[21a - 53 lines; 21b - 53 lines]
1)[line 1]"[וימליכו שנית לשלמה בן-דויד] וימשחו לַה' לנגיד ולצדוק לכהן""... VA'YIMSHECHU LA'SH-M L'NAGID U'LTZADOK L'CHOHEN"- "... and they anointed him to HaSh-m to be the ruler, and Tzadok to be the Kohen [Gadol]" (Divrei ha'Yamim I 29:22).
2)[line 1]לנגידNAGID- leader
3)[line 2]מה צדוק, מחצה לו ומחצה לאחיוMAH TZADOK MECHETZAH LO U'MECHETZAH L'ECHAV- just as in the case of Tzadok, he gets half [of the Lechem ha'Panim (see next two entries)] and his brothers (the other Kohanim) get half
4a)[line 4]"והיתה לאהרן ולבניו""V'HAYESAH L'AHARON UL'VANAV"- "It shall be given to Aharon and to his sons" (Vayikra 24:9) - This verse discusses the weekly distribution of the 12 loaves of the Lechem ha'Panim (see next entry) to the Kohanim, which are to be divided between the Kohen Gadol and the other Kohanim. The Kohen Gadol receives half of them, while the other Kohanim receive the other half.
b)[line 5]מחצה לאהרן ומחצה לבניוMECHETZAH L'AHARON U'MECHETZAH L'VANAV (LECHEM HA'PANIM)
The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah), which are arranged in two Sedarim (stacks), six loaves to each Seder, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos, and they remain there until the following Shabbos. The loaves that are removed are eaten by the Kohanim (Vayikra 24:5-9 - see previous entry).
5)[line 6]"[ו]לא ירבה לו נשים [ולא יסור לבבו]""[V']LO YARBEH LO NASHIM [V'LO YASUR LEVAVO]"- "[And] he shall not have many wives [so that his heart does not turn away from serving HaSh-m]..." (Devarim 17:17).
6)[line 8]ובלבד שלא יהו מסירות את לבוU'VILVAD SHE'LO YEHU MESIROS ES LIBO- as long as they (the king's wives) do not turn his heart away [from serving HaSh-m]
7a)[line 11]דאפילו כאביגילD'AFILU K'AVIGAYIL- [he may not take many wives] even if they are [extremely righteous] like Avigayil
b)[line 11]אביגילAVIGAYIL- Avigayil was originally the wife of Naval. The Navi relates (Shmuel I Ch. 25) that Naval and his shepherds had been protected by David and his soldiers. Some time later, when David had to flee from the pursuit of King Shaul, he sent messengers to Naval to ask for provisions. Although he fed the ten messengers, he refused to provide for David and his army. Besides repaying good with bad, this was an act of treason, since the prophet Shmuel had already anointed David as king. David was about to have Naval and his entire household executed, but Naval's wife Avigayil proved that only Naval was guilty. She personally brought David the provisions that he needed. When Avigayil told Naval of her actions, he fell faint. Ten days later, he died after being struck by a plague of HaSh-m. David ha'Melech married Avigayil, who was an exceptionally righteous woman.
8)[line 11]למימרא דרבי יהודה דריש טעמא דקרא?L'MEIMRA D'REBBI YEHUDAH DARISH TA'AMA DI'KERA?- Does this mean that Rebbi Yehudah learns "Ta'ama di'Kera"? (That is, does he suggest logical reasons for the Torah's commandments (and, consequently, rule that the commandments apply only when the logical reasons apply)?)
9)[line 15]אין ממשכנין אותהEIN MEMASHKENIN OSAH- one does not take a surety from her
10)[line 15]"[ו]לא תחבול בגד אלמנה""[V']LO SACHAVOL BEGED ALMANAH"- "[And] do not take as security for a loan the garment of a widow" (Devarim 24:17) - This verse refers to a surety that is collected after the loan is due, in order to force the debtor to pay (RASHI to Devarim ibid.).
