[2a - 15 lines; 2b - 39 lines]
1)[line 1]האשה נקניתHA'ISHAH NIKNEIS (KIDUSHIN AND NISU'IN: AN INTRODUCTION)
Halachically, there are many aspects to the Jewish marriage. The marriage is also implemented in a number of stages. The various aspects of the Jewish marriage can be divided into categories of "Ishus" (the man-wife relationship), "Kinyan Isur" (aspects involving what a person may or may not do Halachically and the consequences of acting inappropriately), and "Kinyan Mamon" (monetary benefits or obligations). The most important stages of the Jewish marriage are "Kidushin" and "Nisu'in." For the sake of clarity, we will also refer to "Shiduchin" as a stage of marriage. Let us examine each of these more closely.
[I] THREE ASPECTS OF MARRIAGE:
(a)ISHUS - Marriage creates a mutual bond between the husband and his wife, which is expressed in many ways. This also implies a familial relationship between a man and his wife, much like that between blood relatives. (Chazal refer to this bond as "She'er" - Yevamos 97a.) This husband/wife relationship obligates the parties in marriage to each other monetarily as well. In these contexts:
1.Marriage permits the man and his wife to have marital relations.
2.If the man is a Kohen it permits and obligates him to become Tamei in order to bury his wife when she dies.
3.The husband must provide his wife with sustenance, clothes, and shelter.
4.The wife must, in turn, care for her husband as a wife normally does (e.g. cook for him, make his bed, etc. - Kesuvos 59b).
5.If the wife makes an oath ("Neder") which infringes on her obligations to him, or which causes her physical torment, the husband may annul it. (This is known as "Hafaras Nedarim," see Background to Kidushin 3:17. Before the marriage the father of a Ketanah or Na'arah may perform Hafaras Nedarim for her oaths.)
(b)KINYAN ISUR - Upon marriage, the woman becomes designated exclusively to her husband and prohibited to all other men in the world, bearing a penalty of Kares and Chenek for having relations with them. This Isur remains in effect until she is released from the husband either through receiving a Get from him, or through the husband's death. Even if she accepts a second Kidushin from another man during her marriage, the second Kidushin is not valid and she does not need a Get from the second man in order to remarry upon her first husband's death.
(c)KINYAN MAMON - The husband acquires his wife through marriage in a monetary sense as well.
1.If his wife dies during their marriage, he inherits her property. (The Tana'im disagree about whether this is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan, see Bava Basra 111b.)
2.Because of this Kinyan Mamon, if the husband is a Kohen, the wife may eat Terumah as a member of his household (Kesuvos 57b).
3.Mid'Rabanan, the husband also receives the earnings of his wife and any items that she finds.
4.In addition, he is entitled to the usage ("Peiros") of any property she brings into the marriage. (For this reason, such property is known as "Nichsei Milug," "plucked" property.)
[II] STAGES OF MARRIAGE:
(a)SHIDUCHIN - In anticipation of the marriage, the man may formally agree to marry the woman. This is known as "Shiduchei" (Kidushin 12b). None of the Halachos of marriage apply to them at this point, although they may obligate themselves to each other monetarily to guarantee that the marriage takes place (see Tosfos 8b end of DH Manah). Also, the families of the bride and the groom may promise the young couple specified sums to be delivered upon the realization of the marriage (see Kidushin 9b and Tosfos). These written agreements are also known as "Shetarei Pesikta" (ibid.) or, nowadays, "Tena'im."
(b)KIDUSHIN - The actual marriage begins when the man gives the woman Kesef (money, or any object or service which is of value to the woman), Shtar (a marriage document), or Bi'ah in order to effect Kidushin. This stage, known as "Eirusin" in the Torah (Devarim 22:23), was given the name "Kidushin" by the Rabanan to denote that, through this act, the husband prohibits the wife to the entire world, just as Hekdesh (a sanctified object) is prohibited for ordinary use (Kidushin 2b; see also Tosfos 7a DH v'Nifshetu). A single Berachah, Birkas Eirusin, is made at the time of Eirusin (Kesuvos 7b).
1.At this point, the wife is still living in her father's house and being supported by her father. However, she is considered to be fully married with regard to Isurim until her husband dies or divorces her with a Get. (That is, the Kinyan Isur mentioned above applies to her.) If she has relations with another man she is punished with Chenek, unless she is a Na'arah Besulah who was never married in the past, in which case she is punished with the more severe punishment of Sekilah (see Background to Sotah 24:10, Na'arah ha'Me'urasah).
2.Mid'Rabanan, she is still prohibited from having relations with her husband until the Nisu'in (beginning of Beraisa d'Maseches Kalah).
3.Her father may no longer perform Hafaras Nedarim for her oaths, but neither may her husband. If she is a Na'arah who was never married in the past, her father may perform Hafaras Nedarim for her Nedarim in conjunction with the husband (see Background to Kidushin 3:17:b). No monetary obligations (except for those voluntary obligations accepted during "Shiduchin," as mentioned above) exist between the man and his wife during Eirusin.
