[20a - 54 lines; 20b - 50 lines]

1)[line 18]PALTARIN- palace

2)[line 21]AVNER- commander-in-chief of the army of King Shaul, who crowned Shaul's son Ish Boshes as Shaul's successor (Shmuel II 2:8-9). He later wished to unite all of the people under the leadership of David (ibid. 3:8-21), but during his efforts to do so, he was killed by Yoav, David's commander-in-chief (ibid. 3:27).

3)[line 22] L'FAYEIS ES HA'AM- to appease the people (who suspected David of having ordered Avner's death)

4)[line 23] KESHE'MAVRIN OSO (HAVRA'AH) - when they bring him the Se'udas Havra'ah

When the mourner returns from the burial of his close relative, others provide the mourner with his first meal, which is known as the Se'udas Havra'ah (Moed Katan 27b).

5)[line 23]MESUBIN- leaning [in the position in which they ate their meals]

6)[line 24]DARGASH- a bed or couch consisting of a leather mattress tied to a frame (this is the conclusion of the Gemara)

7)[line 36] , MIPNEI SHE'HAYAH LO LIMCHOS B'SHAUL V'LO MICHAH- since he should have protested against King Shaul [with regard to the incident of Nov Ir ha'Kohanim] and he did not protest. When David was running away from King Shaul, Achimelech the Kohen Gadol aided him by providing him with bread and a sword, as recorded in Shmuel I 21:2-9. As a result, King Shaul charged Achimelech and all of the Kohanim of the city of Nov with treason and had them killed by Do'eg ha'Adomi (ibid. 22:9-19).

8)[line 37]" , ' ? , , !' [ ]""VA'YEKONEN HA'MELECH EL AVNER VA'YOMAR, 'HAKE'MOS NAVAL YAMUS AVNER? YADECHA LO ASUROS, V'RAGLECHA LO LI'NCHUSHTAYIM HUGASHU, KI'NFOL LIFNEI VENEI AVLAH NAFALTA!' [VA'YOSIFU CHOL HA'AM LI'VKOS ALAV]"- "And the king lamented over Avner, and said, 'Should Avner die as a criminal dies? Your hands were not bound, nor your feet put into fetters; as a man falls before wicked men, so you have fallen!' [And all the people wept again over him]" (Shmuel II 3:33-34).

9)[line 44] ARSA D'GADA- a bed or couch set up for the "spiritual counterparts" of the house, on which no one sits (RASHI, ARUCH)

10)[line 47] , DARGASH EINO TZARICH LI'CHEFOSO, ELA ZOKFO - a Dargash need not be overturned, rather it is stood up (KEFIYAS HA'MITAH)

One of the customs of mourning that was is practice at the time of the Tanach and the Gemara was Kefiyas ha'Mitah, in which all of the beds in the house of mourning were overturned (so that they may not be slept in). The Beraisa brought by our Gemara cites an argument with regard to the Dargash, which all opinions rule does not need to be overturned. The Tana Kama rules that it is enough to stand it up vertically, while Rabbi Shimon ben Gamliel rules that one must untie the straps that attach it to its frame, allowing the leather mattress to drop to the floor.

11)[line 50] MITAH MEYUCHEDES L'CHELIM- a couch that is designated for the storage of utensils

12)[line 52] , MATIR KARBITIN, V'HU NOFEL ME'ELAV- one must untie the straps that attach it to its frame, allowing the leather mattress to drop to the floor

13)[last line] HAVAH SHECHI'ACH B'SHUKA D'GILDA'EI- he frequented the marketplace of harness-makers or dealers in leather, i.e. tanners

14)[last line] ARSA D'TZALA- a bed or couch consisting of a leather mattress tied to a frame


15a)[line 1] SEIRUGO MI'TOCHO- the ropes are tied through holes in the frame itself

b)[line 1] SEIRUGAH ME'AL GABAH- the ropes are tied onto and around the frame

16)[line 2] , ?KELEI ETZ, ME'EIMASAI MEKABLIN TUM'AH? - from when do wooden utensils (including furniture) receive Tum'ah (KELEI ETZ: TUM'AH)

A utensil is considered "ready" to receive Tum'ah only after it is completely finished. If the artisan only decided that the utensil needs no more work, it is considered complete and may become Tamei. In our Sugya, the Gemara states that a bed that is not rubbed with the skin of a fish is not considered a utensil and cannot become Tamei. (For a further discussion of the principles of Tum'ah and Taharah, see Background to Nazir 54:13.)