11)[line 28]"ויולדו לדוד בנים בחברון; ויהי בכורו אמנון לאחינועם היזרעאלת. ומשנהו כלאב לאביגיל אשת נבל הכרמלי, והשלישי אבשלום בן מעכה [בת תלמי מלך גשור]. והרביעי אדוניה בן חגית, והחמישי שפטיה בן אביטל. והששי יתרעם לעגלה אשת דוד; אלה ילדו לדוד בחברון""VA'YIVALDU L'DAVID BANIM B'CHEVRON; VA'YEHI VECHORO AMNON LA'ACHINO'AM HA'YIZRE'ELIS. U'MISHNEHU CHIL'AV L'AVIGAYIL, ESHES NAVAL HA'KARMELI, VEHA'SHELISHI AVSHALOM BEN MA'ACHAH [BAS TALMAI, MELECH GESHUR]. VEHA'REVI'I ADONIYAH VEN CHAGIS VEHA'CHAMISHI SHEFATYAH VEN AVITAL. VEHA'SHISHI YISRE'AM L'EGLAH ESHES DAVID; ELEH YULEDU L'DAVID B'CHEVRON"- "And sons were born to David in Hevron; and his firstborn was Amnon, of Achino'am ha'Yizre'elis. And his second, Kil'av, of Avigayil, the wife of Naval ha'Karmeli, and the third, Avshalom, the son of Ma'achah [the daughter of Talmai, king of Geshur]. And the fourth, Adoniyah, the son of Chagis and the fifth, Shefatyah, the son of Avital. And the sixth, Yisre'am, to Eglah, David's wife; these were born to David in Hevron." (Shmuel II 3:2-5)
12)[line 32]תמני סריTAMNEI SREI- eighteen
13)[line 32]אימא "כהנה" תרתי סרי, "וכהנה" עשרין וארבע?EIMA "KAHENAH" TARTEI SREI, "V'CHAHENAH" ESRIN V'ARBA- it is possible to say that the first word "Kahenah" - "like these (your present wives)" [adds six more wives for a subtotal of] twelve, and [then the next word] "Kahenah" [adds an additional twelve (the subtotal after adding the first "Kahenah"), for a grand total of] twenty-four
14)[line 33]למאן דדריש וי"ו, ארבעים ושמנה הווL'MAN D'DARISH "VAV," ARBA'IM U'SHEMONEH HAVU- according to the one (Rebbi Akiva - Daf 51b) who interprets a letter Vav [as a device that adds more members to a Halachic set, the number of wives that a king is permitted to have] is forty-eight (since the first "Kahenah" adds six more wives for a subtotal of twelve, the Vav adds an additional twelve, and the second "Kahenah" adds an additional twenty-four, for a grand total of forty-eight)
15)[line 35]שחביבה עליו כעגלהCHAVIVAH ALAV K'EGLAH- she is as beloved to him as a young female calf [is beloved to a farmer, since it produces so many milk products for the family - Ben Yehoyada, 1st explanation; see alternate explanations there]
16)[line 36]"[ויאמרו לו אנשי העיר ביום השביעי בטרם יבוא החרסה מה מתוק מדבש ומה עז מארי ויאמר להם] לולא חרשתם בעגלתי [לא מצאתם חידתי]""... LULEI CHARASHTEM B'EGLASI, [LO METZASEM CHIDASI]" - "And the men of the city said to him on the seventh day, before the sun had set, 'What is sweeter than honey and what is stronger than a lion?' And he said to them,] 'Had you not plowed with my calf (i.e. interrogated my wife), [you would not have deciphered my riddle].'" (Shoftim 14:18) (SHIMSHON'S RIDDLE)
(a)Shimshon, as yet unknown, had met a Philistine woman in Timnas, whom he fancied. So he asked his parents (Mano'ach and his wife) to "arrange a Shiduch" on his behalf. They, for their part, tried to dissuade him from marrying a gentile woman, but to no avail. He insisted that he wanted her. As the verse points out, Shimshon's parents did not realize that it was from HaSh-m, and Shimshon was seeking a pretext to break the hold that the Pelishtim had over Yisrael.
(b)Later, his Philistine wives would be the instruments through which he would avenge himself from the Pelishtim, on no less than four separate occasions.
(c)After finally obtaining his parent's consent to marry the Philistine woman that he had seen in Timnas, they accompanied him to Timnas to check her out and to decide whether she was sufficiently intelligent to become his wife. On the way, they arrived at the vineyards of Timnas, which Shimshon, as a Nazir, was obligated to circumvent. As he walked round it, he was attacked by a young lion. The Spirit of HaSh-m rested upon him, and he killed the lion with his bare hands. He thought nothing of it and therefore did not relate the incident to his parents. The woman did indeed find favor in his eyes, and he decided to marry her.