(c)NISU'IN - The Nisu'in, or completion of the marriage, is accomplished through Chupah. The Rishonim offers various definitions for Chupah (see Background to Kidushin 3:6, and Insights to Kesuvos 57:1), but in general it means that the husband brings his wife into his house. Seven Berachos are recited, and these Berachos are repeated during all meals made in honor of the new couple, for seven days. (There are numerous conditions under which the seven Berachos are not recited, or are recited for fewer days, see Kesuvos 7a, 8a.) At this stage, the mutual obligations of Ishus and the Kinyan Mamon take effect.
1.The husband must write his wife a Kesuvah, in which he specifies many of his obligations to his wife mid'Oraisa and mid'Rabanan (see Tena'ei Kesuvah, Background to Gitin 48:24).
2.If the husband is a Kohen, he is obligated to be Metamei himself in order to bury her if she dies.
3.The husband may perform Hafaras Nedarim (by himself) for his wife's oaths.
4.Even if the wife is a Na'arah, her punishment for having extramarital relations reverts to Chenek (rather than Sekilah). For almost all practical purposes, the wife is no longer considered a Besulah after the Nisu'in.
2a)[line 4, 5]בדינר/בפרוטהDINAR / PERUTAH (CURRENCY OF THE TALMUD)
(a)The relationship between the various coins mentioned in the Talmud is as follows:
1.1 Maneh = 25 Sela'im = 100 Dinerin
2.1 Dinar Zahav (gold Dinar) = 25 Dinerin
3.1 Sela = 2 Shekel
4.1 Shekel = 2 Dinerin
5.1 Dinar = 6 Me'ah
6.1 Rova Shekel (or Sela Medinah) = 3 Me'ah
7.1 Me'ah = 2 Pundeyon
8.1 Pundeyon = 2 Isar
9.1 Isar = 8 Perutah (or sometimes 6 Perutah - see Kidushin 12a)
(b)Another name for a Dinar is a Zuz. All of the coins listed above (including the standard Dinar) are silver, except for the Dinar Zahav, which is gold, and the Perutos, which are copper.
(c)1 Perutah = the value of 0.018 or 0.022 grams of pure silver, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. (The first figure represents the opinion of Rabeinu Gershom and Rashi; the second, the Ga'onim and the Rif.) Based upon the current (November '15) value of $14.30/ounce or $0.46/gram of silver, these values are $0.008 and $0.01, respectively. As such, the values for 1 Dinar are $1.15 and $1.44 (at 6 Perutos per Isar, or 144 Perutos per Dinar), or $1.54 and $1.92 (at 8 Perutos per Isar, or 192 Perutos per Dinar).
b)[line 4]ובשוה דינרSHAVEH DINAR- [an object worth] the value of a Dinar
3)[line 6]באיסר האיטלקיB'ISAR HA'ITALKI- with the Roman coin known as an "As," which is the equivalent of 1/24 of a Dinar (see above, entry 2a)
(a)The Torah states (Devarim 24:1) that if a man wants to divorce his wife, he must write a Sefer Kerisus (a document that cuts [the bond between them]) and hand it to her in front of two witnesses. In the language of Chazal, this document of divorce is called a Get (pl. Gitin.)
(b)A Get must contain the full names of the pair involved in the divorce, the places where they are to be found at the time of the writing (or where they live, or where they were born, according to some), and the date and place where the Get is written. If any of these items is missing or mistaken ("Shinah Shemo u'Shemah" - Gitin 34b, Yevamos 91b), the Get is invalid.
(c)A Get must be written Lishmah (for the sake of the woman who is to be divorced), as is learned from the verse in the Torah, "v'Chasav Lah Sefer Kerisus" - "and he must write for her a bill of divorce" (Devarim 24:1). The scribe must therefore write at least: 1. the name of the wife, 2. the name of the husband, 3. the place, and 4. the words "Harei At Muteres l'Chol Adam" - "You are hereby free to marry whomever you wish" - with the intention that this Get will be used to divorce this specific woman (see RAMBAM Hilchos Gerushin 3:7).
5)[line 7]היבמהHA'YEVAMAH (YIBUM)
(a)If a married man dies childless, his widow must undergo Yibum (the marriage of a dead man's brother with his wife), as it states in Devarim 25:5-10. Chazal learn from the verses that there is a preference for the oldest brother to perform Yibum.
(b)If the brother chooses not to marry her, he must perform Chalitzah (a procedure in Beis Din that absolves her of the Mitzvah of Yibum - ibid.). He appears before a Beis Din of three and states, "I do not want to marry her," after which his sister-in-law approaches him before the elders, takes off his right sandal and spits in front of him. She then declares, "This is what shall be done to the man who will not build up a family for his brother," and she is then free to marry whomever she wants.
(c)The connection of the brother to the dead man's wife, which obligates one of the two, is called Zikah. It is comparable to the state of Eirusin (betrothal) before a marriage. The Tana of the Mishnah from Yevamos rules that the Zikah "connects" the Yevamah with all of the brothers, not only the oldest. While the Yevamah is waiting for Yibum or Chalitzah, she is called a Shomeres Yavam.