17)[line 3]ARISAH- (O.F. brez) a cradle

18)[line 3] MISHE'YESHUFEM B'OR HA'DAG- from when a person rubs them with [the oil that remains in] fish skin

19a)[line 6] A'ULEI VA'AFUKEI B'VIZYONEI- [the ropes are] pushed into and pulled out of notches

b)[line 6] A'ULEI VA'AFUKEI B'AVKASA- [the ropes are] pushed into and pulled out of loops; leather rings attached to the bed frame

20)[line 9] , MITAH SHE'NAKLITEHA YOTZ'IN, ZOKFAH V'DAYO- a bed which has permanently attached Naklitin (see next entry) [such that it is not possible to completely overturn the bed] may be stood up vertically and that suffices [to fulfill the custom of Kefiyas ha'Mitah (see above, entry #9)]

21)[line 9]NAKLITEHA- its Naklitei ha'Mitah, a framework of poles made by putting two vertical poles at the center of the head and foot of a bed, while a third horizontal pole rests on top of them. A sheet hung on the horizontal pole as a canopy forms two sloping walls that are joined at the top


See Background to Sanhedrin 2:29.

23)[line 11] PORETZ LA'ASOS LO DERECH V'EIN MEMACHEH B'YADO- the king may break down a fence to make for himself a road, and no one may protest against him (i.e. he has the right of eminent domain)

24)[line 12] DERECH HA'MELECH EIN LO SHI'UR- a king's road has no limit (RASHBAM to Bava Basra 99b)

25)[line 13] KOL HA'AM BOZEZIN V'NOSNIN LO- all of the people despoil booty of war and bring it to him (i.e. before him)

26)[line 13] HU NOTEL CHELEK BA'ROSH- he has the first choice of the best of the booty, and he takes half

27)[line 18] PARASHAS MELECH- the verses related in prophecy (Shmuel I 8:11-18) by HaSh-m to Shmuel ha'Navi describing the unlimited power of a Jewish monarch

28)[line 19] L'AYEIM ALEIHEM- as a warning to them

29)[line 24] KENEGED TAR'UMASAN- as a response to their grumblings

30)[line 25] ZEKENIM SHEBA'DOR- the Sages of that generation (the generation that asked Shmuel ha'Navi to appoint a king over them)

31)[line 26]" ""TENAH LANU MELECH L'SHOFTENU"- "give us a king to judge us (i.e. to purge us of wrongdoers - RASHI DH Amei ha'Aretz)" (Shmuel I 8:6)

32)[line 27]" ; ""V'HAYINU GAM ANACHNU K'CHOL HA'GOYIM; U'SHEFATANU MALKENU V'YATZA L'FANEINU [V'NILCHAM ES MILCHAMOSEINU]"- "And we will be like all of the nations; and our king will lead us, and go out [to battle] at the head of the army, and fight our wars" (Shmuel I 8:20).

33)[line 36]" , ' ; [ - ]'""VA'YOMER HA'MELECH EL NASAN HA'NAVI, 'RE'EH NA, ANOCHI YOSHEV B'VEIS ARAZIM...'"- "And the king (David) said to Nasan ha'Navi, 'Look, please, at this situation, I am living in a house built of cedar wood, while the Aron of HaSh-m is lying in a tent!" (Shmuel II 7:2). In this verse, David expresses his readiness to build the Beis ha'Mikdash.

34)[line 38]" [ ; ]""KI HU RODEH B'CHOL EVER HA'NAHAR, MI'TIFSACH V'AD AZAH..."- "For he had dominion over all of the region beyond the river, from Tifsach to Azah, [over all the kings of the region beyond the river; and he had peace on all sides around him]" (Melachim I 5:4).

35)[line 41]" , ""ANI KOHELES, HAYISI MELECH AL YISRAEL BI'YRUSHALAYIM"- "I am Koheles, and I was the king of Yisrael, in Yerushalayim" (Koheles 1:12).

36)[line 44]" , [ , ]""HINEH MITASO SHELI'SHLOMO..."- "Behold, it is the bed of Shlomo, [surrounded by sixty mighty men, of the mighty men of Yisrael]" (Shir ha'Shirim 3:7).

37)[line 44]MAKLO- his stick

38)[line 44]"[] ""ZEH HAYAH CHELKI MI'KOL AMALI"- "This is my lot, of all of my efforts" (Koheles 2:10).

39)[line 45]GONDO- his cloak (RASHI; Rashi cites RAV HAI GA'ON, whose text reads "Kudo," which means his earthenware cup for drinking water)

40)[line 45], ?HADAR, O LO HADAR?- Did he return [to his original glory of king over the Heavens - MAHARSHAL, in his comment on RASHI to Gitin 68b] or not?

41)[line 46] MELECH V'HEDYOT- Shlomo was a king and then became a commoner (but see previous entry)