(d)When he returned some time later to fetch her, he went to see the carcass of the lion-cub that he had killed, and was surprised to discover that a swarm of bees had settled on it, and that there was even honey on it. He partook of the honey and gave some to his father, who had gone to Timnah to help his son prepare the wedding feast, which was customarily prepared by the Chasan in those days.
(d)When Shimshon arrived, and the Pelishtim gave him thirty friends to rejoice with him at the wedding, he made them a proposition. If they were able to solve the riddle that he would present to them by the end of the seven days of festivity, then he would give them a prize of thirty sheets and thirty suits; whereas if they could not, they would be obligated to give him thirty sheets and thirty suits. They accepted and he asked them to interpret the following riddle: "From one that eats emerged food, and from the strong emerged the sweet."
(e)Three days went by, and they unable to solve the riddle. On the fourth day of the festivities - which coincided with the seventh day of the week (Shabbos, when Shimshon was involved with his Shabbos obligations, leaving his wife on her own for some time) - Shimshon's thirty friends approached his wife. They threatened her, that, unless she enticed her husband to divulge the riddle to her, they would set her and her father's house on fire.
(f)She immediately began to cry and to nag him, claiming that the fact that he did not tell her about the riddle and its solution was a sign that he did not love her. He replied that he had not even told his parents about the episode, so why should he tell her? Undeterred, she continued to nag him and afflict him by withholding herself from him, until on the seventh day of festivities, when, unable to bear it any longer, he capitulated and told her the riddle with its solution, which she immediately passed on to his friends.
(g)And so on the seventh day of festivities, just before sunset, Shimshon's "friends" said to him "What is sweeter than honey and what is stronger than a lion?" Realizing immediately what had transpired, Shimshon declared, "If you had not plowed with my calf, you would not have deciphered my riddle!" The Spirit of HaSh-m rested upon him, and he went to Ashkelon, killed thirty Philistines, took their suits and sent them to his former "friends" to pay off his debt.
17)[line 37]בחברון / בירושליםB'CHEVRON / B'YERUSHALAYIM- David ruled as king over the tribe of Yehudah in Chevron for seven years and six months (Shmuel II 2:11), and as king over the united Land of Yisrael for thirty-two years and six months (Metzudas David to Melachim I 2:11)
18)[line 38]"[והיה ארון ה' בא עיר דויד] ומיכל בת-שאול נשקפה בעד החלון, ותרא את-המלך דויד מפזז ומכרכר לפני ה', ותיבז [לו, בליבה]""... U'MICHAL BAS SHAUL NISHKEFAH B'AD HA'CHALON VA'TERE ES HA'MELECH DAVID MEFAZEZ U'MECHARKER LIFNEI HASH-M, VA'TIVEZ [LO B'LIBAH]" - "[And it was, when the Aron arrived in the city of David, that] Michal, the daughter of Shaul, looked through the window, and saw King David leaping and dancing before HaSh-m; and she despised [him in her heart]." (Shmuel II 6:16) (MICHAL'S PUNISHMENT)
(a)When David saw, how after a mere three months, the incredible Berachah that the Aron brought with it to Oveid Edom ha'Giti and his family, he decided to move the Aron to its rightful place in the City of David, Yerushalayim. This he did with unbridled Simchah, offering sacrifices, blessing the people, and distributing portions to each person present. The procession was accompanied by joyous Shofar blasts, whilst he himself danced wildly in front of the Aron.
(b)As the Aron with its large entourage entered the city, David's wife Michal, Shaul's daughter, glanced out of the window, and spotted her husband's uninhibited "prancing," she despised him in her heart.
(c)When they finally placed the Aron in the temporary tent that David had set up for it, and David had finished bringing the sacrifices and the people had gone home, David returned home to bless his family. Michal came out to greet him and rebuked him for "making a fool of himself in front of all the servants." David replied that he was rejoicing in front of the G-d who had chosen him over and above her father, and that that he was willing to belittle himself even more in front of Him if necessary. Moreover he said, what he did was not belittling, but an honor for HaSh-m.
