makes it;

2.If we learn from "Holach Acharei Tzav", he is not liable until he serves it.

(m)Question (Rava): All agree that a Nochri is not liable until he serves it!

1.(Beraisa): Regarding idolatry, a Nochri is commanded only about things that a Yisrael is killed for.

2.Suggestion: This excludes a Nochri who made an idol but did not serve it yet.

(n)Answer (Rav Papa): No, it excludes hugging and kissing.

(o)Question: What is the case?

1.If hugging and kissing is the way this idol is served, a Yisrael is killed for this!

(p)Answer: This is not the way this idol is served.


(a)Question: Is it really true that Nochrim are commanded about Dinim?!

1.(Beraisa): Yisrael were commanded 10 Mitzvos at Marah - the seven of Bnei Noach, and additionally Dinim, Shabbos, and honoring parents.

i.We learn Dinim from "Sham Sam Lo Chok u'Mishpat";

ii.We learn Shabbos and honoring parents from "Ka'asher Tzivcha Hash-m Elokecha" said (regarding these Mitzvos) on Sinai;

iii.(Rav Yehudah): We were commanded at Marah.

(b)Answer #1 (Rav Nachman): Nochrim are commanded about Dinim. At Marah, Yisrael were commanded about 23 judges (for capital cases, two) witnesses and warning.

(c)Objection: It says additionally they received Dinim. These are not extra laws, rather, mere conditions for existing laws!

(d)Answer #2 (Rava): Additionally, they received laws of fines.

(e)Objection: If the laws of Bnei Noach include Dinim, it should not say 'additionally' they received Dinim, rather, they received additional Dinim!

(f)Answer #3 (Rav Acha bar Yakov): Yisrael were commanded to set up Batei Din in every province and city.

(g)Objection: Bnei Noach are also commanded about this!

1.(Beraisa): Just like Yisrael must set up Batei Din in every province and city, also Nochrim must.

(h)Answer #4 (Rava): The Tana of the Beraisa (about 10 Mitzvos at Marah) is Tana d'Vei Menasheh, who includes castration and Kilayim among the seven Mitzvos, and excludes Dinim and blasphemy.

1.(Beraisa - Tana d'Vei Menasheh): The seven Mitzvos of Bnei Noach are idolatry, Arayos, murder, theft, a limb of a living animal, castration and Kilayim.

2.R. Yehudah says, Adam ha'Rishon was commanded only about idolatry - "va'Ytzav Hash-m Elokim Al ha'Adam" (Adam must accept that Hash-m is G-d).

3.R. Yehudah ben Beseira says, he was commanded also about blasphemy;

4.Some say, he was commanded also about Dinim.

(i)Question: Like whom is the following?

1.(Rav Yehudah): 'I am Elokim, do not curse Me. I am Elokim, do not worship something else in place of Me. I am Elokim, My authority should be upon you (to keep Dinim).'

(j)Answer: It is like 'some say.'