Sanhedrin Chart #10
Chart for Sanhedrin Daf 56a
THE PROHIBITIONS OF BLASPHEMY ("GIDUF") WITH A "KINUY" FOR A YISRAEL AND FOR A NOCHRI (1)
Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha)
|3||REBBI MEIR||Sekilah (5)
(1) For blasphemy with the "Shem ha'Meyuchad", everyone agrees that both a Yisrael and a Nochri are Chayav. The Chiyuv for a Yisrael is learned from the verse, "v'Nokev Shem Hash-m Mos Yumas" (Vayikra 24:16), and the Chiyuv for a Nochri is learned from the words, "va'Yetzav Hash-m" (Bereishis 2:54). "Shem ha'Meyuchad," in this sense, refers to the four-letter Name of Hash-m (tetragrammaton), and "Kinuy" refers to any of the other Names of Hash-m, such as "Elokim," "Shakai," "Tzevakos." (RASHI DH v'Aliba)
(2) The Azharah is learned from the verse, "Elokim Lo Sekalel" (Shemos 22:27), which implies blasphemy with either the "Shem ha'Meyuchad" or with a Kinuy. (RASHI DH v'Al ha'Kinuyin)
(3) This is learned from the words, "Ki Yekalel Elokav," and "v'Nasa Chet'o" (Vayikra 24:16; RASHI DH v'Chachamim Omrim: it seems that Rebbi Meir agrees with this).
(4) The Rabanan derive from the words, "k'Ger k'Ezrach" (Vayikra 24:16), that in contrast to a Jew, a Nochri is Chayav Misah even if he only curses a Kinuy. (Perhaps the reason for this is because Nochrim, as opposed to Benei Yisrael, know Hash-m only by His Kinuyim and not by the Shem ha'Meyuchad, as the Gemara says on 60a.)
(5) Rebbi Meir holds that the words "Mos Yumas" apply not only to the person who was Megadef Hash-m, but also to the person who was "Ki Yekalel Elokav."
(6) Rebbi Meir derives from "Ish Ish" (Vayikra 24:15) that a Nochri is like a Yisrael with regard to being Chayav for blasphemy with a "Kinuy." Nevertheless, a Nochri is not like a Yisrael with regard to his punishment. A Nochri receives the death penalty of Sayif (as he receives for any transgression for which he is Chayav Misah), as is derived from the words "k'Ger k'Ezrach."