(d)Because Michal despised David, she had no children until the day that she died. The Gemara concludes that although she had no children after the above episode took place, she had borne a son beforehand.
19)[line 39]שקלתה מיכל למיטרפסהSHAKLESAH MICHAL L'MITRAPSAH- Michal got her just punishment (which is fortunate, since it took away her sin and the impending punishment by making sure that she receive her due in this world, and not in the World to Come)
20a)[line 41]בכתובהKESUVAH - the Jewish marriage contract
(a)When a man marries a woman who was a Besulah (virgin) at the time of her Kidushin, he must write her a Kesuvah document in which he promises that she will receive 200 Zuz (the value of 960 grams of silver) from him or his estate if he divorces her or dies. The Tana'im argue whether this obligation is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Kesuvos 10a). (See Insights to Kesuvos 10:1.)
(b)When a man marries a widow or a divorcee who had once been married in the past (i.e. she was a Nesu'ah and was not just an Arusah) he must write her a Kesuvah document in which he promises that she will receive 100 Zuz from him or his estate if he divorces her or dies. The obligation to write a Kesuvah for a widow or divorcee is only mid'Rabanan (Kesuvos 10b - The Gemara there explains that the term for "widow," "Almanah," alludes to her Kesuvah of a "Manah," or 100 Zuz).
b)[line 41]ובקידושיןKIDUSHIN - betrothal, marriage
21)[line 42]יפת תוארYEFAS TO'AR
(a)The Torah (Devarim 21:10-14) permits a Jewish soldier to take home a foreign female prisoner of war, convert her, and marry her. The Torah permits this "only in recognition of the power of a man's evil inclination," in order to prevent the strong likelihood that some Jews might be overcome by their Yetzer ha'Ra and engage in forbidden relations with her.
(b)However, the Torah requires first that she undergo a thirty-day period of mourning for her parents (as well as for their idolatrous practices; Yevamos 48b, RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 8:5). This involves shaving her head, letting her fingernails grow (or be cut; see Yevamos 48b), and replacing the fine garments that she was wearing when she was captured with ordinary clothes. This is done in order to make her less attractive (RASHI to Devarim ibid., IBN EZRA to Devarim ibid.) and to signify purification and a new status (CHIZKUNI to Devarim ibid.).
(c)There is a Machlokes Rishonim regarding whether it is permitted for the Jewish soldier to have relations with the Yefas To'ar a single time, during the war, before bringing her home (RAMBAM, RABEINU TAM), or whether such an act during war is forbidden and that the soldier must wait until after her period of mourning is completed (RASHI, according to TOSFOS; see RITVA).
22)[line 42]ומגדלי בלוריותMEGADLEI BELORIYOS- they would grow Beloris (the long hair grown at the back of the head by idol-worshipping youths of the upper classes in honor of their gods, and that was offered to their gods once a year) in order to look formidable, so that others would be afraid of them (RASHI to Sanhedrin 49a)
23)[line 43]בקרונות של זהבKERONOS SHEL ZAHAV- chariots of gold
24)[line 43]ומהלכין בראשי גייסותMEHALCHIN B'ROSHEI GAYASOS- they would walk at the head of the battle troops (but they were not actual members of the army, since they were not of pure lineage - RASHI to Kidushin 76b)
25)[line 43]בעלי אגרופיןBA'ALEI EGROFIN- strong men (Egrofin are fists)
26)[line 44]תמרTAMAR- Tamar was the daughter of Ma'achah bas Talmai, the king of Geshur (see above, entry #11). Her mother, Ma'achah, was a Yefas To'ar (see above, entry #21) taken by David ha'Melech. Tamar was conceived at the first moment that David ha'Melech took Ma'achah as a Yefas To'ar, which means that Tamar was conceived while her mother was still a Nochris. Tamar, then, had the status of a convert and was not considered Halachically related to any of her Jewish kin. Consequently, her brother Amnon, who was born to David ha'Melech from a different wife (see above, entry #11), was not Halachically her brother, even though they had the same biological father; David was not considered her father since she was conceived while her mother was a Nochris. (Avshalom, on the other hand, was her full brother, and was born to David and Ma'achah after Ma'achah had converted. He was also a "Ben Yefas To'ar," the son of a Yefas To'ar.)