6)[line 12]משדה עפרוןMI'SEDEH EFRON- from the field of Efron ha'Chiti that Avraham Avinu bought as a burial plot (Bereishis 23:3-20)
7)[line 1]"שדות בכסף יקנו""SADOS BA'KESEF YIKNU..."- "They will acquire fields with money, [and write it in a document, and sign it, and attest witnesses... for I will return their captives, says HaSh-m.]" (Yirmeyahu 32:44)
8)[line 4]כהקדשK'HEKDESH - like that which is dedicated for a sacred purpose, especially property of the Beis ha'Mikdash
(a)KEDUSHAS HA'GUF - an object with intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash (RAMBAM Hilchos Me'ilah 6:5) or a live Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is."
(b)KEDUSHAS DAMIM - an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh; e.g. an animal that a person consecrated to be sold in order to buy another animal as a Korban with its value.
(c)KEDUSHAS BEDEK HA'BAYIS - an object the value of which is consecrated to Hekdesh so that it should be used for filling the day to day needs of the Beis ha'Mikdash and not for Korbanos.
9)[line 10]בעל כרחהBE'AL KORCHAH- against her will
10)[line 11]ומאי איריא דתני שלש?U'MAI IRYA D'TANI SHALOSH?- and why did the Tana of the Mishnah use the feminine gender (Shalosh) when recording the number three [and not the masculine (Sheloshah)]?
11)[line 15]בשבעה דרכים בודקין אתהזבB 'SHIV'AH DERACHIM BODKIN ES HA'ZAV- A Zav is "checked" in seven ways to determine if the emission that he experienced makes him Tamei or not (see next entry, (b))
12)[line 15]הזבH A'ZAV
(a)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times (see below, entry #13b for a discussion of the Tum'ah of the Zav), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Nazir 47:9:b) and must immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.
(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked " to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If this discharge came about b'Ones (due to an external cause), he is Tahor. The seven ways are 1. eating too much; 2. drinking too much; 3. carrying a heavy load; 4. jumping; 5. being sick; 6. (a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.); 7. having unclean thoughts.
(c)A Zav must count seven "clean" days (Shiv'ah Nekiyim) in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d)If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. Even if the first time was b'Ones, as long as the second emission was not, he is Tamei. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim and Terumah. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Bnei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(e)In the case of three emissions, however, he is only obligated in a Korban if the first two were not b'Ones. The third emission may come about b'Ones according to the Rabanan. According to Rebbi Eliezer, he is only obligated in a Korban if all three emissions are not b'Ones (Nazir 65b). However, if the Zav had an emission during Shiv'ah Nekiyim, even b'Ones, all agree that this emission stops his count, and he must start counting again (Zavim ibid.).
13a)[line 28]אשה נמי באונס מיטמאהISHAH NAMI B'ONES MITAM'AH (ZAVAH)
(a)The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Kesuvos 61:59) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, whether the bleeding is b'Ones or not, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b)If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah during the day to become Tehorah. She may even immerse on the morning immediately following the day on which she saw blood, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom because she must watch the following day to confirm whether or not she sees blood.
(c)If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim or two Bnei Yonah, one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas (Vayikra 15:25-30).
b)[line 28]מיטמאהMITAM'AH (TUM'AS ZAV V'ZAVAH)
(a)A Zav (see above, entry #12), Zavah (see previous entry), Nidah (see Background to Kesuvos 61:59), or Yoledes (see Background to Sotah 7:9), can cause objects that are under them to become Avos ha'Tum'ah whether they touch them or not. The objects become Tamei Midras (lit., an object that is treaded upon), otherwise known as Mishkav or Moshav ha'Zav, ha'Zavah, etc. (or the Tachton of a Zav, etc.). An object (other than Klei Cheres, earthenware objects) that is under these people becomes a Midras only if it was made for lying, sitting, or leaning upon.
(b)A person who touches (Maga) or carries (Masa) either a Midras or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
(c)Utensils or clothes that lie above the Zav or Zavah also get the status of a Rishon l'Tum'ah, whether he touches them or not. These are called the Elyon of a Zav or Zavah.
(d)A Zav or Zavah also cause Tum'ah through Heset, when they move (or outweigh on a balance scale) a person or object that is Tahor. In all other types of Tum'ah besides Zav, Zavah, Nidah, and Yoledes, the Tamei who moves a person or object that is Tahor does not Metamei the person or object. Only Zav, etc. can Metamei people or objects in this way.
14)[line 34]לחזרL'CHAZER- to go around [searching for a wife]
15)[line 37]דדרכא דמיכלא יתירא לאתויי לידי זיבהD'DARKA D'MEICHLA YESEIRA L'ASUYEI L'YEDEI ZIVAH- that it is usual for excessive eating to bring on emissions of Zov
16)[line 37]דמישתיאD'MISHTEYA- that he was drinking