27)[line 44]בת נישואיןBAS NISU'IN- fit for marriage [to Amnon; see previous entry]
28)[line 45]"ולאמנון ריע, ושמו יונדב, בן-שמעה, אחי דויד; ויונדב, איש חכם [מאוד]""UL'AMNON RE'A U'SHEMO YONADAV BEN SHIM'AH ACHI DAVID; V'YONADAV ISH CHACHAM [ME'OD]"- "And Amnon had a friend and his name was Yonadav the son of Shim'ah, the brother of David, and Yonadav was a very smart man" (Shmuel II 13:3).
29)[line 46]"ויאמר [לו] מדוע אתה ככה דל בן-המלך...[ויאמר לו, אמנון, את-תמר אחות אבשלום אחי, אני אוהב]. ויאמר לו יהונדב, שכב על-משכבך והתחל [ובא אביך לראותך, ואמרת אליו תבוא נא תמר אחותי ותברני לחם] ועשתה לעיניי את-הבריה...""VA'YOMER [LO,] 'MADU'A ATAH KACHAH DAL BEN HA'MELECH...' VA'YOMER LO YEHONADAV 'SHECHAV AL MISHKAVCHA V'HISCHAL... "V'ASESAH L'EINAI ES HA'BIRYAH..."'"- "And he (Yonadav) said to him (Amnon): Why are you becoming so thin, son of the king?... [And Amnon said to him: I love Tamar, the sister of Avshalom my brother]. And Yonadav said to him: Lie down on your bed and make yourself look sick, [and when your father comes to see you, you will say to him, 'Let Tamar my sister come now, and let her feed me bread,'] and she will prepare the food before my eyes..." (Shmuel II 13:4-5). (Rashi here translates "Biryah" as "fried food," or "freit" in O.F.)
30)[line 47]"ותקח [את] המשרת ותצוק לפניו""VA'TIKACH [ES] HA'MASRES VA'TITZOK LE'FANAV"- "And she took the pan and poured it out in front of him" (Shmuel II 13:9).
31)[line 48]שעשתה לו מיני טיגוןASESAH LO MINEI TIGUN- she prepared for him various fried foods
32)[line 48]"וישנאה אמנון שנאה גדולה מאוד [כי גדולה השנאה אשר שנאה מאהבה אשר אהבה ויאמר-לה אמנון קומי לכי]""VA'YISNA'EHAH AMNON SIN'AH GEDOLAH ME'OD, [KI GEDOLAH HA'SIN'AH ASHER SENEI'AH ME'AHAVAH ASHER AHEIVAH; VA'YOMER LAH AMNON 'KUMI LECHI!']" - "And Amnon hated her with an intense loathing [that far exceeded the love that he had previously borne her; and he said to her, 'Get up and get out!']" (Shmuel II 13:15) (AMNON AND TAMAR)
(a)Tamar prepared pancakes in Amnon's presence, and placed them in front of him, but he refused to eat them. After ordering whoever was in the room to leave, he told Tamar to bring the pancakes into his bedroom and to feed him directly. This she did, and as she approached him, he grabbed hold of her and asked her to lie with him. She pleaded with him to desist, arguing that this was not done in Yisrael and begging him not to act in such a disgusting way. And anyway, she claimed, all he had to do was to ask the king for permission to marry her, a request that he would certainly have granted him (for, as we explained earlier, Tamar was related to Amnon biologically, but not Halachically).
(b)Amnon, however, overcome by lust, was not interested in her proposition. After raping her, he felt a loathing towards Tamar that was even more powerful than the love that he had previously felt for her, and once again, he ignored her supplications (to remain with him), and ordered her to leave immediately, and to ensure that she did, he called his valet and instructed him to throw her out and to lock the door.
(c)Tamar, beside herself with embarrassment, placed ashes on her head, tore the special cloak that princesses tended to wear, and walked around screaming in frustration, until Avshalom met her. Guessing immediately what had happened; he calmed her down and invited her to stay with him. But the seeds of hatred had been planted, and he waited for an opportunity to avenge his sister.
(d)The Radak explains that Amnon's unnatural hatred of Tamar was a Heavenly decree, designated to cause Avshalom's hatred of Amnon, resulting in his personal vendetta and his ultimate revenge by killing Amnon. It was, he says, part of HaSh-m's punishment of David's sin with Bas Sheva and Uriyah ha'Chiti, as the Navi specifically informed David at the time (see also Rashi and Ralbag).
33)[line 48]נימאNIMA- a hair
34)[line 49]כרות שפכהKERUS SHAFCHAH- impotent. A Kerus Shafchah is a man who cannot have children because his male organ is mutilated. He is not permitted to marry into Bnei Yisrael, as is stated in Devarim 23:2. He may, however, marry a convert or a freed slave (Yevamos 76a).
35)[line 50]"ויצא לך שם בגוים ביפיך""VA'YETZE LACH SHEM BA'GOYIM B'YAFYECH"- "And a name went out for you among the nations because of your beauty" (Yechezkel 16:14).
36a)[line 50]בית השחיBEIS HA'SHECHI- the armpit
b)[line 50]בית הערוהBEIS HA'ERVAH- the pubic area
37)[line 51]"תיקח תמר אפר על-ראשה וכתונת הפסים אשר עליה קרעה""VA'TIKACH TAMAR EFER AL ROSHAH, U'CHESONES HA'PASIM ASHER ALEHA KARA'AH"- "And Tamar put ashes upon her head, and she ripped the striped tunic that was upon her" (Shmuel II 13:19).
38)[line 52]גדר גדול גדרה תמרGEDER GADOL GADRAH TAMAR- Tamar established a great protective fence [for the Torah]
39a)[line 1]על הייחודAL HA'YICHUD- [the Rabanan made a decree] against Yichud [with a married woman (the Gemara's assumption at this point)]
b)[line 1]ועל הפנויהV'AL HA'PENUYAH - and against [Yichud with] an unmarried woman (YICHUD)
(a)Yichud is the prohibition for a female to be in a secluded place with a man who is a stranger to her.
(b)The Torah hints at the prohibition of Yichud in the verse dealing with the Mesis, the enticer (Devarim 13:7; see Background to Kidushin 80:18), as mentioned in our Gemara. The forbidden Arayos relationships (Vayikra 18:6-30; 20:10-21) are included in this Isur. After the incident of Amnon and Tamar (Shmuel II 13:1-21), David ha'Melech extended the Isur to unmarried women. The students of Hillel and Shamai extended the Isur to Nochriyos (Avodah Zarah 36b).
(c)The Isur of Yichud prohibits a man, whether he is married or single, to be alone in a secluded place with a woman who is not his wife. This applies whether she is married or single, whether she is his relative (other than those listed below, (e)) or not, whether she is Jewish or a Nochris, whether she is young or old, whether she is in a state of Nidus or is ritually pure. The prohibition of Yichud applies to the woman as well, whether she is married or single, etc. Yichud per se is prohibited regardless of whether the man and woman are confident that they will not transgress any sins or not, and whether or not any sins actually did take place.
(d)For a man, the Isur of Yichud starts from the age of 13 with a girl from the age of three. For a woman, the Isur of Yichud starts from the age of 12 with a boy from the age of nine. The time of seclusion must be at least for the time that it takes to roast an egg and swallow it. (According to the most stringent opinion, this takes 35 seconds.)
(e)It is permitted for a father to be in a secluded place with his daughter (or granddaughter, great-granddaughter, etc.) and for a mother to be in a secluded place with her son (or grandson, great-grandson, etc.). In all of these cases, they are even permitted to live together on a continuing basis. A brother and sister may also be in a secluded place together; however, they may not live together on a continuing basis. When Yichud is permitted, it makes no difference if one of the above-mentioned relatives is married.
(f)The various situations that prevent the Isur of Yichud from applying are discussed in the Gemara (Kidushin 80b), in the RAMBAM (Hilchos Isurei Bi'ah 22:1-21) and the SHULCHAN ARUCH (EH 22:1-20).
40)[line 3]"כי יסיתך...""KI YESISCHA..."- "If your brother, the son of your mother, [or your son, or your daughter, or your wife, or your friend, who is as dear to you as your own soul,] entices you secretly, [saying, 'Let us go and serve other gods,' which you have not known; not you, nor your fathers]" (Devarim 13:7).
41)[line 7]"ואדניה בן חגית מתנשא לאמר 'אני אמלוך'; ויעש לו רכב ופרשים וחמשים איש רצים לפניו""VA'ADONIYAH VEN CHAGIS MISNASEI LEIMOR, 'ANI EMLOCH!' VA'YA'AS LO RECHEV U'FARASHIM VA'CHAMISHIM ISH RATZIM L'FANAV" - "And Adoniyah the son of Chagis glorified himself, saying, 'I shall reign!' [And he made for himself chariots, riders, and fifty men running before him]" (Melachim I 1:5) (ADONIYAHU'S UPRISING)
42a)[line 9]שביקש להולמוBIKESH L'HOLMO- he tried to make it (the crown) fit
b)[line 10]ולא הולמתוV'LO HOLAMTO- but it did not fit him. The crown was made with supernatural powers, and contained a golden rod that spanned the diameter of its opening. A person who was a true monarch was able to wear it (i.e. David). A commoner was prevented from wearing it by the golden rod.
43)[line 11]מאי רבותא?MAI REVUSA?- what is the great thing [about fifty men running before the son of the king]?
44a)[line 12]נטולי טחולNETULEI TECHOL- those who have had their spleens removed [by means of a certain chemical - RASHI]
b)[line 12]וחקוקי כפות רגליםCHAKUKEI KAPOS RAGLAYIM- and those with carved palms of the feet (i.e. there is no flesh on their feet, and they are able to run over thorns and sharp objects without being harmed - RASHI)
45)[line 14]כדי מרכבתוKEDEI MERKAVTO- in accordance with the needs of his chariot
46)[line 15]אספניא / אפסניאASPANYA / AFSANYA- annual wages paid to the king's infantry
47)[line 15]וכותב לו ספר תורה לשמוKOSEV LO SEFER TORAH LISHMO- he writes a Sefer Torah for himself (the Tosefta (ch. 4) explains that this means that only the king may read from his Sefer Torah, and no commoner may read from it, as the verse says, "וקרא בו" "v'Kara Bo" - "[Only] he shall read from it" (Devarim 17:19))
48)[line 17]מיסבMEISEV- when he reclines
49a)[line 19]כדי מרכבתו ופרשיוKEDEI MERKAVTO U'FARASHAV- [the amount of horses needed] for his chariot and riders
b)[line 20]כדי רכבו ופרשיוKEDEI RICHBO U'FARASHAV- [the amount of horses needed] for his chariot and riders
50)[line 20]סוסים הבטלנינןSUSIM HA'BATLANIN- idle horses (kept for leisure)
51)[line 21]"רק לא-ירבה-לו סוסים ולא-ישיב את-העם מצריימה למען הרבות סוס...""RAK LO YARBEH LO SUSIM, V'LO YASHIV ES HA'AM MITZRAIMAH L'MA'AN HARBOS SUS..."- "However, he must not accumulate for himself many horses, and not cause the people to return to Egypt in order to accumulate horses..." (Devarim 17:16).
52)[line 24]לאפושיL'APUSHEI- [the verse is teaching that it is permitted for the king] to have extra horses for his chariots and riders [to ride in abundance]; alt. Girsa: L'APUCHEI - to allow his horse to rest, by riding with two horses and alternating from one to the other
53)[line 28]להרווחהL'HARVACHAH- to have [money] in abundance
54)[line 29]למעוטי הדיוטותLI'ME'UTEI HEDYOTOS- to exclude commoners [from the prohibition of having too many wives]
55a)[line 30]"ויהי לשלמה, ארבעים אלף אורוות סוסים (למרכבתו) [למרכבו]""VA'YEHI LI'SHLOMO ARBA'IM ELEF URVOS SUSIM (L'MERKAVTO) [L'MERKAVO]"- "And Shlomo had forty thousand stables of horses for his chariots" (Melachim I 5:6).
b)[line 30]"ויהי לשלמה ארבעת אלפים אריות סוסים""VA'YEHI LI'SHLOMO ARBA'AS ALAFIM URYOS SUSIM"- "And Shlomo had four thousand stables of horses" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 9:25).
56)[line 31]איצטבלאותITZTABLA'OS- stables
57)[line 35]ונעץ קנה ביםNA'ATZ KANEH BA'YAM- he stuck a reed into the sea
58)[line 35]והעלה שירטוןHE'ELAH SEIRATON- it brought up a sand bank; silt caught on to it
59)[line 36]כרך גדול שברומי (של רומי)KERACH GADOL SHEB'ROMI (SHEL ROMI)- the great metropolis of Rome. When Shlomo married the daughter of Pharaoh after the completion of the building of the Beis ha'Mikdash, it was decreed by HaSh-m that the Beis ha'Mikdash would be destroyed. Furthermore, it was decreed that world power and domination would eventually be given to Rome, who would destroy the second Beis ha'Mikdash (which would not be rebuilt "Ad Ki Yavo Shiloh," until Mashi'ach comes).
60)[line 39]"ותצא מרכבה ממצרים בשש [מאות כסף, וסוס בחמשים ומאה]""VA'TETZEI MERKAVAH MI'MITZRAYIM B'SHESH [ME'OS KESEF, V'SUS BA'CHAMISHIM U'ME'AH]"- "A chariot could be brought out from Egypt for six hundred coins of silver, and a horse for a hundred and fifty" (Melachim I 10:29).
61)[line 39]ובלבד שלא יתנאה בשל אבותיוU'VILVAD SHE'LO YISNA'EH B'SHEL AVOSAV- as long as [the king writes his own Sefer Torah and] he does not glorify himself with his father's [Sefer Torah]
62)[line 42]לא צריכא, לשתי תורותLO TZERICHA, LI'SHTEI TOROS- no, the verse is necessary to teach that a king must write two Sifrei Torah (the KESEF MISHNEH (Hilchos Melachim 3:1) explains that even if he inherited Sifrei Torah from his father, the king must write two on his own, while a commoner is obligated to write only one Sefer Torah. See there, however, for an alternative explanation according to the Rambam.)
63)[line 42]"וכתב לו את משנה [התורה הזאת]...""V'CHASAV LO ES MISHNEH [HA'TORAH HA'ZOS]..."- "He shall write for himself a copy of this Torah..." (Devarim 17:18).
64)[line 43]בבית גנזיוBEIS GENAZAV- his treasure room
65)[line 43]עושה אותה כמין קמיע, ותולה בזרועוOSEH OSAH K'MIN KAMEI'A, V'TOLEH BI'ZERO'O- he makes it like an amulet and he ties it to his arm (the KESEF MISHNEH explains this literally; the LECHEM MISHNEH explains it metaphorically, since the Rambam does not mention it)
66a)[line 44]לבית המרחץBEIS HA'MERCHATZ- a bathhouse
b)[line 45]לבית הכסאBEIS HA'KISEI- a bathroom
67a)[line 46]בכתב עבריKESAV IVRI- Hebrew script ("Ivri" refers to the script of "Ever ha'Nahar," the script used by the Avos)
b)[line 46]ולשון הקודשLESHON HA'KODESH- Hebrew
68)[line 46]חזרה וניתנה להם בימי עזראCHAZRAH V'NITNAH LAHEM B'YEMEI EZRA- [the Torah] was given to them [to be written in a new language and script] in the days of Ezra
69a)[line 46]בכתב אשוריתKESAV ASHURIS- Assyrian script (this does not refer to the Assyrian script used by the Assyrian people, which is completely different from the Hebrew Kesav Ashuris. Rather, it means that this Kesav, which was revealed to Ezra in Bavel, was later studied and adopted by the Jews living in Ashur, Assyria. After Belshatzar was killed on the night of the "Handwriting on the Wall," the kingdom was taken over by Persian-controlled Mede, the capital of which was Eilam which was adjacent to Ashur, and thus the entire kingdom was known as Ashur. -ETZ YOSEF)
b)[line 47]ולשון ארמיLESHON ARAMI- Aramaic
70)[line 48]כותאיKUTA'EI (KUSIM)
(a)After the exile of the Ten Tribes, the King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).
(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)
71)[line 48]כתב ליבונאהKESAV LIVONA'AH- Livona'ah script (according to RASHI, this refers to large, symmetrical letters of Hebrew; according to the YAD RAMAH, this refers to an entirely